(strong as the wind), one of the ten sons of Haman whom the Jews slew in Shushan. (Esther 9:9) (B.C.473.)
It is hardly necessary to state that these words signify a hollow sweep of ground between two more or less parallel ridges of high land. The structure of the greater part of the holy land does not lend itself to the formation of valleys in our sense of the word. The abrupt transitions of its crowded rocky hills preclude the existence of any extended sweep of valley. Valley is employed in the Authorized Version to render five distinct Hebrew words.
+ 'Emek . This appears to approach more nearly to the general sense of the English word than any other. It is connected with several places.
+ Gai or ge . Of this there is fortunately one example which can be identified with certainty -- the deep hollow Vaniah
(Jehovah is praise), one of the sons of Bani, (Ezra 10:36) (B.C.458.)
(strong), the first-born of Samuel as the text now stands. (1 Chronicles 6:28) (13); but in (1 Samuel 8:2) the name of his first-born is Joel. Most probably in the Chronicles the name of Joel has dropped out: and Vashni is a corruption of vesheni, and (the) second.|
(beautiful), the |queen| of Ahasuerus, who, for refusing to show herself to the king's guests at the royal banquet, when sent for by the king, was repudiated and deposed. (Esther 1:1) ... (B.C.483.) Many attempts have been made to identify her with historical personages; but it is far more probable that she was only one of the inferior wives, dignified with the title of queen, whose name has utterly disappeared from history.
With regard to the use of the veil, it is important to observe that it was by no means so general in ancient as in modern times. Much of the scrupulousness in respect of the use of the veil dates from the promulgation of the Koran, which forbade women appearing unveiled except in the presence of their nearest relatives. In ancient times the veil was adopted only in exceptional cases, either as an article of ornamental dress, (Song of Solomon 4:1,3; 6:7) or by betrothed maidens in the presence of their future husbands, especially at the time of the wedding, (Genesis 24:65) or lastly, by women of loose character for purposes of concealment. (Genesis 38:14) Among the Jews of the New Testament age it appears to have been customary for the women to cover their heads (not necessarily their faces) when engaged in public worship.
Veil Of The Tabernacle And Temple
Versions, Ancient, Of The Old And New Testaments
In treating of the ancient versions that have come down to us, in whole or in part, they will be described in the alphabetical order of the languages. AETHIOPIC VERSION. -- Christianity was introduced into AEthiopia in fourth century through the labors of Frumentius and AEdesius of Tyre, who had been made slaves and sent to the king. The AEthiopic version which we possess is in the ancient dialect of Axum; hence some have ascribed it to the age of the earliest missionaries, but it is probably of a later date. In 1548-9 the AEthiopic New Testament was also printed at Rome, edited by three Abyssinians. ARABIC VERSIONS. --
+ Arabic versions of the Old Testament were made from the Hebrew (tenth century), from the Syriac and from the LXX
+ Arabic versions of the New Testament . There are four versions. The first, the Roman, of the Gospels only, was printed in 1590-1. ARMEN Versions, Authorized
This word in addition to its ordinary sense, is often used, especially in the enumeration of towns in (Joshua 13:15,19) to imply unwalled suburbs outside the walled towns. Arab villages, as found in Arabia, are often mere collections of stone huts, |long, low rude hovels, roofed only with the stalks of palm leaves,| or covered for a time with tent-cloths, which are removed when the tribe change their quarters. Others are more solidly built, as are most of the of palestine, though in some the dwellings are mere mud-huts.
the well-known valuable plant (vitis vinifera) very frequently referred to in the Old and New Testaments, and cultivated from the earliest times. The first mention of this plant occurs in (Genesis 9:20,21) That it was abundantly cultivated in Egypt is evident from the frequent representations on the monuments, as well as from the scriptural allusions. (Genesis 40:9-11; Psalms 78:47) The vines of Palestine were celebrated both for luxuriant growth and for the immense clusters of grapes which they produced, which were sometimes carried on a staff between two men, as in the case of the spies, (Numbers 13:23) and as has been done in some instances in modern times. Special mention is made in the Bible of the vines of Eshcol, (Numbers 13:24; 32:9) of Sibmah, Heshbon and Elealeh (Isaiah 16:8,9,10; Jeremiah 48:32) and of Engedi. (Song of Solomon 1:14) From the abundance and excellence of the vines, it may readily be understood how frequently this plant is the subject of metaphor in the Holy Scriptures. To dwell under the vine and tree is an emblem of domestic happiness and peace, (1 Kings 4:25; Psalms 128:3; Micah 4:4) the rebellious people of Israel are compared to |wild grapes,| |an empty vine,| |the degenerate plant of a strange vine,| etc. (Isaiah 6:2,4; Jeremiah 2:21; Hosea 10:1) It is a vine which our Lord selects to show the spiritual union which subsists between himself and his members. (John 15:1-6) The ancient Hebrews probably allowed the vine to go trailing on the ground or upon supports. This latter mode of cultivation appears to be alluded to by Ezekiel. (Ezekiel 19:11,12) The vintage, which formerly was a season of general festivity, began in September. The towns were deserted; the people lived among the vineyards in the lodges and tents. Comp. (Judges 8:27; Isaiah 16:10; Jeremiah 25:30) The grapes were gathered with shouts of joy by the |grape gatherers,| (Jeremiah 25:30) and put into baskets. See (Jeremiah 6:9) They were then carried on the head and shoulders, or slung upon a yoke, to the |wine-press.| Those intended for eating were perhaps put into flat open baskets of wickerwork, as was the custom in Egypt. In Palestine, at present, the finest grapes, says Dr. Robinson, are dried as raisins, and the juice of the remainder, after having been trodden and pressed, |is boiled down to a sirup, which, under the name of dibs, is much used by all classes, wherever vineyards are found, as a condiment with their food.| The vineyard, which was generally on a hill, (Isaiah 5:1; Jeremiah 31:5; Amos 9:13) was surrounded by a wall or hedge in order to keep out the wild boars, (Psalms 80:13) jackals and foxes. (Numbers 22:24; Nehemiah 4:3; Song of Solomon 2:15; Ezekiel 13:4,5; Matthew 21:33) Within the vineyard was one or more towers of stone in which the vine-dressers lived. (Isaiah 1:8; 5:2; Matthew 21:33) The vat, which was dug, (Matthew 21:33) or hewn out of the rocky soil, and the press, were part of the vineyard furniture. (Isaiah 5:2)
Vine Of Sodom
occurs only in (32:32) It is generally supposed that this passage alludes to the celebrated apples of Sodom, of which Josephus speaks, |which indeed resemble edible fruit in color, but, on being plucked by the hand, are dissolved into smoke and ashes.| It has been variously identified. Dr. Robinson pronounced in favor of the 'osher fruit, the Asclepias (Calotropis) procera of botanists. He says, |The fruit greatly resembles externally a large smooth apple or orange, hanging in clusters of three or four together, and when ripe is of a yellow color. It is now fair and delicious to the eye and soft to the touch but, on being pressed or struck, it explodes with a puff: like a bladder or puff-hall, leaving in the hand only the shreds of the thin rind and a few fibres. It is indeed filled chiefly with air, which gives it the round form.| Dr. Hooker writes,| The vine of Sodom always thought might refer to Cucumis calocynthis, which is bitter end powders inside; the term vine would scarcely be given to any but a trailing or other plant of the habit of a vine.| His remark that the term vine must refer to some plant of the habit of a vine is conclusive against the claims of all the plants hitherto identified with the vine of Sodom.
The Hebrew word translated |vinegar| was applied to a beverage consisting generally of wine or strong drink turned sour, but sometimes artificially made by an admixture of barley and wine, and thus liable to fermentation. It was acid even to a proverb, (Proverbs 10:26) and by itself formed an unpleasant draught, (Psalms 49:21) but was used by laborers. (Ruth 2:14) Similar was the acetum of the Romans -- a thin, sour wine, consumed by soldiers. This was the beverage of which the Saviour partook in his dying moments. (Matthew 27:48; Mark 15:36; John 19:29,30)
Vineyards, Plain Of The
This place, mentioned only in (Judges 11:33) lay east of the Jordan, beyond Aroer.
(rich), father of Nahbi, the Naphtalite spy. (Numbers 13:14) (B.C. before 1490.)
A vow is a solemn promise made to God to perform or to abstain from performing a certain thing. The earliest mention of a vow is that of Jacob. (Genesis 28:18-22; 31:13) Vows in general are also mentioned in the book of Job, (Job 22:27) The law therefore did not introduce, but regulated the practice of, vows. Three sorts are mentioned: 1, Vows of devotion; 2, Vows of abstinence; 3, Vows of destruction.
+ As to vows of devotion, the following rules are laid down: A man might devote to sacred uses possessions or persons, but not the first-born of either man or beast, which was devoted already. (Leviticus 27:28) (a) If he vowed land, he might either redeem it or not Levi 25,27. (b) Animals fit for sacrifice if devoted, were not to be redeemed or changed, (Leviticus 27:9; 10:33) persons devoted stood thus: devote either himself, his child (not the first-born) or his slave. If no redemption took place, the devoted person became a slave of the sanctuary: see the case of Absalom. (2 Samuel 15:8) Otherwise he might be redeemed at a valuation according to age and sex, on the scale given in (Leviticus 27:1-7) Among general regulations affecting vows the following may be mentioned: (1) Vows were entirely voluntary but once made were regarded as compulsory. (Numbers 30:2; 23:21; Ecclesiastes 5:4) (2) If persons In a dependent condition made vows as (a) an unmarried daughter living in her father's house, or (b) a wife, even if she afterward became a widow the vow, if (a) in the first case her father, or (b) in the second her husband, heard and disallowed it, was void; but,if they heard without disallowance, it was to remain good. (Numbers 30:3-18) (3) Votive offerings arising from the produce of any impure traffic were wholly forbidden. (23:18)
+ For vows of abstinence, see Corban.
+ For vows of extermination Anathema and (Ezra 10:8; Micah 4:13) It seems that the practice of shaving the head at the expiration of a votive period was not limited to the Nazaritic vow. (Acts 18:18; 21:24)
the Latin version of the Bible. The influence which it exercised upon western Christianity is scarcely less than that of the LXX. upon the Greek churches. Both the Greek and the latin Vulgate have been long neglected; yet the Vulgate should have a very deep interest for all the western churches, many centuries it was the only Bible generally used; and, directly or indirectly is the real parent of all the vernacular versions of western Europe. The Gothic version of Ulphilas alone is independent of it. The name is equivalent to Vulgata editio (the current text of Holy Scripture. This translation was made by Jerome-Eusebius Hieronymus -- who way born in 329 A.D. at Stridon in Dalmatia, and died at Bethlehem in 420 A.D. This great scholar probably alone for 1500 years possessed the qualifications necessary for producing an original version of the Scriptures for the use of the Latin churches. Going to Rome, he was requested by Pope Damascus, A.D.383, to make a revision of the old Latin version of the New Testament, whose history is lost in obscurity. In middle life Jerome began the study of the Hebrew, and made a new version of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew which was completed A.D.404. The critical labors of Jerome were received with a loud outcry of reproach. He was accused of disturbing the repose of the Church and shaking the foundations of faith. But clamor based upon ignorance soon dies away; and the New translation gradually came into use equally with the Old, and at length supplanted it. The vast power which the Vulgate has had in determining the theological terms of western Christendom can hardly be overrated. By far the greater part of the current doctrinal terminology is based on the Vulgate. Predestination, justification, supererogation (supererogo), sanctification, salvation, mediation, regeneration, revelation, visitation (met.) propitiation, first appear in the Old Vulgate. Grace, redemption, election, reconciliation, satisfaction, inspiration, scripture, were devoted there to a new and holy use. Sacrament and communion are from the same source; and though baptism is Greek, it comes to us from the Latin. It would be easy to extend the list by the addition of orders, penance, congregation, priest ; but it can be seen from the forms already brought forward that the Vulgate has brought forward that the Vulgate has left its mark both upon our language and upon our thoughts. It was the version which alone they knew who handed down to the reformers the rich stores of medieval wisdom; the version with which the greatest of the reformers were most familiar, and from which they had drawn their earliest knowledge of divine truth.
The rendering in the Authorized Version of the Hebrew daah, dayyah, and also in (Job 28:7) of ayyah . There seems no doubt that the Authorized Versions translation is incorrect, and that the original words refer to some of the smaller species of raptorial birds, as kites or buzzards. [Kite] But the Hebrew word nesher, invariably rendered |eagle| in the Authorized Version, is probably the vulture. [Eagle]