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Smiths Bible Dictionary by Roswell D. Hitchcock

Letter I

(whom God chooses), one of the sons of David, (2 Samuel 5:15; 1 Chronicles 3:6; 14:6) (born in Jerusalem. B.C. after 1044.)

(devouring the people), a city of Manasseh, with villages or towns dependent on it. (Judges 1:27) It appears to have been situated in the territory of either Issachar or Asher. (Joshua 17:11) The ascent of Gur was |at Ibleam,| (2 Kings 9:27) somewhere near the present Jenin, probably to the north of it.

(whom Jehovah will build up), son of Jehoram, a Benjamite. (1 Chronicles 9:8)

(whom Jehovah will build up), a Benjamite. (1 Chronicles 9:8)

(Hebrew), a Merarite Levite of the family of Jaaziah, (1 Chronicles 24:27) in the time of David. (B.C.1014.)

(illustrious), a native of Bethlehem of Zebulun, who judged Israel for seven years after Jephthah. (Judges 12:8,10) (B.C.1137.)

(inglorious), the son of Phinehas and grandson of Eli. (1 Samuel 4:21) (B.C. about 1100.)

(little image), the modern Konieh, was the capital of Lycaonia, in Asia Minor. It was a large and rich city, 120 miles north from the Mediterranean Sea, at the foot of the Taurus mountains, and on the great line of communication between Ephesus and the western coast of the peninsula on one side, and Tarsus, Antioch and the Euphrates on the other. Iconium was a well-chosen place for missionary operations. (Acts 14:1,3,21,22; 16:1,2; 18:23) Paul's first visit here was on his first circuit, in company with Barnabas; and on this occasion he approached it from Antioch in Pisidia, which lay to the west. The modern Konieh is between two and three miles in circumference and contains over 30,000 inhabitants. It contains manufactories of carpets and leather.

(memorial of God), one of the cities of the tribe of Zebulun, named between Shimron and Bethlehem. (Joshua 19:15)

(stout), one of the three sons of Abi-Etam, among the families of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:3)

(timely or lovely).

+ The father of Abinadab. (1 Kings 4:14)
+ A descendant of Gershom, son of Levi. (1 Chronicles 6:21) + Son of Zechariah, ruler of the tribe of Manasseh east of Jordan in the time of David. (1 Chronicles 27:21) (B.C.1014.) + A seer whose |visions| agai Idumea
(red). [[641]Edom, Idumaea Or Idumea]

(whom God will avenge).

+ One of the spies, son of Joseph, of the tribe of Issachar. (Numbers 13:7) (B.C.1490.)
+ One of the heroes of David's guard, son of Nathan of Zobah. (2 Samuel 23:36) (B.C.1046.)

(whom Jehovah makes great), a prophet or holy man -- |the man of God| -- named once only, (Jeremiah 36:4) as the father of Hanan. (B.C. before 406.)

(whom God will avenge), a son of Nehemiah; a descendant of the royal house of Judah. (1 Chronicles 3:22) (B.C.406.)


+ The partial or contracted form of the name IJE-ABARIM. (Numbers 33:45)
+ A town in the extreme south of Judah. (Joshua 16:29)

(ruin of Abarim), one of the later halting-places of the children of Israel. (Numbers 21:11; 33:44) It was on the boundary -- the southeast boundary -- of the territory of Moab; in the waste uncultivated |wilderness| on its skirts.

(a ruin), a town in the north of Palestine, belonging to the tribe of Naphtali. It was taken and plundered by the captains of Ben-hadad, (1 Kings 15:20; 2 Chronicles 16:4) and a second time by Tiglath-pileser. (2 Kings 16:29) It was situated a few miles northwest of the site of Dan, in a fertile and beautiful little plain called Merj' Ayun .

(perverse), the father of Ira the Tekoite. (2 Samuel 23:26; 1 Chronicles 11:28; 27:9) (B.C. before 1046.)

(exalted), an Ahohite, one of the heroes of David's guard (1 Chronicles 11:29) (B.C.1046.)

an extensive district lying along the eastern coast of the Adriatic, from the boundary of Italy on the north of Epirus on the south, and contiguous to Moessia and Macedonia on the east. (Romans 6:19)


(whom God will fill up), father or progenitor of Micaiah the prophet. (2 Chronicles 18:7,8) The form IMLAH is employed in the parallel narrative. (1 Kings 12:8,9) (B.C. before 896.)

that is, God with us, the title applied by the apostle Matthew to the Messiah, born of the Virgin, (Matthew 1:23; Isaiah 7:14) because Jesus was God united with man, and showed that God was dwelling with men.


+ The founder of an important family of priests. (1 Chronicles 9:12; Nehemiah 11:13) This family had charge of, and gave its name to, the sixteenth course of the service. (1 Chronicles 24:14) (B.C.1014.)
+ Apparently the name of a place in Babylonia. (Ezra 2:59; Nehemiah 7:61)

(holding back), a descendant of Asher, son of Helem. (1 Chronicles 7:35) comp.1Chr 7:40 (B.C. about 1461.)

(holding back).

+ The first born of Asher. (1 Chronicles 7:30) (B.C.1706.) + Kore ben-Imnah, the Levite, assisted in the reforms of Hezekiah. (2 Chronicles 31:14) (B.C.726.)

(stubborn), a descendant of Asher, of the family of Zophah (1 Chronicles 7:36) (B.C. after 1445.)

from the Latin |to burn,| |a mixture of gums or spices and the like, used for the purpose of producing a perfume when burned;| or the perfume itself of the spices, etc., burned in worship. The incense employed in the service of the tabernacle walls compounded of the perfumes stacte, onycha, galbanum and pure frankincense. All incense which was not made of these ingredients was forbidden to be offered. (Exodus 30:9) Aaron, as high priest, was originally appointed to offer incense each morning and evening. The times of offering incense were specified in the instructions first given to Moses. (Exodus 30:7,8) When the priest entered the holy place with the incense, all the people were removed from the temple, and from between the porch and the altar. Cf. (Luke 1:10) Profound silence was observed among the congregation who were praying without, cf. (Revelation 8:1) and at a signal from the perfect the priest cast the incense on the fire and, bowing reverently toward the holy of holies, retired slowly backward. The offering of incense has formed part of the religious ceremonies of most ancient nations. It was an element in the idolatrous worship of the Israelites. (2 Chronicles 34:25; Jeremiah 11:12,17; 48:35) It would seem to be symbolical, not of itself, but of that which makes acceptable, the intercession of Christ. In (Revelation 8:3,4) the incense is of as something distinct from offered with the prayers of, all the saints cf. (Luke 1:10) and in Reve 6:8 It is the golden vials, and not the odors or incense, which are said to be the prayers of saints.

The name of India does not occur in the Bible before the book of Esther where it is noticed as the limit of the territories of Ahasuerus in the east, as Ethiopia was in the west. (Esther 1:1; 8:9) The India of the book of Esther is not the peninsula of Hindostan, but the country surrounding the Indus, the Punjab and perhaps Scinde . The people and productions of that country must have been tolerably well known to the Jews. An active trade was carried on between India and western Asia. The trade opened by Solomon with Ophir through the Red Sea consisted chiefly of Indian articles.


Ink, Inkhorn

The Hebrew word (malon) thus rendered literally signified |a lodging-place for the night.| Inns, in our sense of the term were, as they still are, unknown in the East, where hospitality is religiously practiced. The khans or caravanserais are the representatives of European inns, and these were established but gradually. The halting-place of a caravan was selected originally on account of its proximity to water or pasture, by which the travellers pitched their tents and passed the night. Such was undoubtedly the |inn| at which occurred the Incident in the life of Moses narrated in (Exodus 4:24) comp. Genesis42:27 On the more frequented routes, remote from towns, (Jeremiah 9:2) caravanserais were in course of time erected, often at the expense of the wealthy. |A caravanserai is a large and substantial square building... Passing through strong gateway, the guest enters a large court, in the centre of which is a spacious raised platform, used for sleeping upon at night or for the devotions of the faithful during the day. Around this court are arranged the rooms of the building.|

Dr. Knapp given as the definition of inspiration, |an extra-ordinary divine agency upon teachers while giving instruction, whether oral or written, by which they were taught what and how they should write or speak.| Without deciding on any of the various theories of inspiration, the general doctrine of Christians is that the Bible is so inspired by God that it is the infallible guide of men, and is perfectly trustworthy in all its parts, as given by God.

Instant, Instantly
in the Authorized Version, means urgent, urgently or fervently, as will be seen from the following passages: (Luke 7:4; 23:23; Acts 26:7; Romans 12:12)

(whom Jehovah frees), a descendant of Benjamin, one of the Bene-Shashak. (1 Chronicles 8:25)

(city). (1 Chronicles 7:12) [[645]Iri]

(watchful of a city).

+ |The Jairite,| named in the catalogue of David's great officers. (2 Samuel 20:26)
+ One of the heroes of David's guard. (2 Samuel 23:38; 1 Chronicles 11:40)
+ Another of David's guard, a Tekoite, son of Ikkesh- (2 Samuel 23:26; 1 Chronicles 11:28) (B.C.1046-1014.)

(fleet), son of Enoch; grandson of Cain, and father of Mehujael. (Genesis 4:18)

(belonging to a city), a leader of the Edomites, (Genesis 36:43; 1 Chronicles 1:54) i.e. the chief of a family or tribe. No identification of him has been found.

or Ir (belonging to a city), a Benjamite, son of Bela. (1 Chronicles 7:7,12)

(seen by the Lord), son of Shelemiah, a captain in the ward, who met Jeremiah in the gate of Jerusalem called the |gate of Benjamin| accused him of being about to desert to the Chaldeans; and led him back to the princes. (Jeremiah 37:13,14) (B.C.589.)

(serpent city), a name which, like many other names of places, occurs in the genealogical lists of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:12)

is mentioned with brass as the earliest of known metals. (Genesis 4:22) The natural wealth in iron of the soil of Canaan is indicated by describing it as a land whose stones are iron.| (8:9) (Recent explorations have shown that iron ore is abundant in the northern part of Palestine. -- ED.) The book of Job contains passages which indicate that iron was a metal well known. Sheet-iron was used for cooking utensils. (Ezekiel 4:3) cf. Levi 7:9 That it was plentiful in the time of David appears from (1 Chronicles 22:3) The market of Tyre was supplied with bright or polished iron by the merchants of by Dan and Javan. (Ezekiel 27:19) The Chalybes of the Pontus were celebrated as workers in iron in very ancient times. The product of their labor is supposed to be alluded to in (Jeremiah 16:12) as being of superior quality. Specimens of Assyrian iron-work overlaid with bronze were discovered by Mr. Layard, and are now in the British Museum. Iron weapons of various kinds were found at Nimroud, but fell to pieces on exposure to the air.

(pious), one of the cities of Naphtali, (Joshua 19:38) hitherto totally unknown.

(God heals), one of the cities of Benjamin. (Joshua 18:27) No trace has yet been discovered of its situation.

(city of the sun), a city of the Danites (Joshua 19:41) probably identical with Beth-shemesh.

(watch), the eldest son of the great Caleb son of Jephunneh. (1 Chronicles 4:15) (B.C.1451.)

(laughter), the son whom Sara bore to Abraham, in the hundredth year of his age, at Gerar. (B.C.1897.) In his infancy he became the object of Ishmael's jealousy; and in his youth the victim, in intention, of Abraham's great sacrificial act of faith. When forty years old he married Rebekah his cousin, by whom, when he was sixty, he had two sons, Esau and Jacob. Driven by famine to Gerar, he acquired great wealth by his flocks but was repeatedly dispossessed by the Philistines of the wells which he sunk at convenient stations. After the deceit by which Jacob acquired his father's blessing Isaac sent his son to seek a wife in Padan-aram; and all that we know of him during the last forty-three years of his life in that he saw that God, with a large and prosperous family, return to him at Hebron. (Genesis 36:27) before he died there, at the age of 180 years. He was buried by his two sons in the cave of Machpelah. In the New Testament reference is made to the offering of Isaac (Hebrews 11:17; James 2:21) and to his blessing his sons. (Hebrews 11:20) In (Galatians 4:28-31) he is contrasted with Ishmael. In reference to the offering up of Isaac by Abraham, the primary doctrine taught are those of sacrifice and substitution, as the means appointed by God for taking away sin; and, as co-ordinate with these, the need of the obedience of faith, on the part of man, to receive the benefit. (Hebrews 11:17) The animal which God provided and Abraham offered was in the whole history of sacrifice the recognized type of |the Lamb of God, that taketh away the sins of the world.| Isaac is the type of humanity itself, devoted to death for sin.

the prophet, son of Amoz. The Hebrew name signifies Salvation of Jahu (a shortened form of Jehovah), He prophesied concerning Judah and Jerusalem in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, (Isaiah 1:1) covering probably 758 to 698 B.C. He was married and had two sons. Rabbinical tradition says that Isaiah, when 90 years old, was sawn asunder in the trunk of a carob tree by order of Manasseh, to which it is supposed that reference is made in (Hebrews 11:37)

Isaiah, Book Of
I. Chapters 1-5 contain Isaiah's prophecies in the reigns of Uzziah and Jotham, foretelling that the present prosperity of Judah should be destroyed, and that Israel should be brought to desolation. In chs.6, 7 he announces the birth of the child Immanuel, which in ch.9 is more positively predicted. Chs.9-12 contain additional prophecies against Israel, chs. (Isaiah 10:5-12) (6) being the most highly-wrought passages in the whole book. Chs.13-23 contain chiefly a collection of utterances, each of which is styled a |burden,| fore-telling the doom of Babylon, Philistia, Moab, Ethiopia, Egypt and Tyre. The ode of triumph in ch. (Isaiah 14:3-23) is among the most poetical passages in all literature. Chs.24-27 form one prophecy, essentially connected with the preceding ten |burdens,| chs.13-23, of which it is in effect a general summary. Chs.23-35 predict the Assyrian invasion, and chs.36-39 have reference to this invasion; prophecies that were so soon fulfilled. (2 Kings 19:35) II. The last 27 chapters form a separate prophecy, and are supposed by many critics to have been written in the time of the Babylonian captivity, and are therefore ascribed to a |later Isaiah;| but the best reasons are in favor of but one Isaiah. This second part falls into three sections, each consisting of nine chapters: --

+ The first section, chs 40-48 has for its main topic the comforting assurance of the deliverance from Babylon by Koresh (Cyrus), who is even named twice. ch. (Isaiah 41:2,3,25; 44:28; 45:1-4,13; 46:11; 48:14,15)
+ The second section, chs.49-56, is distinguished from the first by several features. The person of Cyrus as well as his name and the specification of Babylon, disappear altogether. Return from exile is indeed spoken of repeatedly and at length, ch. (Isaiah 49:9-26; 51:9-52; 12; 55:12,13; 57:14) but in such general terms as admit of being applied to the spiritual and Messianic as well as to the literal restoration. + This section is mainly occupied with various practical exhortations founded upon the views of the future already set forth. In favor of the authenticity of the last 27 chapters the following reasons may be advanced: -- (a) The unanimous testimony of Jewish and Christian tradition, comp. Ecclus.48:24, and the evidence of the New Testament quotations. (Matthew 3:3; Luke 4:17; Acts 8:28; Romans 10:16,20) (b) The unity of design which connects these last 27 chapters with the preceding; the oneness of diction which pervades the whole book; the peculiar elevation and grandeur of style which characterize the second part as well as the first; the absence of any other name than Isaiah's claiming the authorship; lastly, the Messianic predictions which mark its inspiration and remove the chief ground of objection against its having been written by Isaiah. In point of style we can find no difficulty in recognizing in the second part the presence of the same plastic genius as we discover in the first.

(one who looks forth), daughter of Haran the brother of Abram, and sister of Milcah and of Lot. (Genesis 11:29) In the Jewish traditions she is identified with Sarai. (B.C. about 1920.)

(man of Kerioth). [[647]Judas Iscariot ISCARIOT]

(praising), a man in the line of Judah, commemorated as the |father of Eshtemos.| (1 Chronicles 4:17)

(left behind), a son of Abraham and Keturah, (Genesis 25:2; 1 Chronicles 1:32) and the progenitor of a tribe of northern Arabia. (B.C. after 1856.)

(he that dwells at Nobl), son of Rapha, one of the race of Philistine giants, who attacked David in battle, but was slain by Abishai. (2 Samuel 21:16,17) (B.C.1018.)

(man of shame) the youngest of Saul's four sons, and his legitimate successor. (B.C.1068.) Ish-bosheth was |forty years old when he began to reign over Israel, and reigned two years.| (2 Samuel 3:10) During these two years he reigned at Mahanaim, though only in name. The wars and negotiations with David were entirely carried on by Abner (2 Samuel 2:12; 3:6,12) The death of Abner deprived the house of Saul of its last remaining support. When Ish-bosheth heard of it, |his hands were feeble, and all the Israelites were troubled.| He was murdered in his bed.

(my husband). This word occurs in (Hosea 2:16) It is the Israelite term, in opposition to Baali, the Canaanite term, with the same meaning, though with a significance of its own.


+ A man of the descendants of Judah, son of Appaim, (1 Chronicles 2:31) one of the great house of Hezron.
+ In a subsequent genealogy of Judah we find another Ishi, with a son Zoheth. (1 Chronicles 4:20)
+ Head of a family of the tribe of Simeon. (1 Chronicles 4:42) + One of the heads of the tribe of Manasseh on the east of Jordan. (1 Chronicles 5:24)

(whom Jehovah lends), the fifth of the five sons of Izrahiah, one of the heads of the tribe of Issachar in the time of David. (1 Chronicles 7:3) (B.C.1046.)

(whom Jehovah lends), a lay Israelite of the Bene-Harim who had married a foreign wife. (Ezra 10:31) (B.C.459.)

(desolation), a name in the genealogy of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:3)

(whom God hears).

+ The son of Abraham by Hagar the Egyptian his concubine; born when Abraham was fourscore and six years old. (Genesis 16:15,16) (B.C.1910.) Ishmael was the first-born of his father. He was born in Abraham's house when he dwelt in the plain of Mamre; and on the institution of the covenant of circumcision, was circumcised, he being then thirteen years old (Genesis 17:26) With the institution of the covenant, God renewed his promise respecting Ishmael. He does not again appear in the narrative until the weaning of Isaac. At the great feast made in celebration of the weaning, |Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, which she had borne unto Abraham, mocking,| and urged Abraham to cast him and his mother out. Comforted by the renewal of God's promise to make of Ishmael a great nation, Abraham sent them away, and they departed and wandered in the wilderness of Beersheba. His mother took Ishmael a wife out of the land of Egypt.| (Genesis 21:9-21) This wife of Ishmael was the mother of the twelve sons and one daughter. Of the later life of Ishmael we know little. He was present with Isaac at the burial of Abraham. He died at the age of 137 years. (Genesis 25:17,18) The sons of Ishmael peopled the north and west of the Arabian peninsula, and eventually formed the chief element of the Arab nation, the wandering Bedouin tribes. They are now mostly Mohammedans who look to him as their spiritual father, as the Jews look to Abraham. Their language, which is generally acknowledged to have been the Arabic community so called, has been adopted with insignificant exceptions throughout Arabia. The term |Ishmaelite| occur on three occasions: (Genesis 37:25,27,28; 39:1; Judges 8:24; Psalms 83:6)
+ One of the sons of Azel, a descendant of Saul through Meribbaal or Mephibosheth. (1 Chronicles 8:38; 9:44) + A man of Judah, father of Zebadiah. (2 Chronicles 19:11) + Another man of Judah, son of Jehohanan; one of the captains of hundreds who assisted Jehoiada in restoring Joash to the throne. (2 Chronicles 23:1)
+ A priest of the Bene-Pashur, who was forced by Ezra to relinquish his foreign wife. (Ezra 10:22)
+ The son of Nethaniah; a perfect marvel of craft and villainy, whose treachery forms one of the chief episodes of the history of the period immediately succeeding the first fall of Jerusalem. His exploits are related in (Jeremiah 40:7; Jeremiah 41:16) with a short summary. During the siege of the city he had fled across the Jordan where he found a refuge at the court of Baalis. After the departure of the Chaldeans, Ishmael made no secret of his intention to kill the superintendent left by the king of Babylon and usurp his position. Of this Zedaliah was warned in express terms by Johanan and his companions, but notwithstanding entertained Ishmael and his followers at a feast, (Jeremiah 41:1) during which Ishmael murdered Gedaliah and all his attendants. The same night he killed all Zedaliah's establishment, including some Chaldean soldiers who were there. For two days the massacre remained entirely unknown to the people of the town. On the second day eighty devotees were bringing incense and offerings to the ruins of the temple. At his invitation they turned aside to the residence of the superintendent, and there Ishmael and his band butchered nearly the whole number: ten only escaped by offering a heavy ransom for their lives. This done he descended to the town, surprised and carried off the daughters of King Zedekiah, who had been sent there by Nebuchadnezzar for safety, with their eunuchs and their Chaldean guard, (Jeremiah 41:10,16) and all the people of the town, and made off with his prisoners to the country of the Ammonites. The news of the massacre had by this time got abroad, and Ishmael was quickly pursued by Johanan and his companions. He was attacked, two of his bravos slain, the whole of the prey recovered; and Ishmael himself with the remaining eight of his people, escaped to the Ammonites.

(decendant of Ishmael). [[648]Ishmael]

(Jehovah hears), son of Obadiah; the ruler of the tribe of Zebulun in the time of King David. (1 Chronicles 27:19) (B.C.1046.)

(1 Chronicles 2:17) and Ish'me-elites (descendants of Ishmael), (Genesis 37:25,27,28; 39:1) the form in which the descendants of Ishmael are given in a few places in the Authorized Version.

(whom Jehovah keeps), a Benjamite, one of the family of Elpaal. (1 Chronicles 8:18) (B.C. before 538.)

(man of glory), one of the tribe of Manasseh on the east of Jordan, son of Hammoleketh. (1 Chronicles 7:18) (B.C.1491.)

(bald), a Benjamite, one of the family of Shashak. (1 Chronicles 8:22) (B.C. before 588.)

(men of Tob), apparently one of the small kingdoms or states which formed part of the general country of Aram, named with Zobah, Rehob and Maacah. (2 Samuel 10:6,8)

(quiet), the second son of Asher. (Genesis 46:17) (B.C.1706.)

(quiet), the third son of Asher, (1 Chronicles 7:30) founder of a family bearing his name. (Numbers 26:44) Authorized Version |Jesuites.| (B.C.1706.)

(quiet), the second son of Saul by his wife Ahinoam (1 Samuel 14:4) comp.1Sam 14:50 (Died B.C.1053.)

The radical sense of the Hebrew word seems to be |habitable places,| as opposed to water, and in this sense it occurs in (Isaiah 42:15) Hence it means secondarily any maritime district, whether belonging to a continent or to an island; thus it is used of the shore of the Mediterranean, (Isaiah 20:6; 23:2,6) and of the coasts of Elishah, (Ezekiel 27:7) i.e. of Greece and Asia Minor.

(Jehovah hears), a Gibeonite, one of the chiefs of those warriors, who joined David at Ziklag. (1 Chronicles 12:4). (B.C.1064.)

(whom Jehovah upholds), a Levite who was one of the overseers of offerings during the revival under King Hezekiah. (2 Chronicles 31:13) (B.C.776.)

(bald), a Benjamite of the family of Beriah; one of the heads of his tribe. (1 Chronicles 8:16) (B.C. before 588.)

(the prince that prevails with God).

+ The name given, (Genesis 32:28) to Jacob after his wrestling with the angel, (Hosea 12:4) at Peniel. Gesenius interprets Israel |soldier of God.|
+ It became the national name of the twelve tribes collectively. They are so called in (Exodus 3:16) and afterward.
+ It is used in a narrower sense, excluding Judah, in (1 Samuel 11:8; 2 Samuel 20:1; 1 Kings 12:16) Thenceforth it was assumed and accepted as the name of the northern kingdom.
+ After the Babylonian captivity, the returned exiles resumed the name Israel as the designation of their nation. The name Israel is also used to denote lay-men, as distinguished from priests, Levites and other ministers. (Ezra 6:16; 9:1; 10:25; Nehemiah 11:3) etc.

Israel, Kingdom Of
I. the kingdom. -- The prophet Ahijah of Shiloh, who was commissioned in the latter days of Solomon to announce the division of the kingdom, left one tribe (Judah) to the house of David, and assigned ten to Jeroboam. (1 Kings 11:31,35) These were probably Joseph (Ephraim and Manasseh), Issachar, Zebulun, Asher, Naphtali, Benjamin, Dan, Simeon, Gad and Reuben; Levi being intentionally omitted. Eventually the greater part of Benjamin, and probably the whole of Simeon and Dan, were included as if by common consent in the kingdom of Judah. With respect to the conquests of David, Moab appears to have been attached to the kingdom of Israel. (2 Kings 3:4) so much of Syria as remained subject to Solomon, see (1 Kings 11:24) would probably be claimed by his successor in the northern kingdom; and Ammon was at one time allied (2 Chronicles 20:1) we know not how closely or how early, with Moab. The seacoast between Accho and Japho remained in the possession of Israel. The whole population may perhaps have amounted to at least three and a half millions. II. the capitals . -- Shechem was the first capital of the new kingdom. (1 Kings 12:25) Subsequently Tirzah became the royal residence, if not the capital, of Jeroboam (1 Kings 14:17) and of his successors. cf. (1 Kings 15:33; 16:8,17,23) Samaria was chosen by Omri. (1 Kings 16:24) Jezreel was probably only a royal residence of some of the Israelitish kings. III. History . -- The kingdom of Israel lasted 254 years, from B.C.975 to B.C.721. The detailed history of the kingdom will be found under the names of its nineteen kings. See chart of the kings of Judah and Israel, at the end of the work. A summary view may be taken in four periods: (a) B.C.975-929. Jeroboam had not sufficient force of character in himself to make a lasting impression on his people. A king, but not a founder of a dynasty, he aimed at nothing beyond securing his present elevation. Baasha, in the midst of the army at Gibbethon, slew the son and successor of Jeroboam; Zimri, a captain of chariots, slew the son and successor of Baasha; Omri, the captain of the host, was chosen to punish Zimri; and after a civil war of four years he prevailed over Tibni, the choice of half the people. (b) B.C.929-884. For forty-five years Israel wag governed by the house of Omri. The princes of his house cultivated an alliance with the king of Judah which was cemented by the marriage of Jehoram and Athaliah. The adoption of Baal-worship led to a reaction in the nation, to the moral triumph of the prophets in the person of Elijah, and to extinction of the house of Ahab in obedience to the bidding of Elisha. (c) B.C.884-772. Unparalleled triumphs, but deeper humiliation, awaited the kingdom of Israel under the dynasty of Jehu. Hazael, the ablest king of Damascus, reduced Jehoahaz to the condition of a vassal, and triumphed for a time over both the disunited Hebrew kingdoms. Almost the first sign of the restoration of their strength was a war between them; and Jehoash, the grandson of Jehu, entered Jerusalem as the conqueror of Amaziah. Jehoash also turned the tide of war against the Syrians; and Jeroboam II., the most powerful of all the kings of of Israel, captured Damascus, and recovered the whole ancient frontier from Hamath to the Dead Sea. This short-lived greatness expired with the last king of Jehu's line. (d) B.C.772-721. Military violence, it would seem, broke off the hereditary succession after the obscure and probably convulsed reign of Zachariah. An unsuccessful usurper, Shallum, is followed by the cruel Menahem, who, being unable to make head against the first attack of Assyria under Pul, became the agent of that monarch for the oppressive taxation of his subjects. Yet his power at home was sufficient to insure for his son and successor Pekahiah a ten-years reign, cut short by a bold usurper, Pekah. Abandoning the northern and transjordanic regions to the encroaching power of Assyria under Tiglath-pileser, he was very near subjugating Judah, with the help of Damascus, now the coequal ally of Israel. But Assyria interposing summarily put an end to the independence of Damascus, and perhaps was the indirect cause of the assassination of the baffled Pekah. The irresolute Hoshea, the next and last usurper, became tributary to his invaders Shalmaneser, betrayed the Assyrian to the rival monarchy of Egypt, and was punished by the loss of his liberty, and by the capture, after a three-years siege, of his strong capital, Samaria. Some gleanings of the ten tribes yet remained in the land after so many years of religious decline, moral debasement, national degradation, anarchy, bloodshed and deportation. Even these were gathered up by the conqueror and carried to Assyria, never again, as a distinct people, to occupy their portion of that goodly and pleasant land which their forefathers won under Joshua from the heathen. (Schaff Bib. Dic.) adds to this summary that |after the destruction of the kingdom of Israel, B.C.721, the name 'Israel' began to be applied to the whole surviving people. No doubt many of the kingdom of Israel joined the later kingdom of the Jews after the captivity, and became part of that kingdom. -- ED.)

(descendant of Israel). In (2 Samuel 17:25) Ithra, the father of Amasa, is called |an Israelite,| while in (1 Chronicles 2:17) he appears as |Jether the Ishmaelite.| The latter is undoubtedly the true reading.

(reward). I. The ninth son of Jacob and the fifth of Leah. (Genesis 30:17,18) (B.C.1753-45) At the descent into Egypt four sons are ascribed to him, who founded the four chief families of the tribes. (Genesis 46:13; Numbers 26:23,25; 1 Chronicles 7:1) The number of the fighting men of Issachar, when taken in the census at Sinai, was 54,400. During the journey they seem to have steadily increased. The allotment of Issachar lay above that of Manasseh. (Joshua 19:17-23) In the words of Josephus, |it extended in length from Carmel to the Jordan, in breadth to Mount Tabor.| This territory was, as it still is, among the richest land in Palestine. It is this aspect of the territory of Issachar which appears to be alluded to in the blessing of Jacob.

+ A Korhite Levite, one of the door-keepers of the house of Jehovah, seventh son of Obed-edom. (1 Chronicles 26:5)

(whom Jehovah lends).

+ A descendant of Moses by his younger son Eliezer. (1 Chronicles 24:21) comp.1Chr 23:17; 26:25 (B.C. after 1451.) + A Levite of the house of Kohath and family of Uzziel. (1 Chronicles 24:26) (Uncertain date.)

Issue, Running
(Leviticus 15:2,3; 22:4; Numbers 5:2; 2 Samuel 3:29) In (Leviticus 15:3) a distinction is introduced, which merely means that the cessation of the actual flux does not constitute ceremonial cleanness, but that the patient must abide the legal time, seven days, ver 13, and perform the prescribed purifications and sacrifice. ver.14.

(quiet), second son of Asher. (1 Chronicles 7:30) (B.C.1706.)

(quiet), third son of Asher, (Genesis 46:17) founder of a family called after him, though in the Authorized Version appearing as THE Jesuites. (Numbers 26:44) (B.C.1706.)

Italian Band

This word is used in the New Testament, (Acts 18:2; 27:1; Hebrews 13:24) in the usual sense of the period, i.e. in its true geographical sense, as denoting the whole natural peninsula between the Alps and the Straits of Messina.

(with the Lord), a Benjamite, son of Ribai of Gibeah, one of the heroes of David's guard. (1 Chronicles 11:31) (B.C.1046.)

(land of palms), the youngest son of Aaron. (Exodus 6:23) (B.C.1491.) After the death of Nadab and Abihu, (Leviticus 10:1) Eleazar and Ithamar were appointed to succeed to their places in the priestly office. (Exodus 28:1,40,43; Numbers 3:3,4; 1 Chronicles 24:2) In the distribution of services belonging to the tabernacle, and its transport on the march of the Israelites, the Gershonites and the Merarites were placed under the superintendence of Ithamar. (Exodus 38:21; Numbers 4:21-33) The high priesthood passed into the family of Ithamar in the person of Eli, but for what reason we are not informed.

(God is with me).

+ A Benjamite, son of Jesaiah. (Nehemiah 11:7)
+ One of two persons -- Ithiel and Ucal -- to whom Agur ben-Jakeh delivered his discourse. (Proverbs 30:1) (B.C. about 900.)

(bereavedness), a Moabite, one of the heroes of David's guard. (1 Chronicles 11:46)

(given), one of the towns in the extreme south of Judah. (Joshua 15:23) No trace of its existence has yet been discovered.

(excellence), an Israelite, (2 Samuel 17:25) or Ishmaelite, (1 Chronicles 2:17) the father of Amasa by Abigail, David's sister. (B.C. before 1023.)


+ A son of Dishon, a Horite, (Genesis 36:26; 1 Chronicles 1:41) and probably a phylarch of a tribe of the Horim. (Genesis 36:30) (B.C. about 1800.)
+ A descendant of Asher. (1 Chronicles 7:30-40)

(abundance of people), son of David, born to him in Hebron, and distinctly specified as the sixth, and as the child of Eglah, David's wife. (2 Samuel 3:5; 1 Chronicles 3:3)

(belonging to Jether), The, the designation of two of the members of David's guard, Ira and Gareb. (2 Samuel 23:38; 1 Chronicles 11:40) They may have come from Jattir, in the mountains of Judah. (B.C 1046.)

(time of the judge), one of the landmarks of the boundary of Zebulun. (Joshua 19:13) It has not been identified.

(with the Lord).

+ |Ittai the Gittite,| i.e. the native of Gath, a Philistine in the army of King David. He appears only during the revolution of Absalom. (B.C.1023.) We first discern him on the morning of David's flight. The king urges him to return. (2 Samuel 15:18,19) Comp.1Sam 23:13; 27:2; 30:9,10,19,20 But ittai is firm; he is the king's slave, and wherever his master goes he will go. Accordingly he is allowed by David to proceed. When the army was numbered and organized by David at Mahanaim, Ittai again appears, now in command of a third part of the force. (2 Samuel 18:2,5,12)
+ Son of Ribai, from Gibeah of Benjamin; one of the thirty heroes of David's guard. (2 Samuel 23:29)

(land of Jether), a small province on the northwestern border of Palestine, lying along the base of Mount Hermon, only mentioned in (Luke 3:1) Jetur the son of Ishmael gave his name like the rest of his brethren, to the little province he colonized. (Genesis 25:15,16) It adjoined Trachonitis, and lay along the base of Libanus between Tiberias and Damascus. At the place indicated is situated the modern province of Jedur, which is the Arabic form of the Hebrew Jetur

(ruined), or A'va, which is mentioned in Scripture twice, (2 Kings 18:34; 19:13) comp. Isai 37:13 In connection with Hena and Sepharvaim, and once, (2 Kings 17:24) in connection with Babylon and Cuthah, must be sought in Babylonia, and is probably identical with the modern Hit, on the Euphrates.

The word translated |ivory| literally signifies the |tooth| of any animal, and hence more especially denotes the substance of the projecting tusks of elephants. The skilled work-men of Hiram, king of Tyre, fashioned the great ivory throne of Solomon, and overlaid it with pure gold. (1 Kings 10:18; 2 Chronicles 9:17) The ivory thus employed was supplied by the caravans of Dedan, (Isaiah 21:13; Ezekiel 27:15) or was brought, with apes and peacocks, by the navy of Tarshish. (1 Kings 10:22) The |ivory house| of Ahab, (1 Kings 22:39) was probably a palace, the walls of which were panelled with ivory, like the palace of Menelaus described by Homer. Odys. iv.73. Beds inlaid or veneered with ivory were in use among the Hebrews. (Amos 6:4)

(oil), the form in which the name Izhar is given in the Authorized Version of (Numbers 3:19) only.

(descendant of Izhar), The. A family of Kohathite Levites, descended from Izhar the son of Kohath, (Numbers 3:27) called also |Izharites| (1 Chronicles 26:23,29)

(oil), son of Kohath grandson of Levi, uncle of Aaron and Moses and father of Korah. (Exodus 6:18,21; Numbers 3:19; 16:1; 1 Chronicles 6:2,18) (B.C. after 1490.) Izhar was the head of the family of the Izharites, (1 Chronicles 24:22; 26:23) or Izeharites. (Numbers 3:27; 1 Chronicles 26:23,29)

(whom Jehovah causes to sparkle), a chieftain of Issachar. (1 Chronicles 7:3)

(descendant of Zerah), The, the designation of Shamhuth (1 Chronicles 27:8) Its real force probably Zerahite, that is, from the great Judaic family of Zerah.

(creator), a Levite leader of the fourth course or ward in the service of the house of God. (1 Chronicles 25:11) In ver.3 he is called Zeri. (B.C.1014.)

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