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Grace Actual And Habitual by Joseph Pohle

FOOTNOTES

1 The Fathers and the Schoolmen |do not emphasize the difference, and frequently speak of habitual and actual grace as of one whole. Controversial reasons account for this discrepancy, which readers of the older theologians should constantly bear in mind.| (Wilhelm-Scannell, Manual of Catholic Theology, Vol. II, p.229, 2nd ed., London 1901.)

2 The asterisk before an author's name indicates that his treatment of the subject is especially clear and thorough. As St. Thomas is invariably the best guide, the omission of the asterisk before his name never means that we consider his work inferior to that of other writers. There are vast stretches of theology which he scarcely touched.

3 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural, pp.181 sqq., St. Louis 1912.

4 Theologiae Graecorum Patrum Vindicatae circa Universam Materiam Gratiae Libri III, I, 4, Paris 1646.

5 |The same name is loosely applied to the act of 'blessing' the food before taking it, which is properly the function of a priest, but which is suitably performed by every Christian.| (Hunter, Outlines of Dogmatic Theology, Vol. III, p.6.) Cfr. S. Thomas, Summa Theologica, 1a 2ae, qu.110, art.1: |Secundum communem loquendi modum tripliciter gratia accipi consuevit: uno modo pro dilectione alicuius...; secundo sumitur pro aliquo dono gratis dato...; tertio modo sumitur pro recompensatione beneficii gratis dati, secundum quod dicimur agere gratias beneficiorum.|

6 Rom. XI, 6: |Si autem gratia, iam non ex operibus; alioquin gratia iam non est gratia.|

7 Tract. in Ioannem, III, n.9: |Quid est gratia? Gratis data. Quid est gratis data? Donata, non reddita.|

8 Debitum naturae.

9 Epistula ad Innocent., n.2: |Nam si intellexissent illi episcopi, eam illum dicere gratiam, quam etiam cum impiis habemus, cum quibus homines sumus, negare vero eam qua Christiani et filii Dei sumus, quis eum patienter ... ante oculos suos ferret? Quapropter non culpandi sunt iudices, qui ecclesiastica consuetudine nomen gratiae [i.e. christianae] audierunt.|

10 On the difference between these two categories see Pohle-Preuss, God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural, pp.180 sqq.

11 Epist. ad Innocent., l.c.: |Etsi quadam non improbanda ratione dicitur gratia Dei qua creati sumus [gratia naturalis], ... alia est tamen, qua praedestinati vocamur, iustificamur, glorificamur [gratia supernaturalis].|

12 Epist. ad Sixt., 194, n.8: |Haec est enim gratia, quam in libris Dei legere et populis praedicare catholici antistites consueverunt, et gratia quam commendat Apostolus non est ea qua creati sumus, ut homines essemus, sed qua iustificati sumus, quum mali homines essemus.|

13 St. Augustine, Ep., 217: |Hoc [scil. credere] opus est gratiae, non naturae. Opus est, inquam, gratiae quam nobis attulit secundus Adam, non naturae quam totam perdidit in seipso Adam.|

14 Gratia est donum gratis datum supernaturale.

15 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, Soteriology. A Dogmatic Treatise on the Redemption, pp.24 sqq., St. Louis 1914.

16 Gratia est donum gratis datum, supernaturale, ex meritis Christi.

17 Cfr. St. Augustine, Contra Duas Epistolas Pelagianorum, IV, 15.

18 Cfr. Rom. III, 21 sqq.; Gal. II, 16.

19 Gratia est donum gratis datum, supernaturale, internum, ex meritis Christi.

20 St. Matthew X, 8: |Infirmos curate, mortuos suscitate, leprosos mundate, daemones eiicite: gratis accepistis, gratis date ({GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}).| -- The name |gratuitously given,| as Fr. Hunter observes (Outlines, III, 10), is |tautological and not particularly expressive,| and |helps in no way to indicate what is the nature of the graces which it is intended to exclude. These are such as, for want of a better word, we call ingratiating: the Latin name used by theologians (gratum faciens) denotes that they make a man pleasing to God, grateful to Him, if we understand grateful of that which gives pleasure, and not in its commoner sense, which is nearly the same as thankful.|

21 For a list of the charismata see 1 Cor. XII, 4 sqq. Cfr. Englmann, Von den Charismen im allgemeinen und von dem Sprachencharisma im besonderen, Ratisbon 1848; Cornely, Comment. in S. Pauli Priorem Epistolam ad Corinthios, pp.410 sqq., Paris 1890; Chr. Pesch, Praelect. Dogmat., Vol. V, 3rd ed., pp.243 sqq., Freiburg 1908.

22 1 Cor. XII, 31: |Aemulamini autem charismata meliora, et adhuc excellentiorem viam vobis demonstro.|

23 Caritas, {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}.

24 1 Cor. XIII, 1 sqq. Cfr. St. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.111, art.5: |Unaquaeque virtus tanto excellentior est, quanto ad altius bonum ordinatur. Semper autem finis potior est his, quae sunt ad finem [i.e. media]. Gratia autem gratum faciens ordinat hominem immediate ad coniunctionem ultimi finis; gratiae autem gratis datae ordinant hominem ad quaedam praeparatoria finis ultimi, sicut per prophetiam et miracula et huiusmodi homines inducuntur ad hoc quod ultimo fini coniungantur. Et ideo gratia gratum faciens est multo excellentior quam gratia gratis data.|

25 Gratia est donum gratis datum, supernaturale, internum, gratum faciens, ex meritis Christi.

26 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural, pp.229 sq.

27 Ibid., pp.298 sq.

28 Ep. ad Simplician., I, 9, 22: |Voluntas ipsa, nisi aliquid occurrerit quod delectet et invitet animum, moveri nullo modo potest; hoc autem, ut occurrat, non est in hominis potestate.|

29 Enchiridion, c.98: |Quis tam impie desipiat, ut dicat, Deum malas hominum voluntates, quas voluerit, quando voluerit, ubi voluerit, in bonum non posse convertere?|

30 |Domine, ... ad te nostras etiam rebelles compelle propitius voluntates.| For a full treatment of God's moral causality the student is referred to Ripalda, De Ente Supernaturali, disp.109, sect.2 sq.

31 Cfr. D. Palmieri, De Gratia Divina Actuali, thes.15.

32 Causa formalis.

33 Causa efficiens.

34 Causa meritoria.

35 Causa materialis.

36 Causalitas moralis.

37 Causalitas physica.

38 Causa finalis inadaequata.

39 Causa finalis adaequata.

40 On the potentia obedientialis see Pohle-Preuss, God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural, pp.188 sqq.

41 Can.7, quoted by Denzinger-Bannwart, n.180.

42 Supra, p.11.

43 |Lex Domini immaculata, convertens animas, ... praeceptum Domini lucidum, illuminans oculos.|

44 |Christus passus est pro nobis, vobis relinquens exemplum, ut sequamini vestigia eius.|

45 De Spiritu et Litera, c.34: |Visorum suasionibus agit Deus, ut velimus et ut credamus, sive extrinsecus per evangelicas exhortationes sive intrinsecus, ubi nemo habet in potestate, quid ei veniat in mentem.|

46 2 Cor. III, 4 sq.: |Fiduciam autem talem habemus per Christum ad Deum; non quod sufficientes simus cogitare aliquid a nobis quasi ex nobis, sed sufficientia nostra ex Deo est.|

47 1 Cor. III, 6: |Ego plantavi, Apollo rigavit; sed Deus incrementum dedit ({GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH DASIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER XI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}). Itaque neque qui plantat est aliquid neque qui rigat, sed qui incrementum dat, Deus ({GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH DASIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER XI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}).|

48 De Gratia Christi, c.19: |Ipse in bonis arboribus cooperatur fructum, qui et forinsecus rigat atque excolit per quemlibet ministrum et per se dat intrinsecus incrementum.| Cfr. also Eph. I, 17 sq., Acts XXVI, 16 sqq., 2 Cor. IV, 6, 1 John II, 20 and 27.

49 Cfr. Mazzella, De Gratia, disp.1, art.1, §4, 3rd ed., Rome 1882.

50 Tract. in Ioa., III, 13: |Magisteria forinsecus adiutoria quaedam sunt et admonitiones; cathedram in coelo habet, qui corda tenet.|

51 L.c.: |Interior magister est, qui docet; Christus docet, inspiratio ipsius docet.|

52 Ep.17 de Incarn. et Grat. n.67: |Frustra [divinus sermo] exterioribus auribus sonat, nisi Deus spiritali munere auditum hominis interioris aperiat.| Other Patristic texts will be found in the classic work of Ripalda, De Ente Supernaturali, disp.101, sect.3-4.

53 It is to be noted, however, that the term gratia inspirationis, both in the writings of St. Augustine and in the decrees of Trent (Sess. VI, can.3), sometimes also denotes the immediate illuminating grace of the mind.

54 De Gratia Christi, c.12: |Qua gratia agitur, non solum ut facienda noverimus, verum etiam ut cognita faciamus, nec ut solum diligenda credamus, verum etiam ut credita diligamus.|

55 Op. cit., c.26: |Cognitionem et dilectionem, sicut sunt discernenda, discernat, quia scientia inflat, quando caritas aedificat.... Et quum sit utrumque donum Dei, sed unum minus, alterum maius, non sic iustitiam nostram super laudem iustificatoris extollat, ut horum duorum quod minus est divino tribuat adiutorio, quod autem maius est humano usurpet arbitrio.|

56 He applies a variety of practically synonymous terms to the strengthening grace of the will, for instance: delectatio coelestis, spiritus caritatis, inspiratio dilectionis, bona voluntas, voluptas, sanctum desiderium, inspiratio suavitatis, cupiditas boni, etc.

57 Canon 4: |Quisquis dixerit, eandem gratiam Dei per Iesum Christum D. N. propter hoc tantum adiuvare ad non peccandum, quia per ipsam nobis aperitur el revelatur intelligentia mandatorum, ut sciamus quid appetere et quid vitare debeamus, non autem per illam nobis praestari ut quod faciendum cognoverimus, etiam facere diligamus atque valeamus, a. s.; ... quum sit utrumque donum Dei, et scire quid facere debeamus et diligere ut faciamus.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.104.)

58 Contra Collator., c. VII, 2: |Trahit timor; principium enim sapientiae timor Domini (Prov. I, 7). Trahit laetitia, quoniam laetatus sum in his, quae dicta sunt mihi: in domum Domini ibimus (Ps. CXXI, 1). Trahit desiderium, quoniam concupiscit et deficit anima mea in atria Domini (Ps. LXXXIII, 3). Trahunt delectationes: quam dulcia enim faucibus meis eloquia tua, super mel et favum ori meo (Ps. CXVIII, 103). Et quis perspicere aut enarrare possit, per quos affectus visitatio Dei animum ducat humanum?| Cfr. Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, thes.11; Palmieri, De Gratia Divina Actuali, thes.8.

59 De Anima, I, 8: {GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PHI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}.

60 De Peccatorum Meritis et Remissione, II, 19, 33: |... ut suave faciat, quod non delectabat.|

61 2 Cor. XII, 9: |Sufficit tibi gratia mea.| For further information on this point the student is referred to Ripalda, De Ente Supernaturali, disp.44, sect.9.

62 In Psalmos, 102, n.16: |Vocat [Deus] per intimam cognitionem.| -- Tract. in Ioa., 26, n.7: |Videte quomodo trahit Pater, docendo delectat.|

63 Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.110, art.2.

64 S. Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.25, art.2.

65 |... quum sit utrumque donum Dei, et scire quid facere debeamus, et diligere ut faciamus.| (V. supra, p.25.)

66 |Amor Dei propter se super omnia.|

67 V. infra, Part II, Ch. I.

68 Cfr., e.g., De Trinitate, VIII, 10: |Quid est dilectio vel caritas, quam tantopere Scriptura divina laudat et praedicat, nisi amor boni?| -- Contra Duas Epistolas Pelag., II, 9, 21: |Quid est boni cupiditas nisi caritas?| -- De Gratia Christi, c.21: |Quasi vero aliud sit bona voluntas quam caritas.|

69 It should also be noted that in Augustine's writings inspiratio caritatis, as an immediate grace of the will, is not necessarily identical with the infusion of theological love.

70 E.g. Berti, De Theol. Discipl., XIV, 7.

71 Cfr. Alvarez, De Aux., disp.67, n.6.

72 Alvarez, op. cit., disp.74. -- Cfr. John VI, 44: |Nemo potest venire ad me, nisi Pater, qui misit me, traxerit eum.| Apoc. III, 20: |Ecce sto ad ostium et pulso; si quis audierit vocem meam et aperuerit mihi ianuam, intrabo ad illum.|

73 Comment. in Summam Theol. S. Thomae Aquinatis, p.2, tr.6, qu.2, art.2, §2.

74 V. supra, Nos.1 and 2.

75 Ad Simplic., I, 2, n.21: |Quis potest credere, nisi aliqua vocatione, h. e. aliqua rerum testificatione tangatur? Quis habet in potestate tali viso attingi mentem suam, quo eius voluntas moveatur ad fidem?|

76 Cfr. Suarez, De Div. Grat., III, 4: |In Conciliis et Patribus nullum vestigium talis gratiae invenimus, quin potius ipsam inspirationem ponunt ut gratiam primam et praeterea indicant immediate infundi ab ipso Spiritu Sancto et non mediante aliqua qualitate.|

77 De Gratia, diss.4, art.2.

78 Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.110, art.2: |In eo, qui dicitur gratiam Dei habere, significatur esse quidam effectus gratuitae Dei voluntatis. Dictum est autem supra (qu.109, art.1), quod dupliciter ex gratuita Dei voluntate homo adiuvatur: uno modo inquantum anima hominis movetur a Deo ad aliquid cognoscendum vel volendum vel agendum; et hoc modo ipse gratuitus effectus in homine non est qualitas, sed motus quidam animae; actus enim moventis in moto est motus, ut dicitur (Phys.1, 3, text.18). Alio modo adiuvatur homo ex gratuita Dei voluntate, secundum quod aliquod habituale donum a Deo animae infunditur ... et sic donum gratiae qualitas quaedam est.| -- Cfr. Palmieri, De Gratia Div. Actuali, thes.16; Pesch, Praelect. Dogmat., Vol. V, 3rd ed., pp.23 sqq.; Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.220 sqq. The Thomistic doctrine on this point is viewed with favor by several Molinist theologians, e.g., Platel (De Gratia, n.547) and Gutberlet (Dogmatische Theologie, Vol. VIII, pp.25 sq., Mainz 1897).

79 De Peccat. Merit. et Rem., II, 18: |Quoniam quod a Deo nos avertimus nostrum est, et haec est voluntas mala; quod vero ad Deum nos convertimus nisi ipso excitante et adiuvante non possumus, et haec est voluntas bona.|

80 De Grat. et Lib. Arbitr., c.17, 33: |Ipse ut velimus, operatur incipiens, qui volentibus cooperatur perficiens.| -- On certain differences of opinion on this point between Suarez (De Div. Motione, III, 5) and St. Thomas (Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.111, art.2), see Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.252 sqq.

81 Cfr. Ps. LVIII, 11; XXII, 6.

82 Enchiridion, c.32: |Nolentem praevenit, ut velit; volentem subsequitur, ne frustra velit.|

83 Conc. Trident., Sess. VI, cap.5: |Declarat praeterea, ipsius justificationis exordium in adultis a Dei per Iesum Christum praeveniente gratia sumendum esse, h. e. ab eius vocatione, qua nullis eorum existentibus meritis vocantur.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.797.)

84 Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.111, art.3: |Sicut gratia dividitur in operantem et cooperantem secundum diversos effectus, ita etiam in praevenientem et subsequentem, qualitercumque gratia accipiatur (i.e. sive habitualis sive actualis). Sunt autem quinque effectus gratiae in nobis, quorum primus est ut anima sanetur; secundus ut bonum velit; tertius est ut bonum quod vult efficaciter operetur; quartus est ut in bono perseveret; quintus est ut ad gloriam perveniat. Et ideo gratia, secundum quod causat in nobis primum effectum, vocatur praeveniens respectu secundi effectus; et prout causat in nobis secundum, vocatur subsequens respectu primi effectus. Et sicut unus effectus est posterior uno effectu et prior alio, ita gratia potest dici praeveniens et subsequens secundum eundem effectum respectu diversorum.|

85 Conc. Trident., Sess. VI, cap.16: |Iesus Christus in ipsos iustificatos iugiter virtutem influit, quae virtus bona eorum opera semper antecedit et comitatur et subsequitur.|

86 On the distinction to be drawn between the various members of these pairs, whether it be real or merely logical, theologians differ. Cfr. Palmieri, De Div. Grat., thes.18; Chr. Pesch, Praelect. Dogmat., Vol. V, 3rd ed., pp.17 sqq.; Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.241 sqq.

87 V. supra, Nos.1 and 4.

88 Sess. VI, cap.5 and can.4, quoted in Denzinger-Bannwart's Enchiridion, n.797 and 814.

89 Ad Simplic., I, qu.2, n.22: |Voluntas ipsa, nisi aliquid occurrerit, quod delectet atque invitet animum, moveri nullo modo potest; hoc autem ut occurrat, non est in hominis potestate.|

90 Contr. Collator., c. VII, 2: |Et quis perspicere aut enarrare possit, per quos affectus visitatio Dei animum ducat humanum, ut quae fugiebat sequatur, quae oderat diligat, quae fastidiebat esuriat, ac subita commutatione mirabili quae clausa ei fuerant sint aperta, quae onerosa levia, quae amara sint dulcia, quae obscura sint lucida?|

91 Cfr. M. Cronin, The Science of Ethics, Vol. I, pp.30 sqq., Dublin 1909.

92 Contra Duas Epistolas Pelagian., II, 9, 21: |Multa Deus facit in homine bona, quae non facit homo; nulla vero facit homo, quae non facit Deus, ut faciat homo.|

93 De Gratia et Lib. Arbitr., c.17, n.33: |Ut ergo velimus, sine nobis operatur; quum autem volumus et sic volumus ut faciamus, nobiscum cooperatur; tamen sine illo vel operante ut velimus, vel cooperante quum volumus, ad bona pietatis opera nihil valemus.|

94 De Gratia et Lib. Arbitr., c.14: |Si ergo Deus tria haec, h. e. bonum cogitare, velle, perficere, operatur in nobis (2 Cor. III, 5; Phil. II, 13), primum profecto sine nobis, secundum nobiscum, tertium per nos facit. Siquidem immittendo bonam cogitationem, nos praevenit; immutando etiam malam voluntatem sibi per consensum iungit; ministrando et consensui facultatem foris per apertum opus nostrum internus opifex innotescit. Sane ipsi nos praevenire nequaquam possumus. Qui autem bonum neminem invenit, neminem salvat, quem non praevenit. A Deo ergo sine dubio nostrae fit salutis exordium, nec per nos utique nec nobiscum. Verum consensus et opus, etsi non ex nobis, non iam tamen sine nobis.| -- On the misinterpretation of this text by the Jansenists, see Palmieri, De Gratia Divina Actuali, pp.84 sq.

95 Moral., XVI, 10: |Superna pietas prius agit in nobis aliquid sine nobis [gratia praeveniens], ut subsequente libero arbitrio bonum, quod appetimus, agat nobiscum [gratia cooperans].|

96 Conc. Trid., Sess. VI, c.16: |Tanta est [Dei] erga homines bonitas, ut eorum velit esse merita quae sunt ipsius dona.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.810.)

97 De Grat. et Lib. Arbitr., c.16, 32: |Certum enim est nos mandata servare, si volumus; sed quia praeparatur voluntas a Domino, ab illo petendum est, ut tantum velimus quantum sufficit, ut volendo faciamus. Certum est nos velle, quum volumus; sed ille facit ut velimus bonum, de quo dictum est quod paulo ante posui (Prov. VIII, 35): __Praeparatur voluntas a Domino__; de quo dictum est (Ps. XXXVI, 32): __A Domino gressus hominis dirigentur et viam eius volet__; de quo dictum est (Phil. II, 13): __Deus est qui operatur in nobis et velle.__ Certum est nos facere quum facimus; sed ille facit ut faciamus, praebendo vires efficacissimas voluntati, qui dixit (Ezech. XXXVI, 27): __Faciam ut in iustificationibus meis ambuletis et iudicia mea observetis et faciatis.__ Quum dicit: __Faciam ut faciatis,__ quid aliud dicit nisi (Ezech. XI, 19): __Auferam a vobis cor lapideum,__ unde non faciebatis, (Ezech. XXXVI, 26), et __dabo vobis cor carneum,__ unde facitis.| -- On the subject of this paragraph see Palmieri, op. cit., thes.10, and Chr. Pesch, op. cit., pp.14 sqq.

98 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural, pp.67 sqq.

99 Cfr. Palmieri, De Div. Grat. Actuali; thes.17, and Chr. Pesch, Praelect. Dogmat., Vol. V, 3rd ed., pp.28 sqq.

100 V. infra, Ch. III, Sect.2.

101 De Grat. et Lib. Arbitr., c.16, 32: |Certum est nos facere, quum facimus; sed ille facit ut faciamus, praebendo vires efficacissimas voluntati.|

102 De Corrept. et Grat., c.11: |Acceperat posse, si vellet [gratia sufficiens]; sed non habuit velle [gratia efficax] quod posset, nam si habuisset, perseverasset.| Cfr. Palmieri, De Div. Grat. Actuali, thes.11.

103 De Nat. et Grat., 43: |Nam Deus impossibilia non iubet, sed iubendo monet, et facere quod possis, et petere quod non possis, et adiuvat ut possis.|

104 De Gratia Christi, IV, 10: |... ita inefficax, ex qua operatio ne possit quidem sequi, nisi eius inefficacia per aliam suppleatur.|

105 |Illud a recentioribus prolatum gratiae sufficientis genus, quo adiuvante nullum unquam opus factum est aut fiet unquam, videtur monstrum quoddam singulare gratiae, solummodo peccatis faciendis maiorique damnationi accersendae serviens.| (De Grat. Christi, III, 3).

106 |Gratia sufficiens statui nostro non tam utilis quam perniciosa est, sic ut proinde merito possimus petere: A gratia sufficienti libera nos, Domine.| This assertion was condemned by Pope Alexander VIII in 1690. It is convincingly refuted by Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.354 sqq.

107 |Hoc etiam secundum fidem catholicam credimus, quod accepta per baptismum gratia omnes baptizati Christo auxiliante et cooperante, quae ad salutem pertinent, possint et debeant, si fideliter laborare voluerint, adimplere.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.200.)

108 Sess. VI, can.4: |Si quis dixerit, liberum hominis arbitrium a Deo motum et excitatum nihil cooperari Deo, ... neque posse dissentire, si velit, anathema sit.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.814.)

109 Is. V, 4: |Quid est, quod debui ultra facere vineae meae et non feci ei? An quod exspectavi, ut faceret uvas et fecit labruscas?|

110 Prov. I, 24: |Vocavi et renuistis, extendi manum meam et non fuit qui adspiceret.|

111 Matth. XI, 21.

112 Cfr. Matth. XXIII, 37; Acts VII, 51; 1 Cor. X, 13; 2 Cor. VI, 1; 1 Thess. V, 19.

113 Contra Haer., IV, 37, 1: |Illud autem quod dicit (Matth. XXIII, 37): Quoties volui colligere filios tuos, et noluisti, veterem libertatem hominis manifestat, quia liberum eum fecit Deus ab initio.... Vis enim a Deo non fit, sed bona sententia adest illi semper. Et propter hoc consilium quidem bonum dat omnibus.... Et qui operantur quidem illud [gratia efficax], gloriam et honorem percipient, quoniam operati sunt bonum, quum possint non operari illud; hi autem, qui illud non operantur, indicium iustum excipient Dei, quoniam non sunt operati bonum [gratia inefficax], quum possint operari illud [gratia vere et mere sufficiens].|

114 |Gratia Dei ... quae hominum adiuvat voluntates: qua ut non adiuventur, in ipsis itidem causa est, non in Deo.| De Peccat. Mer. et Rem., II, 17.

115 De Lib. Arbitr., III, 16: |Ex eo quod non accepit, nullus reus est; ex eo autem quod non facit quod debet, iuste reus est. Debet autem [facere], si accepit et voluntatem liberam et sufficientissimam facultatem.| On the Jansenist distortions of St. Augustine's teaching see Palmieri, De Gratia Divina Actuali, thes.48. The doctrine of the Greek Fathers is thoroughly rehearsed by Isaac Habert, Theol. Patr. Graec., II, 6 sq.

116 Conc. Vat., Sess. III, De Revel., can.1: |Si quis dixerit, Deum unum et verum, Creatorem et Dominum nostrum, per ea, quae facta sunt, naturali rationis humanae lumine certo cognosci non posse, anathema sit.|

117 Conc. Vat., Sess. III, cap.4: |Hoc quoque perpetuus Ecclesiae catholicae consensus tenuit et tenet, duplicem esse ordinem cognitionis, non solum principio, sed obiecto etiam distinctum: principio quidem, quia in altero naturali ratione et altero fide divina cognoscimus; obiecto autem, quia praeter ea, ad quae naturalis ratio pertingere potest, credenda nobis proponuntur mysteria in Deo abscondita, quae, nisi revelata divinitus, innotescere non possunt.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1795.)

118 Nicholas d'Autricourt, a master in the University of Paris, in 1348, was compelled by the Sorbonne and the Apostolic See to retract a number of propositions taken from his writings which were infected with scepticism. These propositions, most of which had been censured as heretical, and some as merely false, may be found in Natalis Alexander, Hist. Eccles., ed. Bing., XV, 195, and also, with some explanatory remarks, in Denifle-Chatelain, Chartularium Univ. Paris., II, 1, Paris 1891.

119 |Klotz-, Stock- und Steintheorie.|

120 On Traditionalism, see Pohle-Preuss, God: His Knowability, Essence, and Attributes, pp.44 sqq., 2nd ed., St. Louis 1914.

121 Wisd. XIII, 1 sqq.; Rom. I, 20 sq.; Rom. II, 14 sq. Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, op. cit., pp.17 sqq.

122 Ibid., pp.38 sqq.

123 Summa Theol., 1a, qu.2, art.2, ad 1: |Deum esse et alia huiusmodi ... non sunt articuli fidei, sed praeambula ad articulos; sic enim fides praesupponit cognitionem naturalem, sicut gratia naturam et perfectio perfectibile.|

124 Luther's Werke, ed. Walch, XII, 400, Halle 1742: |Alles, was sie oertert und schleusst, so gewisslich falsch und irrig ist, als Gott lebt.|

125 Conc. Trid., Sess. VI, cap.1 and canon 5.

126 On the vulnera naturae cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural, pp.298 sqq., St. Louis 1912. Already St. Augustine observed: |Ad miseriam iustae damnationis pertinet ignorantia et difficultas, quam patitur homo ab exordio nativitatis suae, nec ab isto malo nisi Dei gratia liberatur.| (Retract., I.9.)

127 Propos. 41: |Omnis cognitio Dei etiam naturalis, etiam in philosophis ethnicis, non potest venire nisi a Deo; et sine gratia non producit nisi praesumptionem, vanitatem et oppositionem ad ipsum Deum loco affectuum adorationis, gratitudinis et amoris.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1391.)

128 On the debitum naturae cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural, pp.184 sq.

129 Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.2, art.4.

130 Conc. Vatic., Sess. III, De Revel., cap.2: |Ut ea, quae in rebus divinis humanae rationi per se impervia non sunt, in praesenti quoque generis humani conditione ab omnibus expedite, firma certitudine et nullo admixto errore cognosci possint.|

131 Cfr. Chastel, S. J., De la Valeur de la Raison Humaine, Paris 1854; O. Willmann, Geschichte des Idealismus, Vol. III, 2nd ed., pp.811 sqq., Braunschweig 1908; Bellarmine, De Gratia et Libero Arbitrio, V, 1 sqq.

132 The only dissenting voice is that of Cardinal Cajetan.

133 Mezzofanti spoke perfectly thirty-eight languages, thirty others less perfectly, and was more or less familiar with fifty dialects. Cfr. U. Benigni in the Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. X, p.271.

134 On the question whether grace can enable a man to acquire an unlimited, universal knowledge, see Pohle-Preuss, Christology, pp.258 sqq., St. Louis 1913. Cfr. also St. Thomas, Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.109, art.1, and Palmieri, De Gratia Divina Actuali, thes.19.

135 Prop. Baii Damn., 27: |Liberum arbitrium sine gratiae Dei adiutorio nonnisi ad peccandum valet.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1027.)

136 Prop. Baii Damn., 37: |Cum Pelagio sentit, qui boni aliquid naturalis, i.e. quod ex naturae solis viribus ortum ducit, agnoscit.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1037.)

137 Prop. Baii Damn., 25: |Omnia opera infidelium sunt peccata et philosophorum virtutes sunt vitia.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1025.)

138 Prop. Damn. ab Alex. VIII: |Necesse est infidelem in omni opere peccare.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1298.)

139 Matth. V, 46 sq.

140 Mercedem, {GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}.

141 Salutaveritis, {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}.

142 Ethnici, {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH DASIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}.

143 Rom. II, 14 sqq.

144 Gentes, {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}.

145 That is, the Mosaic law.

146 Naturaliter, {GREEK SMALL LETTER PHI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}.

147 Naturaliter, {GREEK SMALL LETTER PHI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}.

148 |Quae legis sunt, faciunt.|

149 Rom. I, 21 sqq.

150 For other germane texts see Ezech. XXIX, 18 sqq.; Rom. I, 21.

151 {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH DASIA AND OXIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}, {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH DASIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}.

152 {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} = {GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}.

153 Cfr. also 1 Cor. VIII, 10 sqq. For a fuller explanation see Scheeben, Dogmatik, Vol. III, pp.954 sqq.

154 Ezech. XXIX, 20: |And for the service that he hath done me against it [the city of Tyre], I have given him the land of Egypt, because he hath labored for me, saith the Lord God.|

155 In Ezech., XXIX, 20: |Ex eo quod Nabuchodonosor accepit mercedem boni operis, intelligimus etiam ethnicos, si quid boni fecerint, non absque mercede Dei iudicio praeteriri.|

156 In Gal., I, 15: |Multi absque fide et evangelio Christi vel sapienter faciunt aliquid vel sancte, ut parentibus obsequantur, ut inopi manum porrigant, non opprimant vicinos, non aliena diripant.|

157 De Spiritu et Litera, c.28: |Sicut enim non impediunt a vita aeterna iustum quaedam peccata venialia, sine quibus haec vita non ducitur, sic ad salutem aeternam nihil prosunt impio aliqua bona opera, sine quibus difficillime vita cuiuslibet pessimi hominis invenitur.|

158 Ep., 144, 2.

159 Confess., VI, 10.

160 Ep., 138, c.3: |Deus enim sic ostendit in opulentissimo et praeclaro imperio Romanorum, quantum valerent civiles etiam sine vera religione virtutes, ut intelligeretur hac addita fieri homines cives alterius civitatis, cuius rex veritas, cuius lex caritas, cuius modus aeternitas.|

161 De Spiritu et Litera, c.3, n.5: |Neque liberum arbitrium quidquam nisi ad peccandum valet, si lateat veritatis via.|

162 Sent. ex August., n.106: |Omnis vita infidelium peccatum est et nihil est bonum sine summo bono. Ubi enim deest agnitio summae et incommutabilis veritatis, falsa virtus est etiam in optimis moribus.|

163 What Augustine himself observes of the literary style of St. Cyprian (Ep., 93, c.10, n.39): |Habet quandam propriam faciem, qua possit agnosci,| applies in an even truer sense to his own writings.

164 Cfr. Enchirid., c.30.

165 Cfr. De Correptione et Gratia, c.9, n.20 sqq.

166 For a fuller and more adequate treatment of this question see J. Ernst, Werke und Tugenden der Unglaeubigen nach Augustinus, Freiburg 1871; Ripalda, De Ente Supernaturali, t. III, Cologne 1648; S. Dechamps, De Haeresi Ianseniana, Paris 1645; and, more briefly, Palmieri, De Gratia Divina Actuali, thes.21.

167 Palmieri, l.c., thes.20. Concerning the effects of original sin on free-will, see Pohle-Preuss, God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural, pp.291 sq.

168 On this distinction see supra, pp.15 sqq.

169 Summa Theol., 2a 2ae, qu.10, art.4: |Bona opera, ad quae sufficit bonum naturae, aliqualiter operari possunt [infideles]. Unde non oportet quod in omni suo opere peccent; sed quandocunque aliquod opus operantur ex infidelitate, tunc peccant.|

170 Cfr. Conc. Trident., Sess. VI, can.7: |Si quis dixerit, opera omnia quae ante iustificationem fiunt, quacunque ratione facta sint, vere esse peccata vel odium Dei mereri, aut quanto vehementius quis nititur se disponere ad gratiam, tanto eum gravius peccare, anathema sit.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.817.)

171 V. infra, No.3.

172 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural, pp.226 sqq.

173 |Propositio temeraria et errori proxima.|

174 Conc. Trid., Sess. VI, cap.13: |Verumtamen qui se existimant stare, videant ne cadant, et cum timore ac tremore salutem suam operentur.... Formidare enim debent ... de pugna, quae superest cum carne, cum mundo, cum diabolo, in qua victores esse non possunt, nisi cum Dei gratia Apostolo obtemperent dicenti: Debitores etc.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.806.)

175 Rom. VII, 22 sqq.

176 Rom. VII, 24 sq.

177 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, Mariology, pp.80 sqq., St. Louis 1914.

178 Cfr. St. Thomas, Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.109, art.5; Heinrich-Gutberlet, Dogmatische Theologie, Vol. VIII, § 416, Mainz 1897.

179 De Ente Supernaturali, disp.114, sect.18.

180 Concord., art.13, disp.19.

181 Cfr. Chr. Pesch, Praelect. Dogmat., Vol. V, pp.87 sqq.

182 Cfr. the following passage from the Tridentine Council: |... cum timore ac tremore salutem suam operentur in laboribus, in vigiliis, in eleemosynis, in orationibus et oblationibus, in ieiuniis et castitate.|

183 De Natura et Gratia, c.48, n.62: |Fideles enim orantes dicunt: Ne nos inferas in tentationem. Si adest possibilitas, ut quid orant? Aut a quo malo se liberari orant nisi maxime de corpore mortis huius?... de vitiis carnalibus, unde non liberatur homo sine gratia Salvatoris.... Orare sinatur, ut sanetur. Quid tantum de naturae possibilitate praesumitur? Vulnerata, sauciata, vexata, perdita est; vera confessione, non falsa defensione opus habet.| The necessity of grace, and of prayer to obtain grace, is admirably and exhaustively treated by Suarez, De Necessitate Gratiae, I, 23, sqq. Cfr. also Bellarmine, De Gratia et Libero Arbitrio, V, 7 sqq.

184 Comment. in Quatuor Libros Sent., III, dist.27, qu. unica: |Ratio recta docet, solum summum bonum infinitum esse summe diligendum et per consequens voluntas hoc potest ex puris naturalibus; nihil enim potest intellectus recte dictare, in quod dictatum non possit voluntas rationalis naturaliter tendere.|

185 Comment. in Summam Theol. S. Thomae Aqu., 2a 2ae, qu.171, art.2.

186 Comment. in Summam Theol. S. Thomae Aqu., 2a 2ae, qu.24, art.2.

187 De Natura et Gratia, I, 21.

188 Concord., qu.14, art.13, disp.14.

189 De Gratia, I, 33.

190 De Gratia et Libero Arbitrio, VI, 7: |Existimamus non posse Deum sine ope ipsius diligi neque ut auctorem naturae neque ut largitorem gratiae et gloriae, neque perfecte neque imperfecte ullo modo, ... quicquid aliqui minus considerate in hac parte scripserint.| On the attitude of St. Thomas (Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.109, art.3) cfr. Billuart, De Gratia, diss.3, art.4.

191 It is not true, as Bellarmine argues, that the amor Dei naturalis at its highest would result in justification.

192 Prop. Baii Damn., 34: |Distinctio illa duplicis amoris, naturalis videlicet, quo Deus amatur ut auctor naturae, et gratuiti, quo Deus amatur ut beatificator, vana est et commentitia.|
(Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1034). -- 36: |Amor naturalis, qui ex viribus naturae exoritur, ex sola philosophia per elationem praesumptionis humanae cum iniuria crucis Christi defenditur a nonnullis doctoribus.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1036.)

193 Cfr. Conc. Arausic. II, a.529, can.25: |Prorsus donum Dei est diligere Deum.|

194 Cfr. Conc. Trid., Sess. VI, can.3.

195 Praelect. Dogm., Vol. V, pp.73 sqq.

196 Instit. Theolog., Vol. III, pp.19 sqq.

197 Rom. I, 21.

198 Rom. I, 25.

199 In Epist. ad Roman., I, 18: |Potuerunt enim id per legem naturae apprehendere, fabrica mundi testificante auctorem Deum solum diligendum, quod Moyses literis tradidit; sed impii facti sunt non colendo Creatorem et iniustitia in eis apparet, dum videntes dissimulabant a veritate, non fatentes unum Deum.|

200 Comment. in Summam Theol. S. Thomae Aqu., 1a 2ae, disp.189 sq.

201 De Ente Supernaturali, disp.20.

202 Op. cit.

203 To admit the possibility of true actus humani that are neither good nor bad, but ethically indifferent, is to escape the error of Baius that |Free-will without the aid of divine grace avails for nothing but sin.| (Prop. Damn., 27.)

204 We should not, however, apply the ecclesiastical censures pronounced against Baius to the writings of Vasquez. This, as Schiffini convincingly shows (De Gratia Divina, pp.159 sqq.), would be an injustice.

205 Suarez, De Gratia, I, 8, 46: |... quia secundum Augustini et divi Thomae sententiam communis a theologis probatam non datur in voluntate libere operante actus indifferens in individuo, et ideo iuxta veram theologiam recte sequitur, si liberum arbitrium potest sine gratia non male operari, posse etiam bene.|

206 Supra, p.8.

207 |Qua vero parte inter dominantem cupiditatem et caritatem dominantem nulli ponuntur affectus medii, a natura ipsa insiti suapteque natura laudabiles ... falsa, alias damnata.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1524.)

208 De Ente Supernaturali, disp.20, sect.2: |Quotiescunque homo agit quod sibi datum est, ut actum virtutis naturalem efficiat, iam adesse antecedenter Deum auxilio intrinsece supernaturali gratiae, ... ita [ut] nullus sit conatus moraliter bonus naturae, quem aliqua gratia supernaturalis non praeveniat.|

209 This must be kept in mind in judging Ripalda's famous thesis: |Ad quodlibet bonum opus morale sive ad quemlibet virtutis moralis actum necessarium esse per se naturae rationali elevatae auxilium theologicum gratiae.| (Ibid., sect.3.)

210 He urges the supernatural character, in principle, of the present economy of salvation; the practical identity of the naturally good with the supernaturally salutary acts of the will, which he claims is taught in Sacred Scripture (cfr. Acts XIV, 14 sqq.; Rom. I, 19 sqq.), and also by St. Augustine and his disciples Prosper and Orosius; the merciful dispensation of grace towards heathens, unbelievers, and sinners (v. infra, Sect.3, Art.2); the universal belief of Christians in the salutary effects of all good works, including those of the purely natural order, etc. For a discussion of these arguments consult Palmieri, De Gratia Divina Actuali, pp.254 sqq.

211 Synopsis de Gratia, n.530.

212 Praelect. Dogmat., Vol. V, p.72.

213 De Virtute Fidei Divinae, disp.12, sect.2.

214 Instit. Theolog., Vol. III, pp.22 sq., 248 sqq.

215 De Gratia Div. Actuali, p.268: |Si tamen ad solos fideles coarctetur, quum nulla argumenta obstent et pro hac hypothesi maxime valeant rationes Ripaldae, eam censemus veram esse.|

216 V. supra, No.1.

217 Cfr. Mazzella, De Gratia Christi, disp.2, art.9.

218 V. supra, p.71.

219 |Fides late dicta ex testimonio creaturarum similive motivo ad iustificationem sufficit.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1173.)

220 Conc. Vat., Sess. III, De Fide, can.2: |Si quis dixerit, ... ad fidem divinam non requiri, ut revelata veritas propter auctoritatem Dei revelantis credatur, anathema sit.| On this whole dispute cfr. Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.156 sqq. The arguments adduced by the defenders of Ripalda's opinion can be studied in Palmieri, De Gratia Divina Actuali, pp.265 sqq. Cfr. also Scheeben, Dogmatik, Vol. III, pp.996 sqq. A difficulty arises from the twenty-second canon of the Second Council of Orange (A. D.529): |Nemo habet de suo nisi mendacium et peccatum.| But this canon was probably never approved by the Holy See. It is ably discussed by Gutberlet in his continuation of Heinrich's Dogmatische Theologie, Vol. VIII, § 415.

221 |Ex viribus suis [natura] coram Deo nihil nisi peccare potest.| (Solida Declar., I, § 22.) Cfr. J. A. Moehler, Symbolik, § 6-7 (English tr. by J. B. Robertson, Symbolism, 5th ed., London 1906, pp.54 sqq.)

222 Conc. Trid., Sess. VI, can.7: |Si quis dixerit, opera omnia, quae ante iustificationem fiunt, ... vere esse peccata, ... anathema sit.|

223 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural, pp.183 sqq., et passim.

224 A. D.1585-1638. Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, op. cit., pp.223 sqq.

225 On this important document (issued A. D.1713) see A. Schill, Die Konstitution Unigenitus, Freiburg 1876; Thuillier, La Seconde Phase du Jansenisme, Paris 1901; M. Ott, art. |Unigenitus| in Vol. XV of the Catholic Encyclopedia.

226 Prop. Damn., 38.

227 Prop. Damn., 44.

228 |Doctrina synodi de duplici amore enuntians, hominem sine gratia esse sub virtute peccati ipsumque in eo statu per generalem cupiditatis dominantis influxum omnes suas actiones inficere et corrumpere -- quatenus insinuat, in homine, dum est sub servitute sive in statu peccati, ... sic dominari cupiditatem ut per generalem huius influxum omnes illius actiones in se inficiantur et corrumpantur, aut opera omnia quae ante iustificationem fiunt, quacunque ratione fiant, sint peccata, quasi in omnibus suis actibus peccator serviat dominanti cupiditati: falsa, perniciosa, inducens in errorem a Tridentino damnatum ut haereticum, iterum in Baio damnatum art.40.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1523).

229 Prop. Damn., 59: |Oratio impiorum est novum peccatum, et quod Deus illis concedit, est novum in eos iudicium.|
(Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1409.)

230 This passage, and the meaning it evidently bears in the context of St. Matthew's Gospel, is thoroughly discussed by Suarez, De Gratia, I, 4. Cfr. also J. B. Faure, Notae in Enchiridion S. August., c.15. Other Scriptural texts distorted by the Jansenists are quoted and explained in their true sense by Scheeben, Dogmatik, Vol. III, pp.923 sqq.

231 Hom. in Is., 5, n.2.

232 |Scimus autem quia peccatores Deus non audit.|

233 Tract. in Ioa., 44, n.13: |Adhuc inunctus loquitur; nam et peccatores exaudit Deus. Si enim peccatores Deus non exaudiret, frustra ille publicanus oculos in terram demittens et pectus suum percutiens diceret: Domine, propitius esto mihi peccatori [Luc. XVIII, 13].|

234 Contr. Collat., n.36: |Naturae humanae, cuius creator est Deus, etiam post praevaricationem manet substantia, manet forma, manet vita et sensus et ratio ceteraque corporis et animi bona, quae etiam malis vitiosisque non desunt. Sed non illis veri boni perceptio est, quae mortalem vitam honestare possunt, aeternam conferre non possunt.| For additional Patristic texts in confirmation of our thesis see Ripalda, De Ente Supernaturali, t. III, disp.20, sect.4.

235 Enchiridion, c.117, n.31: |Regnat carnalis cupiditas, ubi non est Dei caritas.|

236 De Gratia Christi, c.26: |Ubi non est dilectio, nullum bonum opus imputatur, non recte bonum opus vocatur, quia omne quod non est ex fide peccatum est et fides per dilectionem operatur.|

237 De Gratia et Libero Arbitrio, c.18: |Praecepta dilectionis, i.e. caritatis, tanta et talia sunt, ut quidquid se putaverit homo facere bene, si fiat sine caritate, nullo modo fiat bene.|

238 Cfr. supra, p.29.

239 Proposit. Baii Damn., 38: |Omnis amor creaturae rationalis aut vitiosa est cupiditas qua mundus diligitur, quae a Ioanne prohibetur, aut laudabilis caritas qua per Spiritum Sanctum in corde diffusa Deus amatur.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1038.)

240 Prop. Quesnelli Damn., 45: |Amore Dei in corde peccatorum non amplius regnante necesse est, ut in eo carnalis regnet cupiditas omnesque actiones eius corrumpat.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1395.)

241 Infra, Ch. III, Sect.1.

242 Especially against Julian of Eclanum. Cfr. Contra Iulianum, IV, 3.

243 Matth. VI, 24.

244 Retract., I, 15: |Quando peccatum tale est, ut idem sit poena peccati, quantum est quod valet voluntas sub dominante cupiditate, nisi forte, si pia est, ut oret auxilium?|

245 Prop. Baii Damn., 40: |In omnibus suis actibus peccator servit dominanti cupiditati.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1040.)

246 De Spiritu et Litera, c.27, n.48: |Si hi qui naturaliter, quae legis sunt, faciunt, nondum sunt habendi in numero eorum quos Christi iustificat gratia [Rom. II, 24], sed in eorum potius, quorum (etiam impiorum nec Deum verum veraciter iusteque colentium) quaedam tamen facta vel legimus vel novimus vel audimus, quae secundum iustitiae regulam non solum vituperare non possumus, verum etiam merito recteque laudamus; quamquam si discutiantur, quo fine fiant, vix inveniuntur quae iustitiae debitam laudem defensionemve mereantur.|

247 Serm. de Temp., 349, c.1, 1 sq.: |Caritas alia est divina, alia humana; alia est humana licita, alia illicita.... Prius ergo loquor de humana licita, quae non reprehenditur; deinde de humana illicita, quae damnatur; tertio de divina, quae nos perducit ad regnum.... Licitam ergo caritatem habete; humana est, sed ut dixi licita, sed ita licita ut, si defuerit, reprehendatur. Liceat vobis humana caritate diligere coniuges, diligere filios, diligere amicos vestros, diligere cives vestros. Sed videtis istam caritatem esse posse et impiorum, i.e. paganorum, Iudaeorum, haereticorum. Quis enim eorum non amat uxorem, filios, fratres, vicinos, affines, amicos? Haec ergo humana est. Si ergo tali quisque crudelitate effertur, ut perdat etiam humanum dilectionis affectum, et non amat filios suos, ... nec inter homines numerandus est.| (Migne, P. L., XXXIX, 1529.)

248 Institutiones Theologicae, Vol. III, p.23.

249 As explained above, pp.71 sqq.

250 Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1524. On the teaching of St. Augustine, see J. Mausbach, Die Ethik des hl. Augustinus, Vol. II, pp.260 sqq., Freiburg 1909.

251 Cfr. supra, Art.1.

252 On these and similar formulas see Palmieri, De Gratia Divina Actuali, thes.22.

253 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural, pp.218 sqq.

254 For details of his life see J. Pohle, art. |Pelagius and Pelagianism| in Vol. XI of the Catholic Encyclopedia.

255 Impeccantia, {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}.

256 Cfr. St. Augustine, De Haeres. ad Quodvultdeum, n.88.

257 |Hoc est occultum et horrendum virus haeresis vestrae, ut velitis gratiam Christi in exemplo eius esse, non in dono eius, dicentes quia per eius imitationem fiunt iusti, non per subministrationem Spiritus Sancti.| (S. Aug., Opus Imperf. contr. Iulian., II, 146.)

258 On the regnum coelorum in contradistinction to vita aeterna, in the teaching of Pelagius, see St. Augustine, De Pecc. Mer. et Rem., I, 18 sqq.

259 V. infra, Sect.2.

260 V. supra, p.8.

261 e.g. Petavius, De Pelag. et Semipelag., c.8 sq.; Wirceburg., De Gratia, n.182; Palmieri, De Gratia Div. Actuali, pp.140 sqq.

262 Among them Suarez, Prolegom. de Gratia, c.3, and J. Scheeben, Dogmatik, Vol. III, pp.739 sq.

263 |Quicunque dixerit, ideo nobis gratiam iustificationis dari, ut quod facere per liberum iubemur arbitrium facilius possimus implere per gratiam, tamquam etsi gratia non daretur, non quidem facile, sed tamen possimus etiam sine illa implere divina mandata, anathema sit.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.105.)

264 |Si quis per naturae vigorem bonum aliquod, quod ad salutem pertinet vitae aeternae, cogitare ut expedit aut eligere sive salutari, i.e. evangelicae praedicationi consentire posse confirmat absque illuminatione et inspiratione Spiritus Sancti, qui dat omnibus suavitatem in consentiendo et credendo veritati, haeretico fallitur spiritu.| (Can.7, quoted by Denzinger-Bannwart, n.180.)

265 Sess. VI, can.2: |Si quis dixerit, ad hoc solum divinam gratiam per Iesum Christum dari, ut facilius homo iuste vivere ac vitam aeternam promereri possit, quasi per liberum arbitrium sine gratia utrumque, sed aegre tamen et difficulter possit, anathema sit.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.812.)

266 |Sicut palmes non potest ferre fructum a semetipso, nisi manserit in vite: sic nec vos, nisi in me manseritis. Ego sum vitis, vos palmites: qui manet in me, et ego in eo, hic fert fructum multum: quia sine me nihil potestis facere ({GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH DASIA AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER CHI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}).|

267 St. Augustine, Tract. in Ioa., 81, n.3: |Non ait, quia sine me parum potestis facere, sed nihil potestis facere. Sive ergo parum sive multum, sine illo fieri non potest, sine quo nihil fieri potest.|

268 Cfr. John XV, 3.

269 |Non quod sufficientes simus, cogitate aliquid a nobis quasi ex nobis, sed sufficientia nostra ex Deo est.| On this text cfr. Cornely, Comment. in h. l., Paris 1892.

270 |Moysi enim dicit: Miserebor cuius misereor et misericordiam praestabo cuius miserebor. Igitur non volentis neque currentis ({GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER CHI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}), sed miserentis est Dei.| (Rom. IX, 15 sq.)

271 |Deus est enim, qui operatur in vobis et velle et perficere ({GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}) pro bona voluntate.| (Phil. II, 13.)

272 |Nemo potest dicere: Dominus Iesus, nisi in Spiritu Sancto.| (1 Cor. XII, 3.)

273 Cfr. Matth. VII, 21; VIII, 29.

274 Others explain the passage 1 Cor. XII, 3 differently. Cfr. also Rom. VIII, 26; Phil. I, 6; Eph. II, 5 sqq.

275 De Gratia et Libero Arbitrio, c.4: |Talis est haeresis pelagiana, non antiqua, sed ante non multum tempus exorta.|

276 |Desinat, si res ita sunt, incessere novitas vetustatem.|

277 Adv. Haer., III, 17, 2: |Sicut arida terra, si non percipiat humorem, non fructificat, sic et nos lignum aridum existentes nunquam fructificaremus vitam sine superna voluntaria pluvia.... Non a nobis, sed a Deo est bonum salutis nostrae.|

278 |Legem credendi lex statuat supplicandi. Quum enim sanctarum plebium praesules madata sibi legatione fungantur apud divinam clementiam, humani generis agunt causam et tota secum Ecclesia congemiscente postulant et precantur, ut infidelibus donetur fides, ut idololatrae ab impietatis suae liberentur erroribus, ut Iudaeis ablato cordis velamine lux veritatis appareat, ut haeretici catholicae fidei perceptione resipiscant, ut schismatici spiritum redivivae caritatis accipiant, ut lapsis poenitentiae remedia conferantur, ut denique catechumenis ad regenerationis sacramenta perductis coelestis misericordiae aula reseretur.| (Migne, P. L., XLV, 1759.)

279 For additional Patristic texts see Palmieri, De Gratia Divina Actuali, thes.26.

280 Hom. in 1 Cor., 7.

281 De Civitate Dei, XII, 9: |Istam [bonam voluntatem] quis fecerat nisi ille, qui eos cum bona voluntate, i.e. cum amore casto quo illi adhaererent creavit, simul eis et condens naturam et largiens gratiam?... Confitendum est igitur cum debita laude Creatoris, non ad solos sanctos homines pertinere, verum etiam de sanctis angelis posse dici, quod caritas Dei diffusa sit in eis per Spiritum Sanctum, qui datus est eis.|

282 Enchiridion, c.106: |Sicut mori est in hominis potestate, quum velit, ... ad vitam vero tenendam voluntas non satis est, si adiutoria sive alimentorum sive quorumcunque tutaminum desint, sic homo in paradiso ad se occidendum relinquendo iustitiam idoneus erat per voluntatem; ut autem ab eo teneretur vita iustitiae, parum erat velle nisi ille, qui eum fecerat, adiuvaret.|

283 Can.19: |Natura humana, etiamsi in illa integritate in qua est condita permaneret, nullo modo seipsam, Creatore suo non adiuvante, servaret. Unde quum sine gratia Dei salutem non possit custodire quae accepit, quomodo sine Dei gratia poterit reparare quod perdidit?| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.192.) -- St. Augustine holds that our first parents would have been able to preserve the state of grace by the divine adiutorium sine quo non, and that consequently the adiutorium quo would have been superfluous to them. On this subtle question cfr. Pesch, Praelectiones Dogmaticae, Vol. V, pp.55 sqq., and Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.472 sqq.

284 Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.109, art.5: |Vita aeterna est finis excedens proportionem naturae humanae ... et ideo homo per sua naturalia non potest producere opera meritoria proportionata vitae aeternae; sed ad hoc exigitur altior virtus, quae est virtus gratiae. Et ideo sine gratia homo non potest mereri vitam aeternam. Potest tamen facere opera perducentia ad bonum aliquod homini connaturale, sicut laborare in agro, bibere, manducare et habere amicum et alia huiusmodi.|

285 For the necessary Augustinian citations in proof of this assertion see Palmieri, De Gratia Divina Actuali, pp.174 sqq.

286 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural, pp.186 sqq.

287 V. supra, pp.20.

288 V. supra, pp.26 sq.

289 V. supra, pp.69 sqq.

290 On the teaching of Scotus himself with regard to this point cfr. P. Minges, O.F.M., Die Gnadenlehre des Duns Scotus auf ihren angeblichen Pelagianismus und Semipelagianismus geprueft, Muenster 1906.

291 This is true of man even in the exalted state in which he existed in Paradise. It is true also of the angels. It is true even of the human nature of our Lord Jesus Christ Himself. Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, Christology, pp.221 sqq.

292 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural, pp.190 sqq.

293 Palmieri, De Gratia Divina Actuali, p.184.

294 Suarez, De Necessitate Gratiae, II, 4.

295 On the whole subject of this Article cfr. S. Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.227 sqq.; Rademacher, Natur und Gnade, M. Gladbach 1908.

296 Died 432. On his life and works see Bardenhewer-Shahan, Patrology, pp.515 sqq.

297 Reproduced in Migne, P. L., XLIX, 477-1328.

298 This contention is false, but it has never been proscribed as heretical. Prosper says in his Ep. 226, 5: |Tales aiunt perdi talesque [infantes] salvari, quales futures illos in annis maioribus, si ad activam servarentur vitam, scientia divina praeviderit.| On this absurd assertion see Pohle-Preuss, God: His Knowability, Essence, and Attributes, pp.380 sq.

299 De Praedest. Sanctorum, c.3, n.7: |... putans fidem, qua in Deum credimus, non esse donum Dei, sed a nobis esse in nobis et per illam nos impetrare Dei dona, quibus temperanter et iuste et pie vivamus in hoc saeculo.|

300 Cfr. Denzinger-Bannwart, Enchiridion, n.128 sqq.

301 Ernst (Werke und Tugenden der Unglaeubigen nach Augustinus, Freiburg 1871) contends that the approbation of Boniface II comprised all the canons of this synod.

302 Cfr. F. Woerter, Zur Dogmengeschichte des Semipelagianismus, Muenster 1900.

303 Conc. Arausic. II, can.5 (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.178): |Si quis sicut augmentum, ita etiam initium fidei ipsumque credulitatis affectum, quo in eum credimus qui iustificat impium et ad regenerationem sacri baptismatis pervenimus, non per gratiae donum, i.e. per inspirationem Spiritus S., ... sed naturaliter nobis inesse dicit, apostolicis dogmatibus adversarius approbatur.| Cfr. Conc. Vatican., Sess. III, cap.3. (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1791).

304 In his treatise De Praedestinatione Sanctorum.

305 In his work Adversus Collatorem.

306 Discernit, {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}.

307 Per fidem, {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}.

308 Non ex vobis, {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER XI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH DASIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}.

309 Dei donum, {GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}.

310 Non ex operibus, {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER XI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}.

311 Eph. II, 8 sq.

312 Cfr. Rom. III, 20 sqq., IX, 15 sqq.

313 John VI, 44: |Nemo potest venire ad me, nisi Pater, qui misit me, traxerit ({GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH YPOGEGRAMMENI}) eum.|

314 Opus Dei, {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI} {GREEK CAPITAL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI}.

315 Ep., 177: |Oratio est clarissima gratiae testificatio.|

316 Dial. c. Tryph.

317 De Dono Persev., c.19, n.50: |Isti tales tantique doctores dicentes non esse aliquid, de quo tamquam de nostro quod nobis Deus non dederit gloriemur nec ipsum cor nostrum et cogitationes nostras in potestate nostra esse, ... haec utique gratiae Dei tribuunt, Dei munera agnoscunt, ab ipso nobis, non a nobis esse testantur.| -- For additional Patristic texts see Palmieri, De Gratia Div. Act., pp.290 sqq.

318 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural, pp.239 sqq.

319 Hom. in Heb., 12, n.3.

320 V. infra, Ch. III, Sect.1.

321 De Praedest. Sanct., c.14: |Quid opus est ut eorum scrutemur opuscula, qui priusquam ista haeresis oriretur, non habuerunt necessitatem in hac difficili ad solvendum quaestione versari? Quod procul dubio facerent, si respondere talibus cogerentur. Unde factum est, ut de gratia Dei quid sentirent breviter quibusdam scriptorum suorum locis et transeunter attingerent.|

322 De Gratia Div. Act., p.288.

323 Cfr. Ripalda, De Ente Supernaturali, l. I, disp.17, sect.11.

324 Ep., 24 (to Maximilian, Patriarch of Constantinople): |Sequere priorum, a quibus eruditus es et nutritus, exempla pontificum, beatissimi Ioannis scientiam, sancti Attici in repugnandis haeresibus vigilantiam.|

325 Hom. in 1 Cor., XII, n.2.

326 Hom. in Ep. ad Hebr., XII, 2.

327 {GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH DASIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}, {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER CHI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}.

328 They are fully explained by Palmieri, l.c., pp.295 sqq.

329 Die Lehre von der Heiligung, p.161, Paderborn 1885.

330 V. supra, pp.19 sqq., 27 sq.

331 De Praedest. Sanct., c.2, p.5: |Attendant hic et verba perpendant, qui putant ex nobis esse fidei coeptum et ex Deo esse fidei supplementum. Quis enim non videat prius esse cogitare quam credere? Nullus quippe credit aliquid nisi prius cogitaverit esse credendum.... Quod ergo pertinet ad religionem atque pietatem, si non sumus idonei cogitare aliquid quasi ex nobismet ipsis, sed sufficientia nostra ex Deo est, profecto non sumus idonei credere aliquid quasi ex nobismet ipsis, quod sine cogitatione non possumus, sed sufficientia nostra, qua credere incipiamus, ex Deo est.| -- Cfr. also the seventh canon of the Second Council of Orange (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.180), and Suarez, De Fide, disp.6, sect.7 sq.; IDEM, De Gratia, III, 7.

332 Conc. Arausic. II, can.7.

333 Sess. VI, can.3: |Si quis dixerit, sine praeveniente Spiritus Sancti inspiratione atque eius adiutorio hominem credere, sperare, diligere aut poenitere posse, sicut oportet, ut ei iustificationis gratia conferatur, anathema sit.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.813.)

334 Supra, pp.87 sqq.

335 John XV, 5: |Sine me nihil potestis facere.|

336 Contra Duas Epistolas Pelag., II, 8: |Dominus ut responderet futuro Pelagio non ait: Sine me difficile potestis facere, sed ait: Sine me nihil potestis facere.... Non ait: sine me nihil potestis perficere, sed facere. Hoc uno verbo initium finemque comprehendit.|

337 Phil. II, 12 sq.: |Cum metu et tremore vestram salutem ({GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}) operamini; Deus est enim qui operatur in vobis et velle et perficere.|

338 Rom. XV, 13: |Deus autem spei repleat vos omni gaudio et pace in credendo ({GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH PERISPOMENI AND YPOGEGRAMMENI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}), ut abundetis in spe ({GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH PERISPOMENI AND YPOGEGRAMMENI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}) et virtute Spiritus Sancti.|

339 1 John IV, 7: |Caritas ex Deo est ({GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH DASIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI} {GREEK CAPITAL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}).| Cfr. also John VI, 44 sqq., which text is fully explained by Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.128 sqq.

340 Enchiridion, c.32: |Porro si nullus dicere Christianus audebit: Non miserentis est Dei, sed volentis est hominis, ne Apostolo apertissime contradicat, restat ut propterea dictum intelligatur (Rom. IX, 16): __Non volentis neque currentis, sed miserentis est Dei,__ ut totum Deo detur, qui hominis voluntatem bonam et praeparat adiuvandam et adiuvat praeparatam. Praecedit enim bona voluntas hominis multa Dei dona, sed non omnia; quae autem non praecedit ipsa, in iis est et ipsa. Nam utrumque legitur in sanctis eloquiis: et (Ps. LVIII, 11): __Misericordia eius praeveniet me,__ et (Ps. XXII, 6): __Misericordia eius subsequetur me.__ Nolentem praevenit, ut velit; volentem subsequitur, ne frustra velit. Cur enim admonemur orare pro inimicis nostris, utique nolentibus pie vivere, nisi ut Deus in illis operetur et velle? Itemque cur admonemur petere ut accipiamus, nisi ut ab illo fiat quod volumus, a quo factum est ut velimus? Oramus ergo pro inimicis nostris, ut misericordia Dei praeveniat eos, sicut praevenit et nos; oramus autem pro nobis, ut misericordia eius subsequatur nos.| On this important passage cfr. J. B. Faure, Notae in Enchiridion S. Augustini, c.32. Similar expressions will be found in Contra Duas Epist. Pelag., II, 9 and De Gratia et Lib. Arb., c.17.

341 Ep. ad Ctesiph., 133: |Velle et currere meum est, sed ipsum meum sine Dei semper auxilio non erit meum; dicit enim Apostolus (Phil. II, 13): __Deus est enim qui operatur in vobis et velle et perficere.__... Non mihi sufficit, quod semel donavit, nisi semper donaverit.|

342 Serm. de Pret. Marg.

343 Conc. Arausic. II. (A. D.529); |Hoc etiam salubriter profitemur et credimus, quod in omni opere bono non nos incipimus et postea per Dei misericordiam adiuvamur, sed ipse nobis nullis praecedentibus bonis meritis et fidem et amorem sui prius inspirat, ut et baptismi sacramenta fideliter requiramus et post baptismum cum ipsius adiutorio ea, quae sibi sunt placita, implere possimus.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.200.)

344 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural, pp.192 sqq.

345 Cfr. Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.132 sq.

346 Perrone, De Gratia, n.203: |Quaestio haec non ad scholasticas quaestiones pertinet, sed est dogma fidei ab Ecclesia definitum.|

347 Sess. VI, cap.16: |Quum enim ille ipse Christus Iesus tamquam caput in membra et tamquam vitis in palmites in ipsos iustificatos iugiter virtutem influat, quae virtus bona eorum opera semper antecedit et comitatur et subsequitur et sine qua nullo pacto Deo grata et meritoria esse possent, nihil ipsis iustificatis amplius deesse credendum est.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.809.) Cfr. Tepe, Institutiones Theologicae, Vol. III, pp.41 sqq., Paris 1896.

348 John XV, 5.

349 V. supra, pp.87 sq. Other pertinent Scriptural texts are: 2 Cor. III, 5; Phil. II, 12 sq.; III, 13 sq.; Heb. XIII, 21.

350 De Gratia et Lib. Arb., c.17: |Sine illo vel operante vel cooperante quum volumus ad bona pietatis opera nihil valemus.|

351 De Natura et Gratia, c.26: |Mala nostra non ad hoc solum medicus supernus sanat, ut illa iam non sint, sed ut de cetero recte ambulare possimus, quod quidem etiam sani nonnisi illo adiuvante poterimus.... Sicut oculus corporis etiam plenissime sanus, nisi candore lucis adiutus non potest cernere, sic et homo etiam perfectissime iustificatus, nisi aeternae luce iustitiae divinitus adiuvetur, recte non potest vivere.|

352 |Actiones nostras, quaesumus Domine, aspirando praeveni et adiuvando prosequere, ut cuncta nostra oratio et operatio a te semper incipiat et per te coepta finiatur.| (Missale Romanum.) The argument from Tradition is more fully developed by Palmieri, De Gratia Divina Actuali, thes.28.

353 Thus Molina (Concord., qu.14, art.13 disp.8), Bellarmine (De Gratia et Lib. Arb., VI, 15), and Thomassin; the question is well treated by Ruiz, De Providentia Divina, disp.41, sect.5 sq.

354 Cfr. Heinrich-Gutberlet, Dogmatische Theologie, Vol. VIII, § 399, Mainz 1897.

355 Cfr. Ripalda, De Ente Supernaturali, disp.106, sect.3 sqq.

356 Impeccantia, {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}.

357 |Item placuit ut quicunque ipsa verba dominicae orationis, ubi dicimus: Dimitte nobis debita nostra, ita volunt a sanctis dici, ut humiliter hoc, non veraciter dicatur, anathema sit.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.108.)

358 Sess. VI, can.23: |Si quis hominem semel iustificatum dixerit ... posse in tota vita peccata omnia etiam venialia vitare nisi ex speciali Dei privilegio, quemadmodum de beata virgine tenet Ecclesia, anathema sit.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.833.)

359 On this privilege of our Blessed Lady see Pohle-Preuss, Mariology, pp.72 sqq., St. Louis 1914.

360 Sess. VI, cap.11: |... quantumvis sancti et iusti in levia saltem et quotidiana, quae etiam venialia dicuntur, peccata quandoque cadunt.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.804.)

361 De Gratia Divina Actuali, p.236.

362 Epistle of St. James, III, 2: |In multis enim offendimus omnes ({GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}).|

363 1 John III, 6: |Omnis qui in eo [scil. Christo] manet, non peccat.|

364 {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PHI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}.

365 Matth. VI, 12. Cfr. Mark XI, 25.

366 Prov. XX, 9: |Quis potest dicere: Mundum est cor meum, purus sum a peccato?|

367 On this text cfr. J. V. Bainvel, Les Contresens Bibliques des Predicateurs, 2nd ed., pp.102 sq., Paris 1906: |... ces chutes sont surtout les souffrances, les tribulations. Le contexte l'indique clairement: {SINGLE LEFT-POINTING ANGLE QUOTATION MARK} N'attaquez pas le juste (15); car Dieu le defend, et s'il tombe il se relevera; mais pour l'impie c'est la ruine irreparable. {SINGLE RIGHT-POINTING ANGLE QUOTATION MARK} Peut-on, comme on le fait d'ordinaire, entendre le texte des chutes morales, des peches veniels? Plusieurs commentateurs repondent: non; et ils citent a l'appui saint Augustin: Septies cadet iustus et resurget, id est, quotiescumque cediderit, non peribit: quod non de iniquitatibus, sed de tribulationibus ad humilitatem perducentibus intelligi voluit (Civ. D. xi, 31). -- D'autres Peres, saint Jerome par exemple, sont moins exclusifs; et de fait, pourquoi la maxime, dans sa plenitude, ne comprendrait-elle pas toutes sortes de chutes, peches ou afflictions? En tout cas, c'est aller trop loin que de vouloir prouver par la la these catholique sur l'impossibilite morale d'eviter pendant longtemps tout peche de fragilite. L'ecrivain sacre veut dire autre chose, et nous avons des textes meilleures ...|

368 Eccles. VII, 21: |Non est enim homo iustus in terra, qui faciat bonum et non peccet.|

369 Ibid., v, 23: |Scit enim conscientia tua, quia et tu crebro maledixisti aliis.|

370 1 John I, 8: |Si dixerimus, quoniam peccatum non habemus, ipsi nos seducimus et veritas in nobis non est.|

371 E.g. 1 John I, 10, III, 4, III 8, et passim.

372 The Johannine text here under consideration does, however, furnish a telling argument against the Pelagians, in so far as they denied the necessity of the atonement. The passage is effectively employed for this purpose by the Second Council of Mileve (can.6, quoted in Denzinger-Bannwart's Enchiridion, n.106). Cfr. Chr. Pesch, Praelectiones Dogmaticae, Vol. V, 3rd ed., p.99 and Al. Wurm, Die Irrlehrer im ersten Johannesbrief, Freiburg 1903.

373 De Dono Perseverantiae, c.2, n.4: |Tria sunt, ut scitis, quae maxime adversus eos [scil. Pelagianos] defendit Ecclesia, quorum est unum, gratiam Dei non secundum merita nostra dari.... Alterum est, in quantacunque iustitia sine qualibuscunque peccatis in hoc corruptibili corpore neminem vivere. Tertium est, obnoxium nasci hominem peccato primi hominis.|

374 De Natura et Gratia, c.35, n.41: |Ubi parum attendit, quum sit acutissimus, non frustra etiam iustos in oratione dicere: Dimitte nobis debita nostra.... Etiamsi hic non vivatur sine peccato, licet mori sine peccato, dum subinde venia deletur, quod subinde ignorantia vel infirmitate committitur.|

375 Ibid., c.36. |Si omnes illos sanctos et sanctas, quum hic viverent, congregare possemus et interrogare, utrum essent sine peccato, ... nonne una voce clamassent: Si dixerimus quia peccatum non habemus, ipsi nos seducimus et veritas in nobis non est?| -- For other confirmatory Patristic texts see Suarez, De Gratia, IX, 8.

376 The above-quoted analogy is taken from Heinrich-Gutberlet, Dogmatische Theologie, Vol. VIII, p.81.

377 Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.109, art.8: |Non potest homo abstinere ab omni peccato veniali propter corruptionem inferioris appetitus sensualitatis, cuius motus singulos quidem ratio reprimere potest, et ex hoc habent rationem peccati et voluntarii, non autem omnes, quia dum uni resistere nititur, fortassis alius insurgit, et etiam quia ratio non potest semper esse pervigil ad huiusmodi motus vitandos.|

378 Sardagna (De Gratia, n.336) incorrectly asserts this.

379 Cfr. Tepe, Instit. Theolog., Vol. III. pp.47 sq.

380 Cfr. St. Augustine, Contra Iulian., IV, 3, 28: |Ideo factum est in loco infirmitatis, ne superbe viveremus, ut sub quotidiana peccatorum remissione vivamus.|

381 Andr. de Vega, De Iustificatione Doctrina Universa, 1. XIV, cap. ult.

382 Suarez, De Gratia, IX, 8, 14: |quia si vel in uno homine posset contingere, ut illa duo coniungerentur, scil. carere speciali privilegio et nihilominus cavere omne peccatum veniale per totam vitam, propositio Concilii esset simpliciter falsa; nam est absoluta et universalis, ad cuius falsitatem satis est quod in uno deficiat.|

383 Aug., Ep., 181, n.8: |Nemo itaque dicat, se esse sine peccato, sed non tamen ideo debemus amare peccatum. Oderimus ea, fratres; etsi non sumus sine peccatis, oderimus tamen ea, et maxime a criminibus nos abstineamus; abstineamus quantum possumus a levibus peccatis.| -- On the whole subject of this thesis cfr. Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.181 sqq.

384 V. supra, pp.98 sqq.

385 Conc. Arausic. II, can.10: |Adiutorium Dei etiam renatis ac sanctis semper est implorandum, ut ad finem bonum pervenire vel in bono possint opere perdurare.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.183.)

386 Sess. VI, can.22: |Si quis dixerit, iustificatum vel sine speciali auxilio Dei in accepta iustitia perseverare posse vel cum eo non posse, anathema sit.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.832.)

387 Sess. VI, cap.11: |Deus namque sua gratia semel iustificatos non deserit, nisi ab eis prius deseratur.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.804.)

388 Cfr. Wisd. IV, 11: |Raptus est, ne malitia mutaret intellectum eius.|

389 Sess. VI, can.16: |magnum illud usque in finem perseverantiae donum.| On St. Augustine's teaching in regard to the different heads of doctrine defined above, see Chr. Pesch, Praelectiones Dogmaticae, Vol. V, 3rd ed., pp.103 sqq.

390 John XVII, 11: |Pater sancte, serva eos in nomine tuo ({GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH PERISPOMENI AND YPOGEGRAMMENI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}), quos dedisti mihi, ut sint unum, sicut et nos.|

391 Col. IV, 12: |Salutat vos Epaphras ... semper sollicitus pro vobis in orationibus, ut stetis perfecti ({GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH DASIA AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}) et pleni in omni voluntate Dei.|

392 Matth. XXVI, 41: |Vigilate, et orate, ut non intretis in tentationem.|

393 Phil. I, 6: |... confidens hoc ipsum, quia qui coepit in vobis opus bonum, perficiet ({GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}) usque in diem Christi Iesu.|

394 1 Pet. I, 5: |...qui in virtute Dei custodimini per fidem in salutem, paratam revelari in tempore novissimo.| -- For Old Testament texts in confirmation of this thesis see Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.198 sq.

395 De Dono Perseverantiae. An English translation of this treatise may be found in The Anti-Pelagian Works of Saint Augustine, Bishop of Hippo, Translated by Peter Holmes and R. E. Wallis, Vol. III, pp.171 sqq. (Vol. XV of Dods' translation of the Works of St. Augustine), Edinburg 1876.

396 De Dono Perseverantiae, c.2, n.3: |Cur autem perseverantia ista poscitur a Deo, si non datur a Deo? An et ista irrisoria petitio est, quum id ab eo petitur quod scitur non ipsum dare, sed ipso non dante esse in hominis potestate?... An ab illo perseverantia ista forte non poscitur? Iam hoc qui dicit, non meis disputationibus refellendus, sed sanctorum orationibus onerandus est. An vero quisquam eorum est, qui non sibi poscat a Deo ut perseveret in eo, quum ipsa oratione quae dominica nuncupatur, quia eam Dominus docuit, quando oratur a sanctis, nihil paene aliud quam perseverantia posci intelligatur?|

397 Op. cit., c.7, n.15: |Prorsus in hac re non operosas disputationes exspectet Ecclesia, sed attendat quotidianas orationes suas. Orat ut increduli credant: Deus ergo convertit ad fidem. Orat ut credentes perseverent; Deus ergo donat perseverantiam usque in finem.|

398 Op. cit., c.23, n.63: |Quis enim veraciter gemat desiderans accipere quod orat a Domino, si hoc a seipso se sumere existimet, non ab illo?|

399 Op. cit., c.6, n.10: |Hoc Dei donum suppliciter emereri potest, sed quum datum fuerit, amitti contumaciter non potest.|

400 Op. cit., c.16, n.39: |... quum constet Deum alia danda etiam non orantibus, sicut initium fidei, alia nonnisi orantibus praeparasse, sicut in finem perseverantiam, profecto qui ex se ipso se hanc habere putat, non orat ut habeat.|

401 De Ente Supernaturali, disp.94, sect.2.

402 Suarez, De Gratia, XII, 38: |Infallibilitas non convenit merito de congruo ratione sui, ut ita dicam, sed ratione impetrationis quae propriae soli orationi, ut talis est, respondet. Ratio est, quia haec infallibilitas solum fundatur in promissione divina, quae non invenitur facta operibus iustorum quatenus meritoriis de congruo, sed tantum orationi; quare ut fructus huius meriti certior sit, adiungenda semper est petitio perseverantiae.|

403 John XVI, 23.

404 Cfr. Suarez, De Gratia, XII, 38, n.14: |... quia ut oratio habeat perseverantiam debitam, perdurare debet cum illis circumstantiis moralibus, quas a principio habere etiam debuit, ut congrue fieret; unde eo ipso quod novum impedimentum ponitur [peccando] effectui orationis, deficit perseverantia in orando, saltem debito modo.|

405 Ibid., n.17: |Igitur perseverantia orationis in tali materia requisita est, ut non semel tantum aut iterum fiat, set ut toto tempore vitae duret, et praesertim ut in occurrentibus occasionibus servandi mandata aut vincendi tentationes cum debita fiducia repetatur.| -- For more detailed information we must refer the reader to Palmieri, De Gratia Divina Actuali, thes.36, n. vi sqq. The theological argument for our thesis is convincingly set forth by Gutberlet in Heinrich's Dogmatische Theologie, Vol. VIII, § 404. The donum perseverantiae must not be confounded with the confirmatio in gratia; on this point see Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.197 sqq.

406 V. supra, pp.7 sq.

407 Cfr. St. Thomas, Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.114, art.1: |Meritum et merces ad idem referuntur. Id enim merces dicitur quod alicui recompensatur pro retributione operis vel laboris quasi quoddam pretium ipsius. Unde sicut reddere iustum pretium pro re accepta ab aliquo est actus iustitiae, ita etiam recompensare mercedem operis vel laboris est actus iustitiae.| Cfr. Taparelli, Saggio Teoretico del Diritto Naturale, diss.1, c.6, n.130, Palermo 1842.

408 |This word is scarcely used in modern English, except as expressing that punishment which is fully deserved, a usage originating with the Tudor Parliaments; but it was once commonly used in the language in a wider sense, for whatever had been justly earned, and some attempts to revive it have been made in recent times; certainly some word is wanted to express the idea.| (Hunter, Outlines of Dogmatic Theology, Vol. III, pp.58 sq.) Cfr. Dr. Murray's New English Dictionary, Vol. II, p.784, Oxford 1893.

409 Eck did not, however, approve the term meritum de condigno; he preferred meritum digni. Cfr. J. Greving, Johann Eck als junger Gelehrter, pp.153 sqq., Muenster 1906.

410 Cfr. St. Augustine, In Ps., 86: |Debitorem Deus ipse fecit se, non accipiendo, sed promittendo.| On this point consult Pohle-Preuss, God: His Knowability, Essence, and Attributes, pp.455 sqq.

411 Oratio, preces.

412 Capacitas, dispositio.

413 Vasquez, Comment. in S. Theol. S. Thomae Aquin., 1a 2ae, disp.216, c.4.

414 Already in the fourth century the Church emphasized the proposition |Gratiam Christi non secundum merita dari| against Pelagius.

415 Cfr. St. Augustine, Ep. 194 ad Sixt., n.19: __Vita etiam aeterna, quam certum est bonis operibus debitam reddi, ab Apostolo tamen gratia nuncupatur, nec ideo quia meritis non datur, sed quia data sunt ipsa merita, quibus datur.__ The dogma was formally defined by the Council of Trent: |... cuius tanta est erga omnes homines bonitas, ut eorum velit esse merita, quae sunt ipsius dona.| (Sess. VI, cap.16, quoted in Denzinger-Bannwart's Enchiridion, n.809.)

416 For further information on this point see Palmieri, De Gratia Divina Actuali, thes.35.

417 V. supra, pp.83 sqq.

418 |Gratiam Dei secundum merita nostra dari.|

419 |Debetur merces bonis operibus, si fiant; sed gratia quae non debetur praecedit, ut fiant.| (Arausic. II, can.18; see Denzinger-Bannwart, n.191.)

420 |... ipsius iustificationis exordium in adultis a Dei per Christum Iesum praeveniente gratia sumendum esse, h. e. ab eius vocatione, qua nullis eorum existentibus meritis vocantur.| (Sess. VI, cap.5. Denzinger-Bannwart, n.797.)

421 Rom. IX, 16: |Igitur non volentis neque currentis, sed miserentis est Dei.|

422 Rom. IX, 18: |Ergo cuius vult miseretur et quem vult indurat ({GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI AND PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK KORONIS} {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}.|)

423 Rom. XI, 6: |Si autem gratia, iam non ex operibus ({GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER XI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}), alioquin gratia iam non est gratia.|

424 Eph. II, 8-10: |Gratia enim estis salvati per fidem et hoc non ex vobis: Dei enim donum est, non ex operibus, ut ne quis glorietur. Ipsius enim sumus factura ({GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}), creati in Christo Iesu in operibus bonis, quae praeparavit Deus, ut in illis ambulemus.|

425 E.g., 2 Cor. V, 14; Gal. III, 22; 2 Tim. I, 9; Tit. III, 5; 1 Pet. I, 3; 1 John IV, 10.

426 Tract, in Ioa., 86: |Gratia non invenit, sed efficit merita.|

427 Serm., 169, c.2: __Gratia praecessit meritum tuum, non gratia ex merito, sed meritum ex gratia. Nam si gratia ex merito, emisti non gratis accepisti.__ Other Patristic texts quoted by Ripalda, De Ente Supernaturali, disp.15 sqq.

428 V. supra, pp.50 sqq.

429 For a more extensive treatment of this important point the reader is referred to Heinrich-Gutberlet, Dogmatische Theologie, Vol. VIII, § 418, Mainz 1897.

430 V. supra, p.98.

431 Can.20: |Multa Deus facit in homine bona, quae non facit homo; nulla vero facit homo bona, quae non Deus praestat, ut faciat homo.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.193.)

432 |Sed ipse [Deus] nobis nullis praecedentibus bonis meritis [scil. naturalibus] et fidem et amorem sui prius inspirat.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.200.)

433 Matth. XXV, 15: |Et uni dedit quinque talenta, alii autem duo, alii vero unum, unicuique secundum propriam virtutem ({GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH DASIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH YPOGEGRAMMENI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}).|

434 Cfr. Maldonatus' commentary on this text.

435 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural, p.326.

436 De Praedest. Sanct., 3, 10, 31: |Nihil huic sensui tam contrarium est quam de suis meritis sic quemquam gloriari, tamquam ipse sibi ea fecerit, non Dei gratia, sed gratia quae bonos discernit a malis, non quae communis est bonis et malis.|

437 De Peccato Orig., c.24, n.28: |Non enim gratia Dei erit ullo modo, nisi gratuita fuerit omni modo.|

438 Cyril of Jerusalem (Catech., I, 17), Athanasius (C. Gent., n.30), Basil (Epist., 294: |Divinum auxilium in nostra situm est potestate|), Gregory of Nazianzus (Or., 31), and especially Chrysostom (Hom. in Gen., 12; Hom. in Epist. ad Rom., 2).

439 Hom. in Epist. ad Ephes., 4.

440 Hom. in 1 Epist. ad Cor., 12. Cfr. Palmieri, De Gratia Divina Actuali, thes.33.

441 Cfr. St. Thomas, Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.114, art.5: |Donum gratiae considerari potest dupliciter. Uno modo secundum rationem gratuiti doni, et sic manifestum est quod omne meritum repugnat gratiae, quia ut Rom. XI, 9 Apostolus dicit: __Si autem gratia, iam non ex operibus.__ Altero modo potest considerari secundum naturam ipsius rei, quae donatur, et sic etiam non potest cadere sub merito non habentis gratiam, tum quia excedit proportionem naturae, tum etiam quia ante gratiam in statu peccati homo habet impedimentum promerendi gratiam, scil. ipsum peccatum. Postquam autem aliquis iam habet gratiam, non potest gratia iam habita sub merito cadere, quia merces est terminus operis, gratia autem est principium cuiuslibet boni operis in nobis.| This is equally true of the meritum de condigno and the meritum de congruo.

442 John XVI, 24: |Petite et accipietis.|

443 V. supra, theses I and II.

444 |Si quis ad invocationem humanam [i.e. naturalem] gratiam Dei dicit posse conferri, non autem ipsam gratiam facere, ut invocetur a nobis, contradicit Isaiae prophetae vel Apostolo idem dicenti: Inventus sum a non quaerentibus me, palam apparui his, qui me non interrogabant.| (Can.3, Denzinger-Bannwart, n.176.)

445 Rom. VIII, 26: |Quid oremus, sicut oportet, nescimus, sed ipse Spiritus postulat [postulare facit] pro nobis gemitibus inenarrabilibus.|

446 1 Cor. XII, 3: |Nemo potest dicere Dominus Deus, nisi in Spiritu sancto.|

447 John XV, 7: |Si manseritis in me et verba mea in vobis manserint, quodcunque volueritis, petetis et fiet vobis.|

448 De Dono Perseverantiae, 23, n.63 sq.: |Quis veraciter gemat, desiderans accipere quod orat a Domino, si hoc a se ipso sumere existimet, non ab illo?... Ubi intelligimus et hoc ipsum esse donum Dei, ut veraci corde et spiritualiter clamemus ad Deum. Attendant ergo, quomodo falluntur, qui putant esse a nobis, non dari nobis ut petamus, quaeramus, pulsemus, etc.|

449 Cfr. Palmieri, De Gratia Divina Actuali, thes.32.

450 On this difficult question consult Ruiz, De Provid., disp.18, sect.3. and De Lugo, De Fide, disp.12, sec.3.

451 De Praedest. Sanct., c.12.

452 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural, pp.226 sqq.

453 Op. cit., pp.228 sq.

454 Further information on this head infra, Part II, Ch. III.

455 Cfr. Pesch, Praelect. Dogmat., Vol. V, 3rd ed., pp.117 sqq.

456 A titre de curiosite we may note the opinion of Ripalda (De Ente Supernat., disp.17, sect.1) and Vasquez (Comment. in S. Theol., 1a, disp.91, c.10) that some pre-Tridentine theologians ascribed to nature the ability of positively disposing itself for actual graces and thereby, though in perfect good faith, entertained Semipelagian views. Even St. Thomas has been accused of conceding too much to Semipelagianism in two of his earlier works (Comment. in Quatuor Libros Sent., II, dist.28, qu.1, art.4, and De Veritate, qu.14, art.11), though his teaching in the Summa is admittedly orthodox. On the extremely doubtful character of such a summary indictment see Palmieri, De Gratia Divina Actuali, thes.34; Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.495 sqq., 542 sqq.; Glossner, Die Lehre des hl. Thomas von der Gnade, Mainz 1871.

457 Vasquez, Comment. in S. Theol., 1a, disp.91, c.10-11.

458 Dogmatik, Vol. II, pp.191 sq., Ratisbon 1874.

459 De Auxil., III, 2, 3.

460 De Gratia Effic., c.10.

461 Disproved historically by Palmieri.

462 Cfr. Pesch, Praelect. Dogmat., Vol. V, 3rd ed., pp.119 sqq.

463 Cfr. St. Augustine, De Praedest. Sanct., c.15.

464 Cfr. St. Augustine, Tract. in Ioa., 36, n.4: |Venit Christus, sed primo salvare, postea iudicare, eos iudicando in poenam, qui salvari noluerunt, eos perducendo ad vitam, qui credendo salutem non respuerunt.|

465 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, Soteriology, pp.75 sqq., St. Louis 1914.

466 Sess. VI, can.17: |Si quis iustificationis gratiam nonnisi praedestinatis ad vitam contingere dixerit, reliquos vero omnes qui vocantur, vocari quidem, sed gratiam non accipere, utpote divina potestate praedestinatos ad malum, anathema sit.|
(Denzinger-Bannwart, n.827.)

467 Prop.5, apud Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1096. Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, Soteriology, p.76.

468 |Qui propter nos homines et propter nostram salutem descendit de coelis.| (Credo).

469 V. infra, Thesis II.

470 {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH DASIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}.

471 Among them was one of our Lord's own chosen Apostles.

472 Wisd. XI, 24 sqq.: |Sed misereris omnium, quia omnia potes, et dissimulas peccata hominum propter poenitentiam. Diligis enim omnia quae sunt et nihil odisti eorum quae fecisti.... Parcis autem omnibus, quoniam tua sunt, Domine, qui amas animas.|

473 1 Tim. II, 1 sqq.: |Obsecro igitur primum omnium fieri obsecrationes, orationes, postulationes, gratiarum actiones pro omnibus hominibus ({GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH DASIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}).... Hoc enim bonum est et acceptum coram Salvatore nostro Deo, qui omnes homines vult salvos fieri ({GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH DASIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}) et ad agnitionem veritatis venire: unus enim Deus ({GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO} {GREEK CAPITAL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}), unus et mediator ({GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}) Dei et hominum homo Christus Iesus, qui dedit redemptionem semetipsum pro omnibus ({GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH DASIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}).|

474 |Unus enim Deus.| Cfr. Rom. III, 29 sq., X, 12.

475 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, Soteriology, pp.77 sqq.

476 Cfr. Matth. XVIII, 11; 2 Cor. V, 15. That God's will to redeem mankind is universal has been proved in Soteriology, pp.77 sqq.

477 Cfr. on this text Estius, Comment. in Epist. S. Pauli, h. l.

478 In his work De Partitione Voluntatis Divinae in Primam et Secundam, Rome 1851.

479 In Ps., 39, n.20: |Ille omnes suos vult esse, quos condidit et creavit. Utinam tu homo non fugias et te abscondas! Ille etiam fugientes requirit et absconditos non vult perire.|

480 Orat., 33, n.9.

481 Resp. ad Capitula Gallor., c.2: |Sincerissime credendum est, Deum velle ut omnes homines salvi fiant, siquidem Apostolus sollicite praecipit, ut Deo pro omnibus supplicetur.|

482 Op. cit., c.8: |... qui et omnes vult salvos fieri et ad agnitionem veritatis venire, ... ut et qui salvantur ideo salvi sint, quia illos voluit Deus salvos fieri, et qui pereunt, ideo pereant, quia perire meruerunt.|

483 For further information on this subject consult Ruiz, De Voluntate Dei, disp.19 sqq.; Petavius, De Deo, X, 4 sq.

484 De Spiritu et Litera, c.33, n.58: |Vult Deus omnes homines salvos fieri et ad agnitionem veritatis venire; non sic tamen ut iis adimat liberum arbitrium, quo vel bene vel male utentes iustissime iudicentur.|

485 Enchiridion, c.103.

486 Contra Iulian., IV, 8, 42: |Nemo salvatur nisi volente Deo.|

487 De Corrept. et Gratia, c.15, n.47: |Omnes homines vult Deus salvos fieri, quoniam nos facit velle, sicut misit Spiritum Filii sui clamantem: Abba, pater, i.e. nos clamare facientem.|

488 Confessiones, XII, 17 sqq.

489 Faure has proved this in his Notae in Enchiridion S. Augustini, c.103, Naples 1847, pp.195 sqq.

490 Summa Theol., 1a, qu.19, art.6, ad 1. On Augustine's teaching see Franzelin, De Deo Uno, thes.51 sq., and, less favorably, Bardenhewer-Shahan, Patrology, pp.498 sqq., Freiburg 1908.

491 E.g. Arrubal (Comment. in S. Theol., 1a, disp.91, c.3 sq.) and Kilber (Theol. Wirceburg., De Deo, disp.4, c.2, art.3).

492 Cfr. Albertus a Bulsano, Theol. Dogmat., ed. Graun, Vol. II, p.141, Innsbruck 1894.

493 Cfr. Bellarmine, De Gratia et Libero Arbitrio, II, 12: |... haec responsio non videtur digna Chritianis, qui providentiam Dei erga homines ex sacris literis et ecclesiastica traditione didicerunt. Nam si non cadit passer in terram sine Patre nostro, qui in coelis est, quanto magis nos apud Deum pluris sumus illis?|

494 |Definimus illorum animas, qui in actuali mortali peccato vel solo originali decedunt, mox in infernum descendere.| (Decret. Unionis, quoted by Denzinger-Bannwart, n.693.)

495 Cfr. Pallavicini, Hist. Conc. Trid., IX, 8.

496 It occurs in his commentary on the Summa, 3a, qu.68, art.2, 11.

497 Cfr. Heinrich-Gutberlet, Dogmatische Theologie, Vol. VIII, p.295, Mainz 1897.

498 On the probable fate of unbaptized infants cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural, pp.300 sqq.

499 Thesis II.

500 Quoted supra, p.156.

501 Quoted supra, p.157.

502 On the whole question consult Franzelin, De Deo Uno, thes.53, 3rd ed., Rome 1883.

503 On the notion and existence of sufficient grace see supra, Ch. I, Sect.2, No.6.

504 Conc. Trident., Sess. VI, can.18: |Si quis dixerit, Dei praecepta homini etiam iustificato et sub gratia constituto esse ad observandum impossibilia, anathema sit.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.828). Cfr. Sess. VI, cap.11 (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.804).

505 |Aliqua Dei praecepta hominibus iustis volentibus et conantibus secundum praesentes, quas habent vires, sunt impossibilia: deest quoque illis gratia, qua possibilia fiant.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1092.)

506 On the distinction between gratia proxime sufficiens and gratia remote sufficiens, cfr. supra, pp.43 sq.

507 1 John V, 3 sq.: |Haec est caritas Dei, ut mandata eius custodiamus et mandata eius gravia non sunt ({GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH DASIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER BETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}): quoniam omne quod natum est ex Deo [= iustus] vincit mundum.|

508 Matth. XI, 30.

509 1 Cor. X, 13: |Fidelis autem Deus est, qui non patietur vos tentari supra id quod potestis ({GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH DASIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH DASIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}), sed faciet etiam cum tentatione proventum ({GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER BETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}), ut possitis sustinere.|

510 V. supra, pp.65 sq.

511 1 Cor. X, 12: |Itaque qui se existimat stare, videat ne cadat.|

512 V. infra, Thesis II. Cfr. also Ecclus. II, 11 sqq.; John VI, 37; 2 Pet I, 10 sq.

513 |Gratiam non omnibus dari.|

514 Migne, P. L., XVII, 1073 sqq. Cfr. Bardenhewer-Shahan, Patrology, p.515.

515 Benignitas Dei generalis -- specialis Dei misericordia.

516 |Deo autem placuit et hanc [gratiam efficacem] multis tribuere et illam [sufficientem] a nemine submovere, ut ex utraque appareat, non negatum universitati, quod collatum est portioni.| (De Vocatione Omnium Gentium, II, 25.) For further information on the doctrinal character of this work see Fr. Woerter, Zur Dogmengeschichte des Semipelagianismus, Muenster 1900.

517 Chrysostom, Hom. in Matth., 82, n.3.

518 Augustine, Serm., 296: |Plus ausus erat, quam eius capacitas sustinebat.|

519 Matth. XXVI, 41: |Watch ye and pray that ye enter not into temptation.|

520 Lib. de Unitate Ecclesiae, 9: |Quis dubitaverit quod Iudas Christum, si voluisset, non utique tradidisset, et Petrus, si voluisset, ter Dominum non negasset?|

521 John VI, 40.

522 Cfr. Conc. Trident., Sess. VI, can.19-21.

523 Cfr. Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.573 sqq.

524 Cfr.1 Cor. X, 13.

525 1 John V, 3 sq.

526 Cfr.1 John II, 16.

527 De Natura et Gratia, c.43, n.50: |Deus impossibilia non iubet, sed iubendo admonet, et facere quod possis et petere quod non possis.|

528 For an explanation of certain difficult passages bearing on this point in the writings of St. Augustine, see Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.531 sqq.

529 V. supra, pp.104 sq.

530 Ez. XXXIII, 11: |Vivo ego, dicit Dominus Deus, nolo mortem impii, sed ut convertatur impius a via sua et vivat. Convertimini, convertimini a viis vestris pessimis.|

531 2 Pet. III, 9: |Non tardat Dominus promissionem suam, sicut quidam existimant, sed patienter agit ({GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PERISPOMENI}) propter vos, nolens aliquos perire, sed omnes ad poenitentiam reverti ({GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER BETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}, {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER CHI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}).|

532 Cfr. Is. V, 20.

533 According to Ruiz (De Praedest., disp.39, sect.1), there are but very few divines (valde pauci) who hold this view.

534 Wisd. XII, 10.

535 Rom. II, 4 sq.: |An divitias bonitatis eius et patientiae et longanimitatis contemnis? Ignoras quoniam benignitas Dei ad poenitentiam ({GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}) te adducit? Secundum autem duritiem ({GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}) tuam et impoenitens cor ({GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}) thesaurizas tibi iram in die irae et revelationis iusti iudicii Dei, qui reddet unicuique secundum opera eius.| Cfr. Prov. I, 20 sqq.

536 Ex. VII, 3: |Ego indurabo cor eius.|

537 Ex. IX, 12: |Induravitque Dominus cor Pharaonis, etc.|

538 Ex. VIII, 15.

539 For the solution of other difficulties see Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.529 sq.

540 St. Augustine, Enarr. in Ps., VI, n.8: |Dedit illos in reprobum sensum (Rom. I, 28); nam ea est caecitas mentis. In eam quisquis datus fuerit, ab interiore Dei luce secluditur, sed nondum penitus, quum in hac vita est. Sunt enim tenebrae exteriores, quae magis ad diem iudicii pertinere intelliguntur, ut penitus extra Deum sit, quisquis, dum tempus est, corrigi noluerit.|

541 St. Augustine, Retractationes, 419: |De quocunque quamvis pessimo homine hac in vita constituto non est desperandum.|

542 Tract. in Ioa., XII, 39. Similarly ibid., LIII, n.6. For a complete exposition of St. Augustine's teaching on this point consult Dechamps, De Haeresi Ianseniana, III, 6 sqq., and Palmieri, De Gratia Divina Actuali, thes.40.

543 Cfr. St. Thomas, De Veritate, qu.24, art.11: |Haec est obstinatio imperfecta, qua aliquis potest esse obstinatus in statu viae, dum scilicet habet aliquis ita firmatam voluntatem in peccato, quod non surgunt motus ad bonum nisi debiles. Quia tamen aliqui surgunt, ex iis datur via, ut praeparentur ad gratiam.|

544 Conc. Lateran. IV (1215), cap. |Firmiter|: |Et si post susceptionem baptismi quisquam prolapsus fuerit in peccatum, per veram potest semper poenitentiam reparari.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.430.)

545 Cfr. Conc. Trid., Sess. VI, cap.14; Sess. XIV, cap.1.

546 |Pagani, Iudaei, haeretici aliique huius generis nullum omnino accipiunt a Iesu Christo influxum, adeoque hinc recte inferes, in illis esse voluntatem nudam et inermem sine omni gratia sufficienti.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1295.)

547 |Extra ecclesiam nulla conceditur gratia.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1379.)

548 Rom. II, 6 sqq.

549 Rom. II, 10 sq.: |Gloria autem et honor et pax omni operanti bonum, Iudaeo primum et Graeco ({GREEK CAPITAL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}=pagano); non enim est acceptio personarum ({GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PSI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}) apud Deum.|

550 {GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}, {GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}.

551 Cfr.1 Tim. II, 1 sqq.; John I, 9.

552 Ep. ad Corinth., 1, 7.

553 {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PERISPOMENI AND YPOGEGRAMMENI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PERISPOMENI AND YPOGEGRAMMENI}.

554 {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI} {GREEK CAPITAL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI}.

555 Hom. in Ioa., VIII, 1.

556 II, c.31.

557 De Arbitrii Libertate, n.19: |... quotidie per tempora, per dies, per momenta, per {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA} et cunctis et singulis.|

558 Heb. XI, 6.

559 |Initium, fundamentum et radix omnis iustificationis.| Sess. VI, cap.8, apud Denzinger-Bannwart, n.801.

560 |Fides late dicta, ex testimonio creaturarum similive motivo, ad iustificationem sufficit.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1173.)

561 |... fides, qua Dei aspirante et adiuvante gratia ab eo revelata vera esse credimus, non propter intrinsecam rerum veritatem naturali rationis lumine perspectam, sed propter auctoritatem ipsius Dei revelantis, qui nec falli nec fallere potest.| (Sess. III, cap.3; Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1789.)

562 |Quoniam vero sine fide impossible est placere Deo, ... ideo nemini unquam sine illa contigit iustificatio.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1793.)

563 Rom. X, 17.

564 Cfr. Acts X, 1 sqq.

565 Card. Toletus, Comment. in S. Th., I, qu.1, art.1.

566 Cfr. St. Thomas, De Verit., qu.14, art.11, ad 1: |Hoc ad divinam providentiam pertinet, ut cuilibet provideat de necessariis ad salutem, dummodo ex parte eius non impediatur. Si enim aliquis taliter (in silvis vel inter bruta animalia) nutritus ductum naturalis rationis sequeretur in appetitu boni et fuga mali, certissime est tenendum quod ei Deus vel per internam inspirationem revelaret ea, quae sunt ad credendum necessaria, vel aliquem fidei praedicatorem ad eum dirigeret, sicut misit Petrum ad Cornelium.|

567 Gotti, De Fide, qu.2, dub.4, § 1: |Sententia negans fidem explicitam Christi et Trinitatis esse ita necessariam, ut sine ea nemo iustificari vel salvari queat, valde probabilis est. Eam enim videtur docere S. Thomas tum 2 -- 2 p., qu.10, art.4, tum 3 p., qu.69, art.4, ubi de Cornelio Centurione ait: Ante baptismum Cornelius et alii similes consequuntur gratiam et virtutes per fidem Christi et desiderium baptismi implicite vel explicite.|

568 Cfr. Fr. Schmid, Die ausserordentlichen Heilswege fuer die gefallene Menschheit, pp.225 sqq., Brixen 1899.

569 A. Fischer, De Salute Infidelium, Essen 1886; Heinrich-Gutberlet, Dogmatische Theologie, Vol. VIII, pp.491 sqq. On their teaching see P. Minges, O. F. M., Compendium Theologiae Dogmaticae Generalis, pp.270 sqq., Munich 1902.

570 With regard to certain other controversies on this subject consult Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.535 sqq., and Tepe, Instit. Theol., Vol. III, pp.109 sqq., Paris 1896.

571 See Articles 1 and 2, supra.

572 Conc. Trid., Sess. VI, cap.12: |Arcanum divinae praedestinationis mysterium.|

573 De Dono Perseverantiae, n.21: |Ex duobus parvulis originali peccato pariter obstrictis cur iste assumatur, ille relinquatur et ex duobus aetate iam grandibus impiis, cur iste ita vocetur ut vocantem sequatur, ille autem aut non vocetur [praedicatione fidei] aut non ita vocetur, inscrutabilia sunt iudicia Dei.| On this mysterious dispensation see Scheeben, Die Mysterien des Christentums, § 99-103, 3rd ed., Freiburg 1912, and Palmieri, De Gratia Divina Actuali, thes.62.

574 Eph. I, 3 sqq., and in other passages.

575 De Dono Persev., c.10, n.19: |Praedestinatio est gratiae praeparatio, gratia vero iam ipsa donatio.|

576 V. infra, pp.199 sqq.

577 De Dono Persev., c.14, n.35: |Praedestinatio nihil est aliud quam praescientia et praeparatio beneficiorum Dei, quibus certissime liberantur [scil. salvantur] quicunque liberantur.|

578 S. Theol., 1a, qu.23, art.2: |Praedestinatio est praeparatio gratiae in praesenti et gloriae in futuro.| On the Biblical, the Patristic, and the theological use of the term, see Chr. Pesch, Praelect. Dogmat., Vol. II, 3rd ed., pp.189 sqq., Freiburg 1906.

579 The Tridentine Council presupposes it as an unquestioned dogma (Sess. VI, cap.12).

580 Rom. VIII, 28 sqq.; |Scimus autem quoniam diligentibus Deum omnia cooperantur in bonum, iis qui secundum propositum vocati sunt sancti ({GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}). Nam quos praescivit, et praedestinavit conformes fieri imaginis Filii sui, ut sit ipse primogenitus in multis fratribus; quos autem praedestinavit, hos et vocavit; et quos vocavit, hos et iustificavit: quos autem iustificavit, illos et glorificavit.|

581 Cfr. Eph. I, 4-11.

582 De Praedestinatione Sanctorum, c.25: |Praedestinationis huius fidem, quae contra novos haereticos nova nunc solicitudine defenditur, nunquam Ecclesia Christi non habuit.|

583 Resp. ad Obiect. Gallor., 1: |Praedestinationem Dei nullus Catholicus negat.|

584 Ep. ad Rufin.: |Praedestinationem tam impium est negare quam ipsi gratiae contraire.|

585 De Correptione et Gratia, c.7, n.14: |Horum si quisquam perit, fallitur Deus; sed nemo eorum perit, quia non fallitur Deus.| On the question how this infallible foreknowledge is compatible with the dogma of free-will, see Pohle-Preuss, God, His Knowability, Essence, and Attributes, pp.364 sqq.

586 Cfr. Apoc. XVII, 8: |Liber vitae, {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER BETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER BETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ZETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}.| Cfr. St. Augustine, De Civ. Dei, XX, 13: |Praescientia Dei, quae non potest falli, liber vitae est.|

587 Luke X, 20: |Gaudete quod nomina vestra scripta sunt in coelis.|

588 Cfr.2 Pet. I, 10: |Satagite, ut per bona opera certam ({GREEK SMALL LETTER BETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER BETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}) vestram vocationem et electionem faciatis.|

589 Apoc. III, 5: |Non delebo nomen eius de libro vitae.| Cfr. Ex. XXXII, 32; Ps. LXVIII, 29.

590 On the liber vitae, cfr. St. Thomas, S. Theol., 1a, qu.24, art.1-3; and Heinrich-Gutberlet, Dogmatische Theologie, Vol. VIII, § 435.

591 De Corrept. et Grat., c.13: |... quorum ita certus est numerus, ut nec addatur eis quisquam nec minuatur ex eis.|

592 S. Theol., 1a, qu.23, art.7: |De numero omnium praedestinatorum hominum quis sit, dicunt quidam quod tot ex hominibus salvabuntur, quot angeli ceciderunt; quidam vero, quod tot ex hominibus salvabuntur, quot angeli remanserunt; quidam vero, quod tot ex hominibus salvabuntur, quot angeli ceciderunt et insuper tot quot fuerunt angeli creati. Sed melius dicitur quod soli Deo est cognitus numerus electorum in superna felicitate locandus, ut habet collecta pro vivis et defunctis.|

593 De Bono Viduitatis, n.28: |Quasi propter aliud retardetur hoc saeculum, nisi ut impleatur praedestinatus numerus ille sanctorum, quo citius impleto profecto nec terminus saeculi differetur.|

594 Dieringer, Epistelbuch, |Fest Allerheiligen.|

595 S. Theol., 1a, qu.23, art.7, ad 3: |Pauciores sunt qui salvantur.|

596 Cfr. Heinrich-Gutberlet, Dogmat. Theol., Vol. VIII, pp.363 sqq., and W. Schneider, Das andere Leben, 9th ed., pp.476 sqq., Paderborn 1908.

597 Le Rigorisme, le Nombre des Elus et la Doctrine du Salut, 2nd ed., Bruxelles 1899.

598 De Paucitate Salvandorum quid Docuerunt Sancti, 3d ed., Bruxelles 1899.

599 Cfr.1 Tim. IV, 10: {GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}, {GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}. This opinion is convincingly defended by the Spanish theologian Gener (Theol. Dogmat. Scholast., II, 342 sqq., Rome 1767.) Timid souls may profitably ponder what Thomas a Kempis says in the Imitation, I, 25.

600 Gener, Theol. Dogmat. Scholast., II, 342: |... ne dici possit cum dedecore et iniuria divinae maiestatis et clementiae, maius esse imperium daemonis quam Christi.|

601 Lect. in Ep. ad Rom., VIII, 6: |Unde ponere quod aliquod meritum ex parte nostra praesupponatur, cuius praescientia sit ratio [scil. motivum] praedestinationis, nihil est aliud quam supponere gratiam dari ex meritis nostris [scil. naturalibus].| V. supra, Ch. II, Sect.2.

602 |Gratiam Dei secundum merita dari.|

603 De Dono Perseverant., n.53: |Quid autem coegit loca Scripturarum, quibus praedestinatio commendata est, copiosius et enucleatius isto nostro labore defendi, nisi quod Pelagiani dicunt, gratiam Dei secundum merita nostra [naturalia] dari?|

604 Charles Du Plessis d'Argentre (d.1740), after a careful study of all Scholastic works written between 1120 and 1708, concluded: |Veteres Scholastici de causa praedestinationis omnino considerate et ad gratiam et ad gloriam praecipue agebant. Idea nolebant eam esse ex praevisis meritis, quia gratia, quae in ea includitur, non datur nec proin praedestinatur ob praevisa merita.| (De Praedest., c.10, § 1).

605 V. infra, Part II, Ch. III, Sect.3.

606 E.g., Banez, Alvarez, Lemos, Gonet, Contenson, Goudin.

607 E.g., Berti and Norisius.

608 E.g., Suarez, Ruiz, De Lugo, Bellarmine.

609 |Nisi breviati fuissent dies illi, non fieret salva omnis caro, sed propter electos ({GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}) breviabuntur dies illi.... Surgent enim pseudochristi, ... ita ut in errorem inducantur, si fieri potest, etiam electi.|

610 Cfr. Col. III, 12; 1 Pet. I, 1.

611 |Non volentis neque currentis, sed miserentis est Dei ... Cuius vult miseretur, et quem vult indurat.| On the meaning of this text v. supra, pp.137, 177.

612 Cfr. Franzelin, De Deo Uno, thes.65; Heinrich-Gutberlet, Dogmat. Theol., Vol. VIII, pp.345 sqq.; Chr. Pesch, Prael. Dogmat., Vol. II, 3rd ed., pp.212 sqq., Freiburg 1906; Val. Weber, Kritische Geschichte der Exegese des 9. Kapitels des Roemerbriefes, Wuerzburg 1889.

613 Die Lehre von der Heiligung, p.242, 3rd ed., Paderborn 1885.

614 E.g., Petrus de Comitibus, O. S. A. (De Praedest. et Reprobat., disp.3, art.4 sqq.), Tricassinus (De Praedest.), and the Jesuits Lessius, Gregory of Valentia, Franzelin, and Schrader.

615 De Deo Uno, p.677: |Si vero dissensus esset manifestus, ut prudenter [cum ceteris patribus] conciliari non posset, tum sane non dubitarem, cum Pighio, Catharino, Osorio, Camerario, Maldonato, Toleto, Petavio, reverenter ab Augustino discedere, quum haec non posset esse nisi privata eius sententia.|

616 De Praedest., qu.4.

617 Comment. in S. Theol. S. Thomae Aqu., I, qu.23, art.5, conclus.2.

618 De Deo, X, col.9.

619 A careful analysis of the Augustinian texts bearing on this question will be found in the Theol. Wirceburg., De Deo Uno, n.231 sqq., and Franzelin, De Deo Uno, thes.53.

620 Cfr. Heinrich-Gutberlet, Dogmat. Theologie, Vol. VIII, pp.351 sqq.

621 Clypeus Thomist., De Praedest., disp.2, § 2, n.26: |Qui ordinate vult, prius vult finem quam media ad finem. Sed Deus ordinate vult. Ergo prius vult finem quam media ad illum. Atqui gloria est finis et merita sunt media ad illum conducentia. Ergo prius vult gloriam quam merita, et consequenter electio ad gloriam non potest esse ex praevisione meritorum.|

622 Cfr. Heinrich-Gutberlet, Dogmat. Theol., Vol. VIII, p.330.

623 V. Art.4, No.2, infra. The opposite opinion is defended by Billuart De Deo, diss.9, art.4, § 3 (ed. Lequette, p.386).

624 Orth. Praed., c.1, n.7: |Deus primo praeparavit dona gratiae ac deinde eos, quos praevidebat bene usuros eiusmodi donis, elegit ad vitam aeternam.|

625 |... sententiam illam antiquitate, suavitate ac Scripturarum nativa auctoritate nobilissimam de praedestinatione ad gloriam post praevisa merita semper ut Dei misericordiae ac gratiae magis consentaneam, veriorem ac amabiliorem existimavi.| (Cfr. Traite de l'Amour de Dieu, III, 5).

626 V. supra, pp.153 sqq.

627 V. supra, No.4.

628 2 Tim. IV, 7 sq.: |Bonum certamen certavi, cursum consummavi, fidem servavi; in reliquo reposita est ({GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}=praeparata ab aeterno) mihi corona iustitiae, quam reddet ({GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}) mihi Dominus in illa die, iustus index.| Cfr.1 Cor. IX, 24 sqq.; Apoc. II, 7, 26.

629 Matth. XXV, 34 sqq.: |Venite, benedicti Patris mei, possidete paratum vobis regnum a constitutione mundi.|

630 De Deo, ed. Lequette, p.391.

631 For instance, John VIII, 44; 1 John III, 8; Acts XIII, 10.

632 Cfr. Tepe, Inst. Theol., Vol. III, pp.289 sqq., Paris 1896; Heinrich-Gutberlet, Dogmat. Theol., Vol. VIII, § 430.

633 Lessius, Antapol., prop.8: |Tenent hanc sententiam omnes Patres Graeci, adeo ut communiter dicatur esse sententia Graecorum.|

634 Hom. in Matth., 80, n.2: |Haereditate possidete regnum quasi proprium, quasi paternum et vestrum, iam olim vobis debitum; priusquam enim existeretis, haec vobis parata erant et disposita, quia ego vos tales futuros esse praescivi.|

635 In Rom., VIII, 29 (Migne, P. G., LXXXII, 142): |Non simpliciter praedestinavit, sed quum praescivisset, praedestinavit.|

636 In Ps., 64, n.5: |Multi vocati sunt, sed pauci electi.... Itaque non res indiscreti iudicii est electio, sed ex meriti delectu facta discretio est.|

637 De Fide, V, 6, 83: |Unde et Apostolus ait: quos praescivit, et praedestinavit (Rom. VIII, 29); non enim ante praedestinavit quam praescivit, sed quorum merita praescivit, eorum praemia praedestinavit.| Cfr. Franzelin, De Deo Uno, thes.59; Lessius, De Praedest. et Reprob., sect.2, n.7 sqq.

638 De Gratia, II, 11.

639 Cfr. O. Rottmanner, O. S. B., Der Augustinismus, Muenchen 1892; O. Pfuelf, S. J., |Zur Praedestinationslehre des hl. Augustinus| in the Innsbruck Zeitschrift fuer kath. Theologie, 1893, pp.483 sqq.

640 V. supra, pp.200 sqq., 216 sqq.

641 Cfr. Franzelin, De Deo Uno, thes.64.

642 Comment. in IV Libros Sent., 1, dist.41: |Eligatur [ea sententia] quae magis placet, dum tamen salvetur libertas divina sine aliqua iniustitia et alia quae salvanda sunt circa Deum.|

643 Many Scholastic utterances bearing on this subject have been collected by Lessius, De Praedest. et Reprob., sect.2, n.7 (Opusc. II, pp.208 sqq., Paris 1878).

644 Comment. in Quatuor Libros Sent., 1, dist.41, qu.1.

645 Comment. in Quatuor Libros Sent., 1, dist.41, art.2.

646 S. Theol., 1a, qu.23, disp.3, art.4.

647 In his treatise De Praedestinatione, dedicated to the Council of Trent.

648 De Deo, disp.9, art.3.

649 De Praedest. et Reprob., Paris edition of the Opuscula, 1878, p.412: |... privilegia eius omnem modum superant et ad nullum alium sunt extendenda.|

650 Sent., 1, dist.40: |... est praescientia iniquitatis quorundam et praeparatio damnationis eorumdem.|

651 Supra, Art.3, No.4.

652 Calvin's teaching in his Inst., l. III, c.21, 24. On Arminianism see J. F. Loughlin in the Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. I, pp.740 sqq.

653 |Aliquos vero ad malum divina potestate praedestinatos esse non solum non credimus, sed etiam, si sunt qui tantum malum credere velint, cum omni detestatione illis anathema dicimus.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.200.)

654 Sess. VI, can.17: |Si quis iustificationis gratiam nonnisi praedestinatis ad vitam contingere dixerit, reliquos vero omnes qui vocantur, vocari quidem, sed gratiam non accipere, utpote divina potestate praedestinatos ad malum, anathema sit.|
(Denzinger-Bannwart, n.827.)

655 V. supra, Art.1.

656 V. supra, Art.2, Thesis II.

657 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God: His Knowability, Essence, and Attributes, pp.251 sqq.

658 V. supra, pp.201 sqq.

659 1 Pet. II, 7 sq.: |Non credentibus autem [Christus] ... lapis offensionis ... qui offendunt verbo nec credunt, in quo ({GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}) et positi sunt.|

660 |In hoc positi, i.e. praedestinati sunt, ut non credant.|

661 |And he shall be a sanctification to you. But for a stone of stumbling and for a rock of offense to the two houses of Israel, for a snare and a ruin to the inhabitants of Jerusalem.|

662 |And whosoever shall fall on this stone, shall be broken: but on whomsoever it shall fall, it shall grind him to powder.|

663 Cfr. Oecumen., in h. l.: |Ad quod positi sunt, non dicitur, quasi a Deo ad hoc essent destinati; nulla enim causa perditionis ministratur ab eo, qui omnes homines vult salvos fieri.|

664 Contr. Iulian., III, 18, 35: |Bonus est Deus, iustus est Deus: potest aliquos sine bonis meritis liberare, quia bonus est; non potest quemquam sine malis meritis damnare, quia iustus est.|

665 Resp. ad XII Object. Vincent.: |Voluntate exierunt, voluntate ceciderunt, et quia praesciti sunt casuri, non sunt praedestinati; essent autem praedestinati, si essent reversuri et in sanctitate remansuri, ac per hoc praedestinatio Dei multis est causa standi, nemini est causa labendi.|

666 Ad Monim., l. I. Cfr. Petavius, De Deo, X, 7 sqq.

667 Clypeus Thomist., Vol. II, tr.5, disp.5, art.2, n.23.

668 Cfr. Limbourg, S. J., in the Innsbruck Zeitschrift fuer kath. Theologie, 1879, pp.203 sqq.

669 Cfr. Suarez, De Praedest., V, 4 sqq.

670 Conc. Trident., Sess. V, can.5.

671 Which explains why both theories have the same defenders. V. supra, Art.3, No.4.

672 Banez, Alvarez, Gonet.

673 |Deus non serio vult, sed vellet salvare etiam reprobos, nisi per hoc impediretur pulchritudo universi.|

674 V. supra, Art.1 and 2.

675 De Praedest., V, 8, 8: |Non est in potestate hominis, cum non-electione seu cum non-praedestinatione aut, quod idem est, cum reprobatione negativa actu ponere seu componere suam aeternam salutem.| Cfr. Franzelin, De Deo Uno, p.583, 3rd ed., Rome 1888.

676 |Deus ex omnibus hominibus, quos infectos originali peccato praevidit, efficaciter ex meritis Christi venturi quosdam elegit ad gloriam, et alios in poenam eiusdem originalis peccati et ad ostensionem suae iustitiae erga illos et maioris misericordiae erga electos voluit permittere, ut deficerent a consecutione gloriae seu positive eis non voluit gloriam.... Ex vi huius intentionis efficacis excogitavit media apta ad consecutionem talis finis, et videns in aliquibus hominibus esse aptum medium in solo originali peccato eos relinquere, in aliis vero permittere, ut cadant in haec vel illa peccata actualia ac in illis perseverent, has permissiones per subsequentem electionem approbavit. Et tandem ... per actum imperii sui intellectus haec media ad praedictum finem ordinavit.| Clyp. Thomist., Vol. II, disp.5, art.4, n.155.

677 De Reprob., c.3, n.6.

678 De Praedest., V, 7, 14: |Electio ad finem est ratio dandi media efficacia seu infallibilia ad illum; ergo negatio illius electionis erit suo modo ratio non dandi media, quae cognoscuntur congrua et infallibilia ad illum finem consequendum.|

679 2 Pet. III, 9: |... nolens aliquos perire, sed omnes ad poenitentiam reverti.|

680 De Praedest., sect.2, n.13: |Secundum communem aestimationem hominum paria videntur, Deum velle ut pereas et nolle te ponere in electorum suorum numero neque gratiam congruam et perseverantiam dare; aeque enim infallibiliter ex huiusmodi decretis sequeretur damnatio. Et si alterutrum horum decretorum esset subeundum, quivis censeret sibi esse indifferens, utrum eligatur, quum utrumque ante praevisionem operum sit conceptum.| The teaching of St. Augustine and that of St. Thomas on this point is in dispute. See Chr. Pesch, Praelect. Dogmat., Vol. II, 3rd ed., pp.230 sqq., and Heinrich-Gutberlet, Dogmatische Theol., Vol. VIII, § 433.

681 In his treatise De Servo Arbitrio.

682 Cfr. Denifle, Luther und Luthertum in der ersten Entwicklung, Vol. I, Mainz 1904.

683 Instit. Christ. Religionis, l. II.

684 Cfr. Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.378 sqq.

685 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural, pp.291 sqq.

686 Sess. VI, can.4: |Si quis dixerit, liberum hominis arbitrium a Deo motum et excitatum nihil cooperari assentiendo Deo vocanti ... neque posse dissentire, si velit, sed velut inanime quoddam nihil omnino agere mereque passive se habere, anathema sit.|
(Denzinger-Bannwart, n.814.)

687 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, op. cit. (note 5), pp.295 sq.

688 In support of this contention Jansenius quoted St. Augustine, In Gal., n.49: |Quod amplius nos delectat, secundum id operemur necesse est.|

689 J. Forget in the Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. VIII, pp.288 sqq. On Jansenism see Hergenroether, Kirchengeschichte, 4th ed., ed. by J. P. Kirsch, Vol. III, pp.386 sqq., 466 sqq., Freiburg 1909.

690 Sess. VI, cap.5: |Unde in sacris literis quum dicitur: __Convertimini ad me et ego convertar ad vos,__ libertatis nostrae admonemur; quum respondemus: __Converte nos, Domine, ad te et convertemur,__ Dei nos gratia praeveniri confitemur.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.797.) Cfr. Oswald, Die Lehre von der Heiligung, 3rd ed., pp.186 sq.

691 Zach. I, 3.

692 Jer. XXXI, 21.

693 Rom. IX, 19: |Voluntati enim eius quis resistit?|

694 1 Tim. IV, 7: |Exerce autem teipsum ({GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ZETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}) ad pietatem.|

695 Acts VII, 51: |Vos semper Spiritui Sancto resistitis ({GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}), sicut patres vestri, ita et vos.|

696 Matth. XIX, 17: |Si autem vis ad vitam ingredi, serva mandata.| Cfr. Apoc. IV, 20: |Ecce sto ad ostium et pulso; si quis audierit vocem meam et aperuerit mihi ianuam, intrabo ad illum.|

697 Cfr. the Scriptural argument for the existence of sufficient grace, supra, pp.45 sq.

698 V. supra, pp.102 sq., 141 sq.

699 Instit., l. II, c.3, sect.10: |Voluntatem movet [gratia Christi], non qualiter multis saeculis traditum est et creditum, ut nostrae postea sit electionis, motioni aut obtemperare aut refragari, sed illam efficaciter afficiendo. Illud ergo toties a Chrysostomo repetitum repudiari necesse est: __Quem trahit, volentem trahit.__| Many Patristic texts of similar tenor have been gathered and explained by Cardinal Bellarmine in his treatise De Gratia et Libero Arbitrio, VI, 11.

700 Cfr. De Gratia Christi, c.47: |Ista quaestio, ubi de arbitrio voluntatis et Dei gratia disputatur, ita est ad discernendum difficilis, ut quando defenditur liberum arbitrium, negari Dei gratia videatur; quando autem asseritur Dei gratia, liberum arbitrium putetur auferri.|

701 De Corrept. et Gratia, XII, 38: |Subventum est infirmitati voluntatis humanae, ut divina gratia indeclinabiliter et insuperabiliter ageretur.|

702 Cfr. his Sermones, 163, c.11, n.13: |Totum ex Deo, non tamen quasi dormientes, non quasi ut non conemur, non quasi ut non velimus. Sine voluntate tua non erit in te iustitia Dei. Voluntas quidem non est nisi tua, iustitia non est nisi Dei.... Sine te fecit te Deus. Non enim adhibuisti aliquem consensum, ut te faceret Deus. Quomodo consentiebas, qui non eras? Qui ergo fecit te sine te, non te iustificat sine te. Ergo fecit nescientem, iustificat volentem. Tamen ipse iustificat, ne sit iustitia tua.|

703 De Spiritu et Litera, c.34: |Consentire vocationi Dei vel ab ipsa dissentire propriae voluntatis est.|

704 Ep., 157, 2, 10: |Neque enim voluntatis arbitrium ideo tollitur, quia iuvatur; sed ideo iuvatur, quia non tollitur.| (Migne, P. L., XXXIII, 677).

705 De Gratia et Libero Arbitrio, I, 2: |Tolle liberum arbitrium et non erit, quod salvetur; tolle gratiam et non erit, unde salvetur.| On other difficult passages in the writings of St. Augustine cfr. Mausbach, Die Ethik des hl. Augustinus, Vol. II, pp.208 sqq., Freiburg 1909.

706 Cfr. Banez, Comment. in S. Theol., 1 p., qu.14, art.13: |Nulla secunda causa potest operari, nisi sit efficaciter determinata a prima.|

707 Cfr. Billuart, De Deo, diss.8, art.4: |Movet nempe Deus non solum ad substantiam actus, sed etiam ad modum eius, qui est libertas.|

708 Cfr. Alvarez, De Auxiliis, disp.83, n.9: |Quando agens infinitae virtutis movet aliquod subiectum, tale subiectum infallibiliter movetur, quid tunc resistentia passi non superat nec adaequat virtutem agentis. Sed Deus est agens infinitae virtutis. Ergo motio Dei efficax respectu cuiuscumque hominis in quibuslibet circumstantiis positi erit medium congruum et aptum, ut infallibiliter inducat effectum, ad quem ex Dei intentione datur.|

709 Cfr. Billuart, De Deo, diss.8, art.5: |Restat ergo tertia sententia, scilicet Deum praemovere physice ad entitatem peccati et sic se effecturum definivisse decreto positivo et effectivo; operatur enim omnia secundum consilium voluntatis suae.|

710 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural, pp.73 sqq.

711 Cfr. De Lemos, Acta Congr. de Aux., p.1065: |Illa praepositio 'prae' nihil aliud denotat aut denotare potest quam Deum esse priorem et primam causam, prius natura et causalitate moventem, applicantem, inclinantem et determinantem voluntatem, quam ipsa voluntas se determinet.|

712 Cfr. Gonet, Clypeus Theol. Thomist., disp.11, art.5: |Haec divina motio in creatura recepta a Thomistis __physica__ appellatur, ... quia ex propria essentia et ab intrinseco est efficax, independenter a quocumque creato consensu.|

713 Cfr. Graveson, Epist. Theol. Polem., t. I, ep.11: |Voluntas creata priusquam se determinet, a Deo debet determinari, quia scil. indifferens sit eaque indifferentia non solvatur quam per praeviam Dei motionem.| Cfr. Alvarez, De Auxiliis, disp.28: |Liberum arbitrium, quia creatum est, licet determinet sibi actum, illum tamen determinat praedeterminatum a Deo.|

714 Cfr. Reginald., De Novit. Antiquit. Nominis Praedeterm. Phys., l. II, c.36: |Quum Deus hanc motionem det causis sciens et volens atque adeo cum [aeterna] cognitione et intentione certa cuiusdam determinati effectus, alias haec essent a casu respectu Dei: consequitur illam praemotionem physicam esse praedeterminationem.|

715 Cfr. Nazarius, Comment. in S. Theol. S. Thom., 1 p., qu.22, art.4: |Sublata a Deo physicae praemotionis efficacitate nulla relinquitur alia in Deo sufficiens causalitas respectu determinationis liberorum actuum et consequenter neque in Deo esse poterit talium praescientia futurorum.| See also Pohle-Preuss, God: His Knowability, Essence, and Attributes, pp.383 sqq., 400 sqq.

716 Cfr. Contenson, Theol. Mentis et Cordis, l. VIII, diss.2, specul.3: |Generalem praemotionem ideo solum adstruimus, ut per eam ad gratiam per se efficacem uberius fortiusque stabiliendam viam muniamus ad eamque propugnandam serviat etiam philosophia.|

717 Cfr. Alvarez, De Auxiliis, disp.92, n.6: |Repugnant ad invicem auxilium efficax ad consentiendum et actualis dissensus.|

718 Cfr. Alvarez, op. cit., disp.122, n.16: |Efficacia auxilii praevenientis gratiae et connexio eius infallibilis cum libera cooperatione arbitrii tota fundatur et desumitur, tamquam ex prima radice, ex omnipotentia Dei atque ex absoluto et efficaci decreto voluntatis eius volentis, ut homo quem movet convertatur et pie operetur, nec huiusmodi efficacia ullo modo dependet etiam, tamquam a conditione sine qua non, ex futura cooperatione arbitrii creati.|

719 Cfr. Alvarez, op. cit., disp.19, n.7: |Praedictum auxilium actuale determinat liberum arbitrium ad unam numero actionem, non subditur libero arbitrio quantum ad usum.|

720 Cfr. Graveson, Epist. Theol. Polem., t. I, ep.1: |Gratia thomistice sufficiens ita ex natura sua essentialiter distinguitur a gratia thomistice efficaci, ut numquam et in nullo casu gratia thomistice sufficiens evadere possit gratia efficax thomistice nec umquam ponatur actus secundus, nisi accesserit gratia efficax thomistice.|

721 Prael. Theol., disp.5, c.6: |In gratia sufficiente totum id continetur quod ad potentiam bene operandi exigitur, non autem totum id quod ulterius requiritur ad actum; certum est enim in omni causa agente aliquid plus ad actum quam ad potentiam requiri.|

722 Panoplia, t. IV, p.2, tr.3, c.2: |Auxilium sufficiens ita sufficientiam tribuit ad operandum, si homo velit, quod defectus operationis nullo modo provenit ex insufficientia aliqua ipsius auxilii, sed tantum ex defectu arbitrii, quod ei resistit et impedimentum ponit.|

723 Cfr. Limbourg, S. J., |Selbstzeichnung der thomistischen Gnadenlehre| in the Innsbruck Zeitschrift fuer kath. Theologie, 1877.

724 Billuart, De Deo, diss.8, art.4. § 3.

725 Cfr. Banez, Comment. in S. Theol. S. Thom., 1 p., qu.14, art.13, concl.14: |Nam voluntas creata infallibiliter deficiet circa quamcumque materiam virtutis, nisi efficaciter determinetur a divina voluntate ad bene operandum.|

726 Other evasions are treated by Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.400 sqq. On the true notion of merely sufficient grace, v. Ch. I, Sect.2, No.6, supra.

727 The Molinists also regard supernatural grace as a praemotio physica; cfr. Chr. Pesch, Praelect. Dogmat., Vol. V, 3rd ed., pp.145 sq., Freiburg 1908.

728 Gonet, Clypeus Theol. Thomist., disp.9, art 5, § 3.

729 Cfr. Alvarez, De Auxiliis, disp.22, n.39: |Solus Deus propter suam infinitatem et omnipotentiam, quia est auctor voluntatis creatae, potest illam immutare conformiter ad suam naturam et movere efficaciter atque applicare ad producendum actum in particulari, non solum secundum substantiam, sed etiam secundum modum libertatis, quod tamen non potest alia causa creata.|

730 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God: His Knowability, Essence, and Attributes, pp.282 sqq.

731 Alvarez, De Auxiliis, disp.22, n.19: |Nam tamdiu manet libertas in voluntate, quamdiu intellectus illi repraesentat obiectum cum indifferentia.|

732 De Deo, diss.8, art.4, § 2.

733 De Auxiliis, disp.92, n.11: |Etiam posito auxilio efficaci in voluntate componitur cum illo potentia ad dissentiendum, quamvis nulla sit potentia ad coniungendum actualem dissensum cum auxilio efficaci [not: cum actuali consensu].|]

734 Sess. VI, cap.5: |Homo ... inspirationem illam [gratiam efficacem] recipiens ... illam et abiicere potest.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.797). Sess. VI, can.4: |Si quis dixerit, liberum hominis arbitrium a Deo motum et excitatum nihil cooperari assentiendo Deo excitanti atque vocanti, quo ad obtinendam iustificationis gratiam se disponat ac praeparet, neque posse dissentire, si velit, sed velut inanime quoddam nihil omnino agere mereque passive se habere, anathema sit.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.814.)

735 Thus Alvarez, De Auxiliis, disp.93, art.1: |Nunc autem dicimus Concilium Tridentinum ... numquam usum fuisse verbo illo __resistere,__ sed verbo __dissentire__ et
____[abiicere],____ ut insinuaret non esse idem formaliter resistere seu posse resistere auxilio efficaci et posse dissentire seu abiicere gratiam vocationis.... Unde licet arbitrium motum auxilio efficaci ad consentiendum possit dissentire, si velit, non tamen potest Deo resistere vel auxilio eius efficaci, secundum quod est instrumentum voluntatis divinae.|

736 Sess. III, cap.3: |Quare fides ipsa in se, etiamsi per caritatem non operetur, donum Dei est et actus eius est opus ad salutem pertinens, quo homo liberam praestet ipsi Deo obedientiam, gratiae eius cui resistere possit consentiendo et cooperando.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1791.)

737 Cfr. Tepe, Instit. Theol., Vol. III, pp.74 sqq., Paris 1896; Chr. Pesch, Praelect. Dogmat., Vol. V, 3rd ed., pp.140 sqq., Freiburg 1908; Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.405 sqq., Freiburg 1901. On the teaching of St. Augustine see Palmieri, De Gratia Divina Actuali, thes.50; on that of St. Thomas, L. de San, S. J., De Deo Uno, t. I: De Mente S. Thomae circa Praedeterminationes Physicas, Louvain 1894.

738 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God: His Knowability, Essence, and Attributes, pp.383 sqq., 400 sqq.

739 |Quidquid entitatis reperitur in quocumque actu peccati, etiamsi alias sit intrinsece malus, debet reduci in Deum tamquam in primam causam praemoventem et praedeterminantem actuali motione voluntatem creatam ad talem actum, inquantum actus est, secundum quod est ens.| Alvarez, De Auxil., disp.24, n.15.

740 Cfr. Banez, Comment. in S. Theol. S. Thom., 1 p., qu.23, art.3, dub.2, conclus.2: |Deus cognoscit cognitione intuitiva peccatum quatenus Dei voluntas est causa entitatis actus peccati et simul permittens, quod ad eundem actum concurrat liberum arbitrium deficiendo a regula.|

741 Sess. VI, can.6. Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God: His Knowability, Essence, and Attributes, pp.253 sqq., 442 sqq.

742 |Voluntas Adami ante peccatum non erat tibia curva, sed omnino recta, facta autem est curva ex promotione physica.| Praelect. Dogmat., Vol. II, 3rd ed., p.137.

743 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural, pp.72 sqq.

744 Cfr. on this subject Palmieri, De Gratia Divina Actuali, thes.41; T. Papagni, O. P., La Mente di S. Tommaso intorno alla Mozione Divina nelle Creature, p.44, Benevento 1901.

745 The principal representatives of Augustinianism are Berti, Bellelli, and Bertieri.

746 Published at Rome in 1739 sqq.

747 Cfr. his work Le Bajanisme et le Jansenisme Resuscites dans les Livres de Bellelli et Berti, s. l., 1745.

748 Cfr. Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.419 sqq.

749 Cfr. Berti, De Theol. Disciplinis, XIV, 9, n.6: |Sententia est Thomistarum et Augustinensium omnium affirmantium, gratiam efficacem esse se ipsa, non talem reddi aut cooperatione liberi arbitrii aut ex circumstantiis congruis, utque certissime et infallibiliter cum effectu coniunctam esse.|

750 Cfr. Berti, op. cit., XIV, 11: |In aequali gradu concupiscentiae et gratiae gratia concupiscentiae, non concupiscentia gratiae succumbet, quia homo etiam cum aequali virtute maiorem habet ad malum quam ad bonum inclinationem.... Agere et non agere in aequilibrio virium et determinare seipsum absque efficaci Dei praemotione est liberi arbitrii sani et robusti, non autem infirmi.|

751 Cfr. Berti, De Theol. Disciplinis, XIV, 8, n.18: |Quamvis sit haec efficax gratia antecedens et Deus sine nobis faciat ut velimus, nihilo tamen minus per illam non proponitur nobis bonum sub ratione omnis boni, quemadmodum proponitur beatis per lumen gloriae, ideoque remanet indifferentia iudicii et vera libertas.|

752 Calvinism, Bajanism, Jansenism -- Thomism, Augustinianism, Molinism, and Congruism.

753 De Gratia et Libero Arbitrio, c.17.

754 Cfr. Palmieri, De Gratia Divina Actuali, pp.433 sqq.

755 On the insufficiency of the indifferentia iudicii to preserve free-will, v. supra, p.242.

756 Conc. Trid., Sess. VI, cap.6.

757 |Proponitur praemium ut pecces, i.e. quod te delectat,| he says; |... Terreris minis, facis propter quod times.... Si cupiditas non valuit, forte timor valebit ut pecces.... Itaque ad omne recte factum amor et timor ducit. Ut facias bene, amas Deum et times Deum; ut autem facias male, amas mundum et times mundum.| In Ps., 79, c.13.

758 Cfr. Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.422 sqq.; Palmieri, De Gratia Divina Actuali, thes.54.

759 On the Congregatio de Auxiliis, so called because the principal question under discussion was the help (auxilia) afforded by grace, see Astrain, S. J., in the Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. IV, pp.238 sq., and Schneemann, S. J., Die Entstehung und weitere Entwicklung der thomistisch-molinistischen Controverse, Freiburg 1879; also in a Latin translation, Freiburg 1881.

760 Cfr. Molina, Concordia Liberi Arbitrii cum Gratiae Donis, qu.14, art.13, dip.38: |Asserimus auxilia praevenientis atque adiuvantis gratiae ... pendere a libero consensu et cooperatione liberi arbitrii nostri cum illis atque adeo in libera potestate nostra esse, vel illa efficacia reddere consentiendo et cooperando cum illis ad actus, quibus ad iustificationem disponimur, vel inefficacia illa reddere continendo consensum et cooperationem nostram aut ettam eliciendo contrarium consensum.| Ibid., disp.12: |Quare fieri potest, ut duorum qui aequali auxilio interius a Deo vocantur, unus pro libertate sui arbitrii convertatur et alter infidelitate permaneat.|

761 |Auxilium gratiae praevenientis,| says Molina, |est influxus Dei in liberum arbitrium, quo illud movet et excitat potensque reddit, ut eo pacto motum tamquam habens iam in se ipso principium efficiens actuum supernaturalium simul influendo ulterius eos producat.| Molina, op. cit., qu.14, art.13, disp.41.

762 Cfr. Molina, op. cit., qu.23, art.4, disp.1: |Quando audis consensum nostrum efficacia reddere auxilia gratiae, non ita id intelligas, quasi arbitrium nostrum vim aliquam seu efficacitatem tribuat auxiliis ipsis; arbitrium enim et influxus noster nullam vim conferunt gratiae auxiliis, sed potius auxilia vim et propensionem arbitrio tribuunt ad consensum eliciendum.| Ibid., Appendix ad obi. 3 (ed. Paris., 1876, p.595): |Solum significare volumus, auxilium illud liberum nobis relinquere consensum nostrum ad conversionem, nec tale esse, ut nullam necessitatem, etiam consequentiae, arbitrio ad talem consensum aut conversionem ponat.|

763 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God: His Knowability, Essence, and Attributes, pp.383 sqq.

764 Cfr. Molina, op. cit., qu.19, art.6, disp.2: |Hac ratione Deus O. M. vult omnia bona, quae per arbitrium nostrum sunt futura, non solum voluntate conditionali, si nos quoque ea velimus, sed etiam voluntate absoluta, quatenus ipsi praevidenti ea futura placent eademque divina eius ac singularis bonitas per arbitrium nostrum intendit ac vult. Quod autem haec etiam absoluta voluntas semper impleatur, ex eo est manifestum, quia nititur certitudine praescientiae divinae, quod ita res futura sit per nostrum arbitrium.| -- Ibid., qu.23, art.4, disp.3: |Quoniam quod Deus elegerit eum rerum ordinem, circumstantiarum et auxiliorum, sive maiorum sive minorum, in quo praevidebat eos pro sua libertate salvandos, qui electione eius ordinis eo ipso praedestinati sunt vitamque aeternam pro sua libertate consequuntur, potius quam alium ex infinitis, in quo res aliter pro eadem ipsorum libertate habuisset, non fuit ex nobis aut pro meritorum et cooperationis nostrae qualitate, sed ex sola misericordia Dei.| Cfr. G. Schneemann, Historia Controversiarum de Divinae Gratiae Liberique Arbitrii Concordia Initia et Progressus, Freiburg 1881, pp.38 sqq.

765 Cfr. his treatise De Gratia et Libero Arbitrio, I, 12 (ed. Fevre, tom. V, p.527, Paris 1873): |Prima opinio eorum est, qui gratiam efficacem constituunt in assensu et cooperatione humana, ita ut ab eventu dicatur gratia efficax, quia videlicet sortitur effectum et ideo sortitur effectum, quia voluntas humana cooperatur. Itaque existimant hi autores, in potestate hominis esse ut gratiam faciat esse efficacem, quae alioquin ex se non esset nisi sufficiens.| Bellarmine treats this opinion as the extreme counterpart of Thomism (which he also combats) and disposes of it thus: |Haec opinio aliena est omnino a sententia b. Augustini et, quantum ego existimo, a sententia etiam Scripturarum divinarum.| (l.c.) Among the Scriptural texts which he quotes in support of this view are John VI, 45, 1 Cor. IV, 7, Rom. IX, 11.

766 The learned Cardinal describes the difference between Congruism and extreme Molinism (which latter, it may be remarked, was not defended by Molina himself) as follows: |Neque enim intelligi potest, quo pacto gratia efficax consistat in illa interna suasione, quae per liberum arbitrium respui potest, et tamen infallibilem effectum habeat, nisi addamus, Deum iis quos efficaciter et infallibiliter trahere decrevit, eam suasionem adhibere quam videt congruere ingenio eorum et quam certo novit ab eis non contemnendam.| (Op. cit., p.531.) The objection that this explanation eventually resolves itself into the Molinistic theory which he had censured, Bellarmine meets as follows: |Respondeo sententiam nostram, quam S. Augustini esse demonstravimus, aliqua in re cum prima illa opinione convenire, sed in multis ab illa discrepare. Convenit enim in eo quod utraque sententia gratiam sufficentem et efficacem ponit in auxilio excitante potissimum, non in adiuvante. Sed discrepant inter se, quod prima opinio vult efficaciam gratiae pendere a voluntate humana, nostra vero pendere vult a voluntate Dei.| (l.c., cap.13.)

767 Further details in Schneemann, Hist. Controv., pp.302 sqq.

768 Cfr. Ad Simplician., I, qu.2, n.13: |Si vellet [Deus] etiam ipsorum misereri, posset ita vocare, quomodo illis aptum esset, ut et moverentur et intelligerent et sequerentur. Verum est ergo: Multi vocati, pauci electi. Illi enim electi, qui congruenter vocati; illi autem qui non congruebant neque contemperabantur vocationi, non electi, quia non secuti, quamvis vocati. Item verum est: Neque volentis neque currentis, sed miserentis est Dei, quia etiamsi multos vocet, eorum tamen miseretur, quos ita vocat, quomodo iis vocari aptum est ut sequantur. Falsum est autem, si quis dicit: Igitur non miserentis Dei, sed volentis atque currentis est hominis, quia nullius Deus frustra miseretur. Cuius autem miseretur, sic eum vocat quomodo scit ei congruere, ut vocantem non respuat.|

769 Cfr. Suarez, De Aux., V, 25: |Vocatio efficax illa est, quae ... includit congruitatem quandam respectu personae, cui datur, ut sit illi proportionata et accommodata, sicut oportet, ut in tali persona, in tali tempore et occasione infallibiliter effectum habeat, et per hoc habet illa vocatio quod congrua et efficax sit.|

770 1 Kings XVII, 38 sqq. -- Cfr. Lessius, De Praedest. et Reprob., sect.5, n.106: |Ex quibus patet, gratiam efficacem, si physice spectetur, non semper esse maius beneficium, quum saepenumero ea, quae effectu caret, secundum suam entitatem longe sit praestantior. Si tamen spectetur moraliter, nimirum ut subest praescientiae infallibili effectus, sic semper maius est beneficium, etiam ut praecisa ab actuali effectu et gratia cooperante seu ut prior actuali suo influxu in opus, quum Deus, qui non caeco modo operatur, ex mero suo beneplacito et inscrutabili iudicio seligat pro quibusdam gratias illas quas effectum habituras videt, non solum ut gratiae quaedam sunt, sed etiam formaliter, ut effectum habiturae sunt.... Ex quibus constat, quo sensu distinctio gratiae congruae et non congruae admittenda sit, quam numquam reieci, sed totis animis et sensu et praxi semper sum amplexus.|

771 De Grat. et Lib. Arbitr., ed. Fevre, t. V, p.533.

772 V. supra, p.16.

773 For the proofs of this assertion see Palmieri, De Gratia Divina Actuali, thes.50.

774 Cfr. St. Augustine, De Civitate Dei, V, 9, 4: |Quod [voluntates] facturae sunt, ipsae omnino facturae, quia facturas ille praescivit, cuius praescientia falli non potest.|

775 On Congruism cfr. Chr. Pesch, Prael. Dogmat., Vol. V, 3rd ed., pp.167 sqq.; Heinrich-Gutberlet, Dogmat. Theologie, Vol. VIII, § 447. On the various interpretations of the praedefinitio actuum salutarium, within as well as without the Jesuit Order, see Tepe, Instit. Theol., Vol. III, pp.93 sqq., Paris 1896, and especially Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.458 sqq.

776 Chief among them Ysambert, Tournely, St. Alphonsus de' Liguori, Albert Knoll, and more recently Cardinal Katschthaler.

777 For a more detailed account see Tournely, De Gratia Christi, qu.7, art.4, concl.5; Katschthaler, De Gratia, pp.173 sqq., Ratisbon 1880.

778 Cfr. Suarez, De Gratia, V, 20, 2.

779 Rom. XI, 33. On Syncretism cfr. Alb. a Bulsano, Inst. Theol. Dogmat. Specialis, ed. by Gottfried a Graun, O. M. Cap., tom. II, pp.193 sqq., Innsbruck 1894.

780 Conc. Trid., Sess. VI, cap.5: |De Necessitate Praeparationis,| and cap.6: |De Modo Praeparationis.|

781 Sess. VI, cap.8: |Fides est humanae salutis initium, fundamentum et radix omnis iustificationis.|

782 Sess. VI, cap.6: |Disponuntur autem ad ipsam iustitiam, dum excitati divina gratia et adiuti fidem ex auditu concipientes libere moventur in Deum, credentes vera esse quae divinitus revelata et promissa sunt.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.798).

783 Sess. VI, can.12: |Si quis dixerit, fidem iustificantem nihil aliud esse quam fiduciam divinae misericordiae peccata remittentis propter Christum, vel eam fiduciam solam esse, qua iustificamur, anathema sit.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.822.) Cfr. Conc. Vatic., Sess. III, cap.3, |De Fide| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1789).

784 {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER XI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}.

785 {GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH DASIA AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH DASIA AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}.

786 John XX, 31.

787 Acts VIII, 37.

788 Rom. X, 9 sq.: |Quia si confitearis in ore tuo Dominum Iesum et in corde tuo credideris quod Deus illum suscitaverit a mortuis, salvus eris. Corde enim creditur ad iustitiam, ore autem confessio fit ad salutem.|

789 Heb. XI, 6: |Sine fide autem impossibile est placere Deo; credere enim oportet accedentem ad Deum [i.e. iustificandum] quia est [=existentia Dei] et inquirentibus se remunerator sit.|

790 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God: His Knowability, Essence, and Attributes, pp.39 sq.

791 Murray, De Gratia, disp.10, n.18. Cfr. Becanus, De Gratia Habituali, c. I, qu.7, art.6 sq.; Bellarmine, De Iustificatione, I, 5 sqq.

792 Cfr. Bardenhewer-Shahan, Patrology, p.616, Freiburg and St. Louis 1908.

793 Prologus: __Gaudeo quod pro fide vera sine ullo perfidiae vitio custodienda sollicitudinem geris, sine qua nulla potest prodesse, imo nec esse conversio. Apostolica quippe dicit auctoritas, quia sine fide impossibile est placere Deo. Fides namque est bonorum omnium fundamentum. Fides est humanae salutis initium. Sine hac fide nemo ad filiorum Dei numerum potest pervenire, quia sine ipsa nec in hoc saeculo quisquam iustificationis gratiam consequitur nec in futuro possidebit vitam aeternam.__

794 On the traditional concepts of |faith| and |justification| as held in the Church before Luther's time, see Denifle, O. P., Die abendlaendischen Schriftausleger bis Luther ueber die Iustitia Dei und Iustificatio, Mainz 1905.

795 Cfr. Mark XVI, 15 sq.; Gal. I, 6 sqq.; Tit. III, 10 sq.

796 Cfr. St. Thomas, Summa Theol., 2a 2ae, qu.2, art.7: |Post tempus autem gratiae revelatae tam maiores quant minores tenentur [necessitate praecepti] habere fidem explicitam de mysteriis Christi, praecipue quantum ad ea, quae communiter in Ecclesia solemnizantur et publice proponuntur, sicut sunt articuli Incarnationis.... Alias autem subtiles considerationes circa Incarnationis articulos tenentur aliqui magis vel minus explicite credere, secundum quod convenit statui et officio uniuscuiusque.| This point is well developed by Ballerini, Opus Theologicum Morale, ed. D. Palmieri, Vol. II, 3rd ed., pp.9 sqq., Prati 1898.

797 Heb. XI, 6.

798 Chiefly Andrew Vega, Ripalda, and some modern writers.

799 Conc. Trid., Sess. VI, cap.6; Conc. Vatican., Sess. III, cap.3, V. supra, pp.182 sqq.

800 |Nonnisi fides unius Dei necessaria videtur necessitate medii, non autem explicita remuneratoris.| Prop. Damn. ab Innocenti XI., prop.22, in Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1172.

801 Heb. XI, 6.

802 Cfr. Wirceburg, De Gratia, n.120: |Quia tamen qui credit et sperat remuneratorem supernaturalem, satis hoc ipso etiam credit animae perpetuitatem et necessitatem auxilii melioris ad salutem, fides horum explicita et per distinctos conceptus non semper in re et actualiter necessaria existimatur.|

803 Gregory of Valentia, Becanus, Thomas Sanchez, and many Thomists.

804 Suarez, De Lugo, and a large number of other theologians.

805 Cfr. Rom. III, 22.

806 Cfr. John III, 18.

807 Cfr. Acts IV, 12.

808 Cfr. St. Thomas, Summa Theol., 2a 2ae, qu.2, art.7, ad 3: |Si qui salvati fuerunt, quibus revelatio non fuit facta, non fuerunt salvati absque fide mediatoris, quia, etsi non habuerunt fidem explicitam, habuerunt tamen fidem implicitam in divina providentia, credentes Deum esse liberatorem hominum secundum modos sibi placitos.|

809 The practical bearing of this question on the heathens is treated supra, pp.179 sqq.

810 |Missionarium teneri adulto etiam moribundo, qui incapax omnino non sit, explicare fidei mysteria, quae sunt necessaria necessitate medii, ut sunt praecipue mysteria Trinitatis et Incarnationis.| Cfr. Prop. Damn. ab Innocentio XI. a. 1679, prop.64 (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1214). For a full explanation of the topics treated in the present Section consult Suarez, De Fide, disp.12, sect.4; De Lugo, De Fide, disp.12, sect.4 sq.; W. Liese, Der heilsnotwendige Glaube, Freiburg 1902.

811 Cfr. Solid. Declar., art.3: |Neque contritio neque dilectio neque ulla virtus, sed sola fides [=fiducia] est medium et instrumentum, quo gratiam Dei, merita Christi et remissionem peccatorum apprehendere possumus.|

812 Instit., III, 11, § 19: |Dicimus hominem sola fide iustificari.| For a classic exposition of the Lutheran and Calvinistic views of faith, see Moehler, Symbolik, § 16; English tr. by James Burton Robertson, 5th ed., London 1906, pp.124 sqq.

813 Sess. VI, can.9: |Si quis dixerit, sola fide impium iustificari, ita ut intelligat nihil aliud requiri quod ad iustificationis gratiam consequendam cooperetur et nulla ex parte necesse esse, eum suae voluntatis motu praeparari atque disponi, anathema sit.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.819.)

814 Sess. VI, cap.6. The passage is quoted infra, p.296.

815 He contemptuously called it |ein stroeherne Epistel,| a letter of straw.

816 Matth. VII, 21: |Non omnis, qui dicit mihi, Domine, Domine, intrabit in regnum caelorum: sed qui facit voluntatem Patris mei, qui in caelis est, ipse intrabit in regnum caelorum.|

817 Jas. II, 24: |Videtis quoniam ex operibus iustificatur homo, et non ex fide tantum ({GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER XI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}, {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}).|

818 1 Cor. XIII, 2: |Et si habuero omnem fidem ({GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}), ita ut montes transferam, caritatem ({GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}) autem non habuero, nihil sum.|

819 Ecclus. I, 28: |Qui sine timore est, non poterit iustificari.|

820 Rom. VIII, 24: |Spe enim salvi facti sumus.|

821 Luke VII, 47: |Remittuntur ei peccata multa, quoniam ({GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH DASIA AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}) dilexit multum.|

822 Luke XIII, 3: |Nisi poenitentiam habueritis, omnes similiter peribitis.|

823 Jac. II, 17: |Fides, si non habet opera, mortua est in semetipso.|

824 Gal. V, 6: |In Christo Iesu neque circumcisio aliquid valet neque praeputium, sed fides quae per caritatem operatur ({GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK KORONIS} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}).|

825 Jac. II, 26: |Sicut enim corpus sine spiritu mortuum est, ita et fides sine operibus mortua est.|

826 Rom. III, 28: |Arbitramur enim hominem iustificari per fidem sine operibus legis.|

827 De Fide et Lib. Arbitrio, c.7, n.18.

828 On the misinterpretation of other Scripture texts by the Reformers see Bellarmine, De Iustificatione, I, 19-24.

829 Ep. ad Philipp., 3.

830 Serm., XVI, c.6: |A fide incipit homo, sed et daemones credunt et contremiscunt; adde ergo fidei spem speique ipsi adde caritatem.|

831 De Trinit., XXV, 18: |Sine caritate quippe fides potest quidem esse, sed non et prodesse.|

832 Hom. in Evang., 29: |Fortasse unusquisque apud semetipsum dicat: Ego iam credidi, salvus ero. Verum dicit, si fidem operibus tenet. Vera etenim fides est, quae in hoc quod verbis dicit moribus non contradicit.| As to the sense in which some of the Fathers speak of faith as the only thing that can save men, cfr. Bellarmine De Iustificat., I, 26.

833 Cfr. St. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.113, art.5: |Iustificatio impii est quidam motus, quo humana mens movetur a Deo a statu peccati in statum iustitiae.... Unde oportet quod mens humana, dum iustificatur, per motum liberi arbitrii recedat a peccato et accedat ad iustitiam. Recessus autem et accessus in motu liberi arbitru accipitur secundum detestationem et desiderium.... Oportet igitur quod in iustificatione impii sit motus liberi arbitrii duplex: unus quo per desiderium tendat in Dei iustitiam, et alius quo detestetur peccatum.|

834 De Libertate Voluntatis Humanae, Leipzig 1555.

835 |Klotz-, Stock- und Stein-theorie.|

836 |Das Torgische Buch,| A. D.1576.

837 |Articulus stantis et cadentis ecclesiae.| Cfr. Newman, Lectures on Justification, p.113.

838 Geschichte der protestantischen Theologie, p.583, Muenchen 1867.

839 Die Gnadenlehre und die stille Reformation, Christiania 1894. Not long after writing this book Dr. Krogh-Tonning became a Catholic.

840 How Luther came to adopt the sola fides theory is exhaustively explained by H. Grisar, S. J., Luther, Vol. I, Freiburg 1911; English tr., Vols. I and II, London 1913. Cfr. also F. Hettinger, Die Krisis des Christentums, pp.72 sqq., Freiburg 1881.

841 Cfr. Pohle, art. on |Tradition| in Herder's Kirchenlexikon, 2nd ed., Vol. XI, 1933 sqq., Freiburg 1899.

842 |Pecca fortiter, crede fortius.| Cfr. Moehler, Symbolism (English tr., p.130).

843 Cfr. Heinrich-Gutberlet, Dogmatische Theologie, Vol. VIII, §455, Mainz 1899. The |orthodox| Lutheran teaching is strongly stated by the famous convert Dr. Edw. Preuss in his work, still regarded as a classic by |orthodox| Lutherans, Die Rechtfertigung des Suenders vor Gott, Berlin 1868.

844 Sess. VI, cap.8.

845 Sess. VI, cap.6.

846 Sess. VI, cap.8: |Fides est humanae salutis initium, fundamentum et radix omnis iustificationis.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.801.)

847 V. supra, pp.100 sq.

848 Sess. VI, cap.6: |Disponuntur autem ad ipsam iustitiam, dum excitati divina gratia et adiuti, fidem ex auditu concipientes, libere moventur in Deum, credentes vera esse, quae divinitus revelata et promissa sunt, atque illud in primis, a Deo iustificari impium per gratiam eius, per redemptionem, quae est in Christo Iesu, et dum peccatores se esse intelligentes, a divinae iustitiae timore, quo utiliter concutiuntur, ad considerandam Dei misericordiam se convertendo, in spem eriguntur fidentes, Deum sibi propter Christum propitium fore, illumque tamquam omnis iustitiae fontem diligere incipiunt: ac propterea moventur adversus peccata per odium aliquod et detestationem, hoc est, per eam poenitentiam, quam ante baptismum agi oportet: denique dum proponunt suscipere baptismum, inchoare novam vitam et servare divina mandata.|

849 |Diligere incipiunt.| (ibid.)

850 Contritio cum proposito novae vitae.

851 Contritio caritate perfecta.

852 Votum sacramenti, sacramentum in voto.

853 Cfr. Conc. Trid., Sess. VI, cap.4 and 14.

854 Cfr. Ez. XVIII, 30; Joel II, 12; Luke XIII, 3; Acts II, 38. Cfr. Conc. Trid., Sess. XIV, cap.4: |Contritio, quae primum locum inter dictos poenitentis actus habet, animi dolor ac detestatio est de peccato commisso cum proposito non peccandi de cetero. Fuit autem quovis tempore ad impetrandam veniam peccatorum hic contritionis motus necessarius.|

855 Cfr. Summa Theol., 3a, qu.87, art.1: |Exigitur autem ad remissionem peccati mortalis perfectior poenitentia, ut scil. homo actualiter pecoatum mortale commissum detestetur, quantum in ipso est, ut scil. diligentiam adhibeat ad memorandum singula peccata mortalia, ut singula detestetur. Sed hoc non requiritur ad remissionem venialium peccatorum.... Unde sequitur quod requiratur quaedam virtualis displicentia, ... quod tamen non sufficit ad remissionem peccati mortalis, nisi quantum ad peccata oblita post diligentem inquisitionem.|

856 Cfr. Tepe, Inst. Theol., Vol. III, pp.204 sqq., Paris 1896.

857 Fides mortua in contradistinction to fides viva.

858 Gal. V, 6.

859 Conc. Trid., Sess. VI, can.28: |Si quis dixerit, amissa per peccatum gratia simul et fidem semper amitti aut fidem, quae remanet, non esse veram fidem, licet non sit viva, aut eum qui fidem sine caritate habet, non esse Christianum, anathema sit.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.838.) The Scriptural argument for this thesis is developed by Bellarmine, De Iustificatione, I, 15.

860 Conc. Trid., Sess. VI, cap.4: |Iustificatio impii [est] translatio ab eo statu, in quo homo nascitur filius primi Adae, in statum gratiae et adoptionis filiorum Dei per secundum Adam Iesum Christum Salvatorem nostrum.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.796.)

861 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural, pp.221 sq.

862 Cfr. the second on the list of Lutheran propositions condemned by Leo X, A. D.1520: |In puero post baptismum negare remanens peccatum est Paulum et Christum simul conculcare.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.742.)

863 Form. Conc., p.2, c.3: |Quando autem docemus, quod per operationem Spiritus Sancti regeneramur et iustificamur, non ita accipiendum est quod iustificatis et renatis nulla prorsus iniustitia substantiae ipsorum et conversationi adhaereat, sed quod Christus perfectissima obedientia sua omnia ipsorum peccata tegat, quae quidem in ipsa natura infixa haerent. Nihilominus tamen per fidem propter obedientiam Christi boni et iusti pronuntiantur et reputantur, etiamsi ratione corruptae naturae suae sint maneantque peccatores, dum mortale hoc corpus circumferunt.|

864 Antid. Conc. Trid., ad Sess. V: |Manet vere peccatum in nobis neque per baptismum statim uno die extinguitur.| Cfr. Moehler, Symbolik, § 14 (Robertson's translation, 5th ed., pp.110 sqq.).

865 Conc. Trid., Sess. V, can.5: |Si quis per Iesu Christi D. N. gratiam, quae in baptismate confertur, reatum originalis peccati remitti negat aut etiam asserit, non tolli totum id quod veram et propriam peccati rationem habet, sed illud dicit tantum radi aut non imputari, anathema sit.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.792.)

866 Sess. VI, cap.14; Sess. XIV, cap.2. See Pohle-Preuss, The Sacraments, Vol. II, Penance.

867 |Dele iniquitatem meam.|

868 Is. XLIII, 25: |Ego sum ipse, qui deleo iniquitates tuas.|

869 Is. XLIV, 22: |Delevi ut nubem iniquitates tuas et quasi nebulam peccata tua.|

870 Acts III, 19: |Poenitemini igitur et convertimini, ut deleantur peccata vestra.|

871 2 Kings XII, 13: |Dominus quoque transtulit peccatum tuum.|

872 1 Paral. XXI, 8: |Obsecro, aufer iniquitatem servi tui.|

873 Mich. VII, 18 sq.: |Quis, Deus, similis tui, qui aufers iniquitatem?... Deponet [Deus] iniquitates nostras et proiiciet in profundum maris omnia peccata nostra.|

874 Ps. X, 15: |Quaeretur peccatum illius, et non invenietur.|

875 Ps. CII, 12: |Quantum distat ortus ab occidente, longe fecit a nobis iniquitates nostras.|

876 Luke VII, 47: |Remittuntur ei peccata multa.|

877 Ps. L, 4: |Amplius lava me ab iniquitate mea et a peccato meo munda me.|

878 Is. I, 16: |Lavamini, mundi estote.|

879 Ez. XXXVI, 25 sq.: |Effundam super vos aquam mundam et mundabimini ab omnibus inquinamentis vestris.... Et dabo vobis cor novum.|

880 1 Cor. VI, 11: |Et haec quidam [fornicarii etc.] fuistis, sed abluti estis, sed sanctificati estis, sed iustificati estis.|

881 Ps. L, 9: |Asperges me hyssopo et mundabor, lavabis me et super nivem dealbabor.|

882 Is. I, 18: |Si fuevint peccata vestra ut coccinum, quasi nix dealbabuntur, et si fuerint rubra quasi vermiculus, velut lana alba erunt.|

883 Apoc. I, 5: |... dilexit nos et lavit nos a peccatis nostris in sanguine suo.|

884 1 John I, 7: |Sanguis Iesu Christi ... emundat nos ab omni peccato.|

885 1 John III, 14: |Translati sumus de morte ad vitam, quoniam diligimus fratres: qui non diligit, manet in morte.|

886 Col. II, 13: |Et vos, quum mortui essetis in delictis, ... convivificavit cum illo donans vobis omnia delicta.|

887 Eph. V, 8: |Eratis enim aliquando tenebrae, nunc autem lux in Domino.|

888 Acts XXII, 16: |Exsurge et baptizare et ablue peccata tua.|

889 Rom. VIII, 1: |Nihil ergo nunc damnationis est iis, qui sunt in Christo Iesu.| Cfr. on this point the dogmatic treatise on the Sacrament of Baptism.

890 Cfr. Becanus, Theol. Scholast., P. II, tr.5, cap.1, qu.1.

891 Ps. XXXI, 1 sq.: |Beati quorum remissae sunt iniquitates et quorum tecta sunt peccata; beatus vir cui non imputavit Dominus peccatum nec est in spiritu eius dolus.|

892 Heb. IV, 13. Cfr. St. Augustine, Enarr. in Ps., II, 31, n.12: |Deus tegat vulnera, noli tu. Nam si tu tegere volueris erubescens, medicus non curabit. Medicus tegat et curet; emplastro enim tegit. Sub tegmine medici curatur vulnus, sub tegmine vulnerati celatur vulnus.|

893 Rom. VII, 17: |Nunc autem iam non ego operor illud, sed quod habitat in me peccatum.|

894 Peccatum, {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH DASIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}.

895 Sess. V, can.5: |... ex peccato est et ad peccatum inclinat.| Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural, pp.242 sqq., 261 sqq. On Jas. I, 14 sq., St. Augustine observes: |Profecto in his verbis partus a pariente discernitur. Pariens enim est concupiscentia, partus peccatum. Sed concupiscentia non parit nisi conceperit, nec concipit nisi illexerit, h. e. ad malum perpetrandum obtinuerit volentis assensum. Quod ergo adversus eam dimicamur, hoc agitur, ne concipiat pariatque peccatum.| (Contra Iulian., VI, 15, 47.) For a more exhaustive discussion of this subject see Bellarmine, De Justif., II, 9.

896 Dial. c. Tryph., n.141.

897 Strom., l. II.

898 Or., 40.

899 Contra Duas Epistolas Pelagian., I, 13, 26: |Quis hoc adversus Pelagianos nisi infidelis affirmet? Dicimus ergo baptisma dare omnium indulgentiam peccatorum et auferre crimina, non radere; nec ut omnium peccatorum radices in mala carne teneantur, quasi rasorum in capite capillorum, unde crescunt iterum resecanda peccata.|

900 Ep., l. II, ep.45: |Si qui vero sunt qui dicunt, peccata in baptismate superficie tenus dimitti, quid est hac praedicatione infidelius?... Qui dicit peccata in baptismate funditus non dimitti, dicat in mari rubro Aegyptios non veraciter mortuos. Si autem fatetur, Aegyptios veraciter mortuos, fateatur necesse est, peccata in baptismate funditus mori.| Other confirmatory texts apud Alb. a Bulsano, Instit. Theol. Dogmat. Specialis, ed. P. Gottfr. a Graun, O. Cap., Vol. II, pp.226 sq., Innsbruck 1894.

901 Apoc. XXI, 27: |Non intrabit in coelum aliquod coinquinatum.|

902 Privatio, {GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}.

903 Cfr. St. Thomas, De Veritate, qu.28, art.1 sqq.; IDEM, Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.113, art.2.

904 Cfr. Bellarmine, De Iustificatione, II, 1 and 6.

905 Apol. Confess. August., c.3, art.6: |Iustificare veto hoc loco (Rom. VIII, 1) forensi consuetudine significat reum absolvere et pronuntiare iustum, sed propter alienam iustitiam, videl. Christi, quae aliena iustitia nobis communicatur per fidem.|

906 Solida Declar., III, |De Fide Iustif.,| § 11: |Vocabulum iustificationis in hoc negotio significat iustum pronuntiare, a peccatis et aeternis peccatorum suppliciis absolvere propter iustitiam Christi, quae a Deo fidei imputatur.|

907 The Lutheran doctrine is fully and lucidly set forth by Dr. Edward Preuss in his work, Die Rechtfertigung des Suenders vor Gott (Berlin 1868), which he retracted at his conversion, in 1872. Cfr. also Newman's Lectures on Justification, Lecture I (8th impression, London 1900).

908 Sess. VI, cap.7: |Iustificatio non est sola peccatorum remissio, sed et sanctificatio et renovatio interioris hominis per voluntariam susceptionem gratiae et donorum....| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.799.)

909 Sess. VI, cap.11: |Si quis dixerit, homines iustificari vel sola imputatione iustitiae Christi vel sola peccatorum remissione, exclusa gratia et caritate, quae in cordibus eorum per Spiritum Sanctum diffundatur atque illis inhaereat, aut etiam gratiam qua iustificamur esse tantum favorem Dei, anathema sit.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.821.)

910 Sess. VI, cap.7: |Huius iustificationis causae sunt: formalis quidem gloria Dei et Christi ac vita aeterna; efficiens vero misericors Deus, qui gratuito abluit et sanctificat; ... meritoria autem dilectissimus Unigenitus suus D. N. Iesus Christus, qui ... sua sanctissima passione in ligno crucis nobis iustificationem meruit; ... instrumentalis item sacramentum baptismi, quod est sacramentum fidei, sine qua nulli unquam contigit iustificatio; demum unica formalis causa est iustitia Dei, non qua ipse iustus est, sed qua nos iustos facit, qua videl. ab eo donati renovamur spiritu mentis nostrae et non modo reputamur, sed vere iusti nominamur et sumus.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.799).

911 Sess. VI, can.10: |Si quis dixerit, homines sine Christi iustitia, per quam nobis meruit iustificari aut per eam ipsam formaliter iustos esse, anathema sit.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.820.)

912 V. supra, Article 1.

913 Cfr. Eph. II, 5; Col. II, 13; 1 John III, 14.

914 Cfr. Eph. IV, 23 sq.

915 Cfr.2 Cor. V, 17; Gal. VI, 15; Jas. I, 18; Ps. L, 12.

916 Cfr. John III, 5; Tit. III, 5.

917 Cfr. Rom. VIII, 29; 2 Cor. III, 18; 2 Pet. I, 4.

918 John III, 5.

919 Tit. III, 5 sqq.: |Non ex operibus iustitiae quae fecimus nos, sed secundum suam misericordiam salvos nos fecit ({GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH DASIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}) per lavacrum regenerationis et renovationis ({GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}) Spiritus Sancti, quem effudit ({GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER XI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER CHI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}) in nos abunde per Iesum Christum Salvatorem nostrum, ut iustificati ({GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}) gratia ipsius haeredes simus secundum spem vitae aeternae.|

920 Cfr. John I, 12 sq.; Rom. VIII, 16; Gal. III, 7; IV, 6 sq.; 1 John III, 1.

921 Cfr. Eph. IV, 22 sqq.

922 Cfr. Col. III, 9 sq.

923 Cfr. Acts II, 38; X, 45 sqq.; Rom. V, 5.

924 Cfr. J. Pohle, article |Regeneration| in the Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. XII, and A. Rademacher, Die uebernatuerliche Lebensordnung nach der paulinischen und johanneischen Theologie, pp.41 sqq., Freiburg 1903.

925 2 Cor. V, 17: |Si qua ergo in Christo nova creatura ({GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}), vetera transierunt; ecce facta sunt omnia nova.| Cfr. Eph. II, 10.

926 Jac. I, 18: |Voluntarie enim genuit ({GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}) nos verbo veritatis, ut simus initium aliquod creaturae eius.|

927 Gal. VI, 15: |In Christo enim Iesu neque circumcisio aliquid valet neque praeputium, sed nova creatura ({GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}).|

928 Gal. V, 6: |Nam in Christo Iesu neque circumcisio aliquid valet neque praeputium, sed fides quae per caritatem operatur ({GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK KORONIS} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}).|

929 On the argument from Rom. V, 15 sqq. cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural, pp.247 sqq.

930 Iustificare, {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}.

931 E.g., Rom. V, 15 sqq. and Gal. III, 8 sqq.

932 Ps. CXVIII, 8: |Iustificationes tuas custodiam.|

933 Ps. CXVIII, 26: |... doce me iustificationes tuas.|

934 Apoc. XXII, 11: |Qui iustus est, iustificetur adhuc, et sanctus sanctificetur adhuc.| On the different meanings of the term justification in Scripture see Bellarmine, De Iustific., I, 1; II, 3.

935 Gal. III, 27: |Quicunque enim in Christo baptizati estis, Christum induistis.|

936 Cfr. Eph. IV, 22 sqq.; Col. III, 8 sqq.

937 1 Cor. I, 30: |Qui factus est nobis sapientia a Deo et iustitia ({GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}) et sanctificatio ({GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH DASIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}) et redemptio.|

938 Other objections are refuted by Bellarmine, De Iustif., II, 9 sqq.

939 Cfr. Calvin, Instit., III, 11, § 15: |Ac nec Augustini quidem sententia recipienda est, qui gratiam ad sanctificationem refert, qua in vitae novitatem per Spiritum Sanctum regeneramur.|

940 On the Epistle of Barnabas see Bardenhewer-Shahan, Patrology, p.24. The passage quoted will be found Ep. Barn., VI, 11.

941 Hom. ad Illumin., I, n.3.

942 {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH DASIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PSILI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}.

943 {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH DASIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PERISPOMENI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ZETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}.

944 De Myst., c.7: |Accepisti post haec vestimenta candida [scil. post baptismum], ut sint indicium quod exueris involucrum peccati, indueris innocentiae casta velamina.|

945 De Iustific., II, 8.

946 De Spiritu et Litera, c.9, n.15: |Non dicit iustitia hominis,... sed iustitia Dei, non qua Deus iustus est, sed qua induit hominem, quum iustificat impium.... Iustitia autem Dei per fidem Iesu Christi, hoc est, per fidem qua creditur in Christum. Sicut autem ista fides Christi dicta est, non qua credit Christus, sic et illa iustitia Dei, non qua iustus est Deus. Utrumque enim nostrum est; sed ideo Dei et Christi dicuntur, quod eius nobis largitate donatur.|

947 De Gratia Christi, c.13: |Si data est nobis iustitia, non dicitur iustitia nostra, sed Dei, quia sic fit nostra, ut sit nobis ex Deo.|

948 Serm., 131: |Dei gratia per Dominum nostrum Iesum Christum iustitia Dei dicitur, non qua iustus est Dominus, sed qua iustificat eos, quos ex impiis iustos facit.|

949 De Spir. et Lit., c.32, n.56: |Caritas Dei dicta est diffundi in cordibus nostris, non qua ipse nos diligit, sed qua, nos facit dilectores suos, sicut iustitia Dei, qua nos iusti eius munere efficimur.|

950 De Trinit., XV, 8, 14: |Quod vero ait (2 Cor. III, 18): __In eandem imaginem transformamur,__ utique imaginem Dei vult intellegi, eandem dicens istam ipsam, scil., quam speculamur ... atque transimus de forma obscura in formam lucidam.... Quae natura [humana] in rebus creatis excellentissima, quum a suo Creatore ab impietate iustificatur, a deformi forma formosam transfertur in formam.|

951 Other Patristic texts can be seen in Ripalda, De Ente Supernal., disp.132, sect.7; Petavius, De Trinit., VIII, 4-7; Bellarmine, De Gratia et Lib. Arbitrio, I, 4.

952 For a more detailed treatment of this point we must refer the reader to Heinrich-Gutberlet, Dogmat. Theologie, Vol. VIII, pp.537 sqq.

953 Quoted by De Wette, II, 37.

954 V. infra, Section 3.

955 Sess. IV, cap.7.

956 V. infra, Sect.2, Art.2.

957 Cfr. Bellarmine, De Iustific., II, 1.

958 Seripando, Albertus Pighius, Gropper, and others.

959 On the discussion referred to in the text see Pallavicini, Hist. Conc. Trid., VIII, 11, 12; Aug. Theiner, Acta Genuina Concil. Trid., tom. I, pp.222 sqq., Leipzig 1874.

960 Eph. V, 8; 2 Cor. VI, 14.

961 Col. II, 13; 1 John III, 14.

962 Eph. IV, 22 sqq.; Col. III, 9.

963 V. supra, No.2.

964 On the history of the Tridentine decree regarding justification cfr. J. Hefner, Die Entstehungsgeschichte des Trienter
Rechtfertigungsdekretes, Paderborn 1909.

965 Ockam, Gabriel Biel, et al.

966 Henno, Mastrius, et al.

967 Suarez, De Gratia, 1. VII, c.20, n.7: |... non obstante illa oppositione et repugnantia connaturali potest Deus de sua absoluta potentia eam vincere et conservare gratiam in eo, qui peccavit, non remittendo illi peccatum.|

968 Vasquez, Sardagna, Antoine, Mazzella, Tepe, et al.

969 Col. II, 13; 1 John III, 14.

970 2 Cor. VI, 14 sqq.

971 Cfr.1 John III, 9: |Omnis, qui natus est ex Deo, peccatum non facit, quoniam semen ipsius ({GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI}) in eo manet et non potest peccare ({GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH DASIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}), quoniam ex Deo natus est.|

972 V. infra, Sect.2, Art.1.

973 For the solution of other difficulties consult Tepe, Inst. Theol., Vol. VIII, pp.152 sqq. On the whole subject of this subdivision cfr. Billuart, De Gratia, diss.7, art.2 sq. On certain incidental questions, e.g. whether justification takes place in instanti, whether the infusion of sanctifying grace in ordine naturae precedes or follows the forgiveness of sins, whether justification is the greatest of God's works, whether it is to be regarded as a miracle, etc., see St. Thomas, Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.113, art.7-10; cfr. also Scheeben, Die Mysterien des Christentums, 3rd ed., pp.543 sqq., Freiburg 1912.

974 Conc. Trid., Sess. VI, cap.7: |Per spiritum sanctum caritas Dei diffunditur in cordibus eorum, qui iustificantur, atque ipsis inhaeret.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.800.)

975 Sess. VI, cap.16: |Quae enim iustitia nostra dicitur, quia per eam nobis inhaerentem iustificamur, illa eadem Dei est, quia a Deo nobis infunditur per Christi meritum.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.809.)

976 Sess. VI, can.11: |Si quis dixerit, homines iustificari ... exclusa gratia et caritate, quae in cordibus eorum per Spiritum sanctum diffundatur atque in illis inhaereat, ... anathema sit.|(Denzinger-Bannwart, n.821.)

977 Sess. VI, cap.4: |[Iustificatio est] translatio ... in statum gratiae et adoptionis filiorum Dei.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.796.)

978 Cfr. Pallavicini, Hist. Conc. Trid., VIII, 14, 3: |Postulantibus quibusdam, ut expressius declararetur fieri iustitiam per habitum infusum, delecti Patres ad id responderunt, id satis explicari per vocem __inhaeret,__ quae stabilitatem significat et habitibus congruit, non actibus.| It was on the same ground that Pius V censured the forty-second proposition of Baius, viz.: |Iustitia qua iustificatur per fidem impius, consistit formaliter in obedientia mandatorum, quae est operum iustitia; non autem in gratia aliqua animae infusa, qua adoptatur homo in filium Dei, et secundum interiorem hominem renovatur ac divinae naturae consors efficitur.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1042.)

979 Cfr. the Cap. Maiores of Pope Innocent III (Decret., l.3, tit.42, De Bapt.): |Aliis asserentibus, per virtutem baptismi parvulis quidem culpam remitti, sed gratiam non conferri; nonnullis dicentibus, dimitti peccatum et virtutes infundi quantum ad habitum, non quoad usum.|

980 De Summa Trinit. et Fide Cath.: |Quantum ad effectum baptismi in parvulis reperiuntur doctores quidam theologi opiniones contrarias habuisse, quibusdam ex ipsis dicentibus, per virtutem baptismi parvulis quidem culpam remitti, sed gratiam non conferri, aliis e contra asserentibus, quod et culpa eisdem in baptismo remittitur et virtutes ac informans gratia infunduntur quoad habitum, etsi non pro illo tempore quoad usum. Nos attendentes generalem efficaciam mortis Christi, quae per baptisma applicatur pariter omnibus baptizatis, opinionem secundam tamquam probabiliorem et dictis sanctorum et modernorum theologorum magis consonam et conformem sacro approbante concilio duximus eligendam.|

981 Cfr. Conc. Trid., Sess. V, can.4; Sess. VII, can.13. For a fuller treatment consult Suarez, De Gratia, VI, 3; Vasquez, Comment. in S. Th., I, 2, disp.203, cap.6. The false views of Hermes and Hirscher are refuted by Kleutgen, Theologie der Vorzeit, Vol. II, 2nd ed., pp.254-343, Muenster 1872.

982 Libri Quatuor Sent., I, dist 17, § 18.

983 Summa Theol., 2a 2ae, qu.23, art.2.

984 Conc. Trid., Sess. VI, can.24.

985 Cfr. Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.263 sq.

986 Cfr. St. Thomas, Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.110, art.1; Summa contra Gentiles, III, 150.

987 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural, p.193.

988 Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.110, art.2, ad 2: |Omnis substantia vel est ipsa natura rei, cuius est substantia, vel est pars naturae, secundum quem modum materia vel forma substantia dicitur. Et quia gratia est supra naturam humanam, non potest esse quod sit substantia aut forma substantialis, sed est forma accidentalis ipsius animae. Id enim quod substantialiter est in Deo, accidentaliter fit in anima participante divinam bonitatem.|

989 Cfr. Billuart, De Gratia, diss.6, art.2.

990 This theory was based on such texts as Ps. L, 12: |Cor mundum crea in me.|

991 Cat. Rom., P. II, c.2 de Bapt., qu.49: |Est autem gratia ... divina qualitas in anima inhaerens ac veluti splendor quidam et lux, quae animarum nostrarum maculas omnes delet ipsasque animas pulchriores et splendidiores reddit.| On the supernatural character of sanctifying grace see Pohle-Preuss, God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural, pp.191 sqq.

992 Categ., 6.

993 |... qualitas difficile mobilis, secundum quam res bene vel male se habet in ordine ad suam naturam et ad operationem vel finem eius.| Cfr. St. Thomas, Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.19, art.2; S. Schiffini, Principia Philosophica ad Mentem Aquinatis, pp.574 sqq., Turin 1886; A. Lehmen, Lehrbuch der Philosophie auf aristotelisch-thomistischer Grundlage, Vol. I, 3rd ed., pp.398 sqq., Freiburg 1904.

994 De Veritate, qu.27, art.2, ad 7: |Gratia est in prima specie qualitatis, quamvis non proprie possit dici habitus, quia non immediate ordinatur ad actum, sed ad quoddam esse spiritale, quod in anima facit.|

995 De Gratia, VI, 4, 1: |Abstinuimus ab hac voce, quia per habitum solet intelligi principium actus; quamvis, si vox illa latius sumatur, pro quacumque qualitate perficiente animam, quae non sit actus secundus, eadem certitudine, qua ostendimus dari gratiam permanentem, concluditur esse qualitatem habitualem.|

996 De Gratia et Libero Arbitrio, I, 3.

997 Cfr. Ripalda, De Ente Supernaturali, disp.30. Under these circumstances Suarez was justified in saying, in regard to the degree of certitude to be attributed to this teaching: |Si quis negaret gratiam sanctificantem esse habitum, licet esse temere dictum, non posset tamen ut haereticum damnari.|

998 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural, pp.190 sqq.

999 Cfr.1 John, III, 9: |{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI} [scil. {GREEK CAPITAL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI}] {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH PERISPOMENI AND YPOGEGRAMMENI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}.|

1000 Cfr.2 Cor. IV, 7: |... thesaurum in vasis fictilibus.|

1001 Cfr. John XIV, 23: |Mansionem apud eum faciemus.|

1002 Cfr.1 Cor. III, 16. -- On the subtle question whether habitual grace is to be regarded as a real or merely as a modal accident of the soul, see Tepe, Inst. Theol., Vol. III, pp.154 sqq., Paris 1896; Chr. Pesch, Prael. Dogmat., Vol. V, 3rd ed., pp.181 sqq., Freiburg 1908. An extreme and altogether unacceptable view is that of Billuart (De Gratia, diss.6, art.2), who regards sanctifying grace as an absolute accident, i.e. one which the omnipotence of God could miraculously sustain if the soul ceased to exist. Cfr. Suarez, De Gratia, VII, 15; Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, p.259; Tepe, Inst. Theol., Vol. III, pp.164 sqq.

1003 Comment. in Quatuor Libros Sent., II, dist.27.

1004 E.g., Mastrius, De Iustif., disp.7, qu.6.

1005 De Gratia et Libero Arbitrio, I, 6.

1006 Luke VII, 47: |Remittuntur ei peccata multa, quoniam dilexit ({GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}) multum.|

1007 1 Pet. IV, 8: |Caritas ({GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}) operit multitudinem peccatorum.|

1008 1 John IV, 7: |Omnis qui diligit ({GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH DASIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}) ex Deo natus est.|

1009 De Natura et Gratia, c.70, n.84: |Caritas ergo inchoata, inchoata iustitia est, ... caritas magna, magna iustitia est, caritas perfecta, perfecta iustitia est.|

1010 Conc. Trid., Sess. VI, cap.7: |... dum caritas Dei diffunditur in cordibus eorum qui iustificantur atque ipsis inhaeret.|

1011 Preeminently Suarez, Tanner, Ripalda.

1012 Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.110, art.3 sq.; De Veritate, qu.27, art.2.

1013 Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.110, art.4, ad 1: |Sicut ab essentia animae effluunt eius potentiae, quae sunt operum principia, ita etiam ab ipsa gratia effluunt virtutes [theologicae] in potentias animae, per quas [virtutes] potentiae moventur ad actus.|

1014 De Dono Perseverantiae, c.16, n.41: |Gratia praevenit caritatem.|

1015 2 Cor. XIII, 13: |Gratia Domini nostri Iesu Christi et caritas Dei.|

1016 1 Tim. I, 14: |Superabundavit autem gratia Domini nostri cum fide et dilectione.|

1017 Cfr. Conc. Viennense, A. D.1311: |... gratiam informantem et virtutes.| Conc. Trid., Sess. VI, cap.7: |... per voluntariam susceptionem gratiae et donorum.| Sess. VI, can.11: |... exclusa gratia et caritate.|

1018 For a fuller treatment of this topic consult Billuart, De Gratia, diss.4, art.4.

1019 Ripalda justly observes (De Ente Supernaturali, disp.132, n.132, n.53): |Haec controversia olim Celebris fuit. Nunc facile dirimitur, quum iam constiterit nullius partis argumenta plane convincere.| On the theological aspects of Herbart's philosophy, which denies the existence of qualities and faculties in the soul, see Heinrich-Gutberlet, Dogmatische Theologie, Vol. VIII, p.560, Mainz 1897.

1020 2 Pet. I, 4: |... per quem [i.e. Christum] maxima et pretiosa nobis promissa donavit, ut per haec efficiamini divinae consortes naturae ({GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PHI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}).|

1021 John I, 13: |... qui non ex sanguinibus, ... sed ex Deo nati sunt.|

1022 John III, 5: |Nisi quis renatus fuerit ex aqua et Spiritu Sancto, non potest introire in regnum Dei.|

1023 Jac. I, 18: |Voluntarie enim genuit nos verbo veritatis.|

1024 1 John III, 9: |Omnis qui natus est ex Deo, peccatum non facit.|

1025 Or. contr. Arian., I, 39.

1026 {GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH DASIA AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH DASIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}.

1027 In Psalmos, 49, n.2: |Ille iustficat, qui per seipsum, non ex alio iustus est; et ille deificat qui per seipsum non alterius participatione Deus est. Qui autem iustificat, ipse deificat, quia iustificando filios Dei facit.... Filii Dei facti sumus et dii facti sumus; sed hoc gratia est adoptantis, non natura generantis. Unicum enim Dei Filius Deus, ... ceteri qui dii fiunt, gratia ipsius fiunt, non de substantia ipsius nascuntur, ut hoc sint quod ille, sed ut per beneficium perveniant ad eum et sint cohaeredes Christi.| Many other cognate Patristic texts in Ripalda, De Ente Supernaturali, disp.132, sect.7-9.

1028 See, e.g., the Offertory and Preface for the festival of the Ascension of our Lord and the Secreta for the fourth Sunday after Easter.

1029 Cfr. Ripalda, De Ente Supernaturali, disp.132, sect.7: |Per gratiam vero habitualem fieri hominem participem divinae naturae ideoque gratiam esse participationem deitatis, adeo frequens est et constans theologorum assertum, ut absque temeritate negari non possit.| On the teaching of St. Thomas and the Thomists see Billuart, De Gratia, diss.4, art.3.

1030 Cfr. Prop. Ekkardi a.1329 damn. a Ioanne XXII, prop.10, quoted in Denzinger-Bannwart's Enchiridion, n.510.

1031 Cfr. Prop. Mich. de Molinos a.1687 damn, ab Innocentio XI, prop.5, in Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1225.

1032 The Fourth Council of the Lateran (A. D.1215) calls it |doctrina non tam haeretica quam insana.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.433.)

1033 St. Augustine, De Peccatorum Meritis et Remissione, II, 8, 10: |Nunc ergo et similes esse iam coepimus primitias spiritus habentes, et adhuc dissimiles sumus per reliquias vetustatis. Proinde inquantum similes, in tantum regenerante Spiritu filii Dei; inquantum autem dissimiles, in tantum filii carnis et saeculi.|

1034 Quoted by Ripalda, De Ente Supernaturali, disp.132, sect.9.

1035 Cfr. St. Thomas, Summa Theol., 1a 2ae qu.112, art.1: |Donum autem gratiae excedit omnem facultatem naturae creatae, quum nihil aliud sit quam quaedam participatio divinae naturae, quae excedit omnem aliam naturam.|

1036 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God: His Knowability, Essence, and Attributes, pp.165 sqq.; Christology, pp.85 sqq.

1037 Cfr. St. John of Damascus, De Fide Orthodoxa, II, 12 |[{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}] {GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER CHI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH PERISPOMENI AND YPOGEGRAMMENI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PSI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}.|

1038 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God: His Knowability, Essence, and Attributes, pp.165 sqq.

1039 Clyp. Thomist., tom. VI, disp.2, § 10.

1040 Cfr. Suarez, De Gratia, VII, 1, 27: |Eo ipso quod divinum esse participatur, non participatur ut imparticipatum est.|

1041 De Ente Supernaturali, disp.20, sect.14.

1042 S. Theol., 1a, qu.93, art.4.

1043 Cfr. Suarez, De Gratia, VII, 1, 30: |Vera ergo excellentia gratiae habitualis, propter quam dicitur esse singularis participatio divinae naturae, est ... quia, quum natura divina sit quaedam intellectualis natura altioris ordinis quam sit vel esse possit ulla substantia intellectualis creata, ille gradus intellectualitatis, qui est in divina natura, divino quodam et supernaturali modo participatur per habitualem gratiam, quo quidem modo a nulla substantia creata per se ipsam vel per potentiam sibi connaturalem participari potest.... Divina enim essentia in ratione obiecti intelligibilis in se et per visionem intuitivam ad ipsam Dei essentiam immediate terminatam adeo est elevata et excellens ratione purissimae actualitatis et immaterialitatis suae, ut a nulla substantia intellectuali possit connaturaliter videri, nisi a seipsa. Per gratiam vero et dona supernaturalia elevatur natura creata intellectualis ad participationem illius gradus intellectualitatis divinae, in quo possit obiectum illud intelligibile divinae essentiae in se intueri.|

1044 John III, 6; cfr.2 Cor. III, 18; Eph. V, 18.

1045 De Spiritu Sancto, c.9, n.23.

1046 {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}.

1047 {GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH DASIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK CAPITAL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH DASIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}.

1048 {GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}.

1049 1 John III, 2: |Nunc filii Dei sumus et nondum apparuit, quid erimus; scimus quoniam, quum apparuerit, similes ei erimus ({GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH DASIA AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH PERISPOMENI AND YPOGEGRAMMENI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}), quoniam videbimus eum sicuti est.| On this passage see Pohle-Preuss, God: His Knowability, Essence, and Attributes, pp.96 sq. On the whole subject treated in this subdivision consult Heinrich-Gutberlet, Dogmatische Theologie, Vol. VIII, pp.588 sqq.; A. Rademacher, Die uebernatuerliche Lebensordnung nach der paulinischen und johanneischen Theologie, pp.88 sqq., Freiburg 1903; A. Prumbs, Die Stellung des Trienter Konzils zu der Frage nach dem Wesen der heiligmachenden Gnade, Paderborn 1910.

1050 For a fuller treatment we must refer the reader to Scheeben, Die Herrlichkeiten der goettlichen Gnade, 8th ed., Freiburg 1908; English translation by a Benedictine monk of St. Meinrad's Abbey, The Glories of Divine Grace, 3rd ed., New York s. a.

1051 Eph. IV, 24: |Induite novum hominem, qui secundum Deum creatus est in iustitia et sanctitate veritatis.| On this text see Pohle-Preuss, God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural, p.197.

1052 Sess. VI, cap.7: |... non est sola peccatorum remissio, sed et sanctificatio et renovatio interioris hominis per voluntariam susceptionem gratiae et donorum, unde homo ex iniusto fit iustus.|

1053 On the concept of sanctity see Pohle-Preuss, God: His Knowability, Essence, and Attributes, pp.251 sqq.

1054 Gal. II, 20: |Vivo autem iam non ego, vivit vero in me Christus.| On the life of the soul in and through grace cfr.
Heinrich-Gutberlet, Dogmatische Theologie, Vol. VIII, § 466.

1055 Cfr.2 Cor. VII, 4: |Superabundo gaudio in omni tribulatione nostra.|

1056 Is. XLIX, 16: |Ecce in manibus meis descripsi te.|

1057 Rom. VIII, 28: |Diligentibus Deum omnia cooperantur in bonum.|

1058 In Ps., 25: |Gratia divina pulchrificat sicut lux.|

1059 Cat. Rom., P. II, Ch. II, qu.49: |Est autem gratia ... splendor quidam et lux, quae animarum maculas delet ipsasque animas pulchriores et splendidiores reddit.| On the aptness of this simile see Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, p.268. Freiburg 1901.

1060 {GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}.

1061 {GREEK CAPITAL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}.

1062 On the notion of beauty see Pohle-Preuss, God: His Knowability, Essence, and Attributes, pp.265 sqq.

1063 V. supra, Art.1, No.4.

1064 On the divine appropriations see Pohle-Preuss, The Divine Trinity, pp.244 sqq.

1065 Rom. VIII, 29: |... praedestinavit conformes fieri imaginis Filii sui.|

1066 Gal. IV, 19: |Filioli mei, quos iterum parturio, donec formetur Christus in vobis.|

1067 V. infra, No.4.

1068 V. infra, Art.3, No.4. On the whole subject cfr. Heinrich-Gutberlet, Dogmatische Theologie, Vol. VIII, § 465; H. Krug, De Pulchritudine Divina, pp.53 sqq., 144 sqq., 241 sqq., Freiburg 1902.

1069 Sess. VI, cap.7: |... unde homo ex iniusto fit iustus et ex inimico amicus.|

1070 Sess. VI, cap.10: |Sic ergo iustificati et amici Dei ac domestici facti....|

1071 Wisd. VII, 14: |Participes facti sunt amicitiae Dei.|

1072 John XV, 14 sq.: |Iam non dicam vos servos, ... vos autem dixi amicos.|

1073 Matth. IX, 15: |Numquid possunt filii sponsi lugere, quamdiu cum illis est sponsus?|

1074 Apoc. XIX, 7: |Venerunt nuptiae Agni et uxor eius praeparavit se.| Cfr. John III, 29; Eph. V, 23 sqq.; 2 Cor. XI, 2; Cant. IV, 1 sqq.; Ps. XLIV, 22 sqq. On the teaching of the Fathers see Cornelius a Lapide, Comment. in 2 Cor., XI, 2.

1075 Eth. ad Nichom., VIII sq.

1076 Cfr. St. Thomas, Comment. in Quatuor Libros Sent., III, dist.27, qu.2, art.1, ad 1: |Amicitia vera desiderat videre amicum et colloquiis mutuis gaudere facit, ad quem principaliter est amicitia; non autem ita, quod delectatio ex amici visione et perfruitione, finis amicitiae ponatur.|

1077 Cfr. St. Thomas, Summa Theologica, 1a 2ae, qu.28, art.1: |Quum aliquis amat aliquem amore amicitiae, vult ei bonum, sicut et sibi vult bonum, unde apprehendit eum ut alterum se, inquantum scil. ei vult bonum, sicut et sibi vult bonum. Et inde est, quod amicus dicitur esse alter ipse. Et Augustinus dicit in l.4 Confess.: Bene quidam dixit de amico suo, __dimidium animae meae__.|

1078 |Amicitia pares aut invenit aut facit.| In Mich., 7.

1079 Prov. VIII, 31: |Deliciae meae esse cum filiis hominum.|

1080 V. supra, Art.1, No.3.

1081 Cfr. St. Thomas, Comment. in Quatuor Libros Sent., III, dist.37, qu.2, art.1, ad 10: |Amicitia dicitur esse non latens, non quod per certitudinem amor amid cognoscatur, sed quia per signa probabilia amor mutuus habentium coligitur. Et talis manifestatio potest esse de caritate, inquantum per aliqua signa potest aliquis probabiliter aestimare se habere caritatem.|

1082 Cfr. Ecclus. XXXIV, 14 sqq.

1083 Cfr. St. Thomas, op. cit., III, dist.29, qu.1, art.3, ad 4: |Si esset possibile, quod ex nostris operibus aliquid Deo accresceret, habens caritatem multo plura faceret propter beatitudinem ei conservandam, quam propter eam sibi adipiscendam.|

1084 1 John III, 17: |Qui habuerit substantiam huius mundi et viderit fratrem suum necessitatem habere et clauserit viscera sua ab eo, quomodo caritas Dei ({GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH DASIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI} {GREEK CAPITAL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI}) manet in ea?|

1085 V. supra, Art.1, No.4.

1086 The singular opinion of Ripalda (De Caritate, disp.33), that such a relation would be possible even in the state of pure nature, is rejected by Suarez as incorrect (De Caritate, disp.3, sect.5, n.4). On the whole question cfr. Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.305 sqq.

1087 Conc. Trident., Sess. VI, cap.4: |... status gratiae et adoptionis filiorum Dei.|

1088 Rom. VIII, 15 sqq.: |Accepistis ... spiritum adoptionis filiorum, in quo clamamus Abba, Pater; ipse enim Spiritus testimonium reddit spiritui nostro, quod sumus filii Dei; si autem filii, et haeredes: haeredes quidem Dei, cohaeredes autem Christi.|

1089 1 John III, 1 sq.: |Videte, qualem caritatem dedit nobis Pater, ut filii Dei nominemur et simus ... Carissimi, nunc filii Dei sumus.|

1090 Gal. IV, 5: |... ut adoptionem filiorum reciperemus.|

1091 John I, 12 sq.: |... dedit eis potestatem filios Dei fieri, qui ... ex Deo nati sunt ({GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER XI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA} {GREEK CAPITAL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}, {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} ... {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA} {GREEK CAPITAL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}).|

1092 Summa Theol., 3a, qu.23, art.1: |Adoptio est personae extraneae in filium et haeredem gratuita assumptio.|

1093 Cfr. Gal. IV, 7: |Itaque iam non est servus, sed filius; quod si filius, et haeres per Deum.|

1094 Cfr. Rom. VIII, 17; Gal. IV, 7.

1095 Cfr. St. Thomas, Summa Theol., 3a, qu.23, art.1, ad 2.

1096 Cfr. Conc. Trident., Sess. VI, cap.7: |... per voluntariam susceptionem gratiae et donorum.|

1097 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, The Divine Trinity, pp.49 sqq.

1098 Cfr. John III, 5 sq.; 2 Cor. III, 18; Tit. III, 5 sqq.

1099 Cfr. St. Thomas, Summa Theologica, 3a, qu.23, art.2, ad.2: |For He [God the Father] is Christ's father by natural generation; and this is proper to him: whereas He is our Father by a voluntary operation, which is common to Him and to the Son and the Holy Ghost: so that Christ is not the Son of the whole Trinity, as we are.|

1100 Cfr. St. Thomas, l.c., ad 2.

1101 Suarez, De Incarnatione, disp.49, sect.2, n.5.

1102 This heresy is called Adoptionism; for a refutation of it see Pohle-Preuss, Christology, pp.196 sqq.

1103 1 John III, 1.

1104 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, Soteriology, pp.15 sqq.

1105 Or. in Is., II, 4.

1106 V. infra, Art.3, No.4.

1107 Cfr. J. Scheeben, |Kontroverse ueber die Formalursache der Kindschaft Gottes,| in the Katholik, of Mayence, 1883, I, pp.142 sqq., II, pp.561 sqq.; 1884, I, 18 sqq. II, 465 sqq., 610 sqq.; Granderath, |Kontroverse ueber die Gotteskindschaft,| in the Innsbruck Zeitschrift fuer kath. Theologie, 1881, pp.283 sqq., 1883, pp.491 sqq., 593 sqq., 1884, pp.545 sqq.

1108 De Trinitate, VIII, 4 sqq.

1109 Comment. in S. Theol., 3a, qu.23, art.3.

1110 Cfr. Gal. IV, 7. On the subject of the adoptive sonship of the just the student may profitably consult A. Rademacher, Die uebernatuerliche Lebensordnung nach der paulinischen und johanneischen Theologie, pp.97 sqq., Freiburg 1903.

1111 V. supra, p.340.

1112 Cat. Rom., P. II, c.1, n.51: |Huic [gratiae sanctificanti] additur nobilissimus omnium virtutum comitatus, quae in animam cum gratia divinitus infunduntur.|

1113 Conc. Trident., Sess. VI, cap.7: |Unde in ipsa iustificatione cum remissione peccatorum haec omnia simul infusa accipit homo per Iesum Christum, cui inseritur, fidem, spem et caritatem.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.800.) The question whether the three theological virtues are genuine habitus operativi, must be answered in the affirmative; but its denial incurs no censure so long as the distinction existing between these habitual virtues and actual grace is left intact. It is of faith that habitual charity is infused simultaneously with habitual grace. Cfr. Conc. Trident., Sess. VI, can.11: |Si quis dixerit, homines iustificari ... exclusa gratia et caritate, quae in cordibus eorum per Spiritum Sanctum diffundatur atque illis inhaereat, anathema sit.| On the bearing of this definition see Tepe, Instit. Theol., Vol. III, pp.175 sq., Paris 1896; Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.315 sqq., Freiburg 1901.

1114 Rom. V, 5: |Caritas Dei ({GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH DASIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI} {GREEK CAPITAL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI}) diffusa est ({GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER CHI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}) in cordibus nostris per Spiritum Sanctum, qui datus est nobis.|

1115 1 Cor. XIII, 2: |Et si habuero omnem fidem, ita ut montes transferam, caritatem autem non habuero, nihil sum.|

1116 1 Cor. XIII, 13: |Nunc autem manent fides, spes, caritas ({GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}, {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}, {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}), tria haec; maior autem horum est caritas.|

1117 Quaestiones Disputatae de Virtutibus in Communi, art.12: |Ad hoc autem, quod moveamur recte in finem [scil. Deum], oportet finem esse et cognitum et desideratum. Desiderium autem finis duo exigit, scil. fiduciam de fine obtinendo, quia nullus sapiens movetur ad id quod consequi non potest; et amorem finis, quia non desideratur nisi amatum. Et ideo virtutes theologicae sunt tres, scil. fides qua Deum cognoscimus, spes qua ipsum nos obtenturos esse speramus, et caritas qua eum diligimus.|

1118 Sess. VI, cap.7.

1119 This thesis is not, however, so certain that it would be wrong to contradict it, as has actually been done by Scotus, Durandus, and others. Cfr. Suarez, De Gratia, VI, 9, 12.

1120 Cfr. St. Thomas, Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.57 sqq. That the cardinal virtues are four in number, St. Thomas proves as follows: |[Bonum rationis] potest dupliciter considerari: uno modo, prout habet rationein consiliabilis et eligibilis, secundum quam ratio circa illud operatur et sic est prudentia, quae est media inter intellectuales et morales; ... alio modo, secundum quod habet rationem boni appetibilis. Ad appetitum autem duo pertinent, scil. actio et passio; passio autem est in irascibili et concupiscibili. Circa actiones ergo est iustitia, circa passiones irascibiles est fortitudo, circa passiones concupiscibiles est temperantia. Et sic sunt quatuor virtutes cardinales.| (Comment. in Quatuor Libros Sent., III, dist.33, qu.2, art.1, solut.3.)

1121 Wis. VIII, 7: |Et si iustitiam quis diligit, labores huius magnas habent virtutes; sobrietatem enim et prudentiam docet [Deus] et iustitiam et virtutem, quibus utilius nihil est in vita hominibus.|

1122 Ez. XI, 19 sq.: |Et auferam cor lapideum de came eorum et dabo eis cor carneum, ut in praeceptis meis ambulent et iudicia mea custodiant.|

1123 Cfr. Jer. XXXI, 33; Col. I, 10 sq.; 1 John II, 27.

1124 In Ps., 83: |Istae virtutes nunc in convalle plorationis per gratiam Dei donantur nobis.|

1125 Hom. in Ezech., I, 5, n.11: |In fide enim, spe atque caritate, et in aliis bonis, sine quibus ad coelestem patriam non potest perveniri, ... perfectorum corda [Spiritus Sanctus] non deserit.|

1126 Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.63, art.3: |Oportet effectus esse suis causis et principiis proportionatos. Omnes autem virtutes tam intellectuales quam morales, quae ex nostris actibus acquiruntur, procedunt ex quibusdam naturalibus principiis in nobis praeexistentibus.... Loco quorum naturalium principiorum conferuntur nobis a Deo virtutes theologicae, quibus ordinamur ad finem supernaturalem.... Unde oportet quod his etiam virtutibus theologicis proportionaliter respondeant alii habitus divinitus causati in nobis, qui sic se habent ad virtutes theologicas sicut se habent virtutes morales et intellectuales ad principia naturalia virtutum.| For further information on this subject consult Heinrich-Gutberlet, Dogmatische Theologie, Vol. VIII, § 471, Mainz 1897; Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.319 sqq., Freiburg 1901; Van Noort, De Gratia Christi, pp.161 sqq., Amsterdam 1908.

1127 Cfr. Gregory of Valentia, Comment. in S. Theol., 1a 2ae, disp.5, qu.8, p.1: |Dona Spiritus S. potentias animae perficiunt ad actiones quasdam heroicas, ... qua ratione peculiariter procedunt ex divino quodam Spiritus S. instinctu, quo mens nostra plerumque mirabiliter solet agi et impelli ad quaedam opera praestantia et rara.... Atque ita in usu donorum homo potius agitur, in usu autem virtuturn se habet potius ut agens.| Cfr. Simar, Dogmatik, Vol. II, 4th ed., pp.641 sqq., Freiburg 1899; Van Noort, De Gratia Christi, pp.174 sqq.

1128 Rom. VIII, 9 sqq.

1129 Cfr. Is. XI, 1 sqq.; LXI, 1; Luke IV, 18.

1130 |Da tuis fidelibus, in te confitentibus, sacrum septenarium.| (Missale Rom., Sequence for Whit Sunday.) For a more detailed treatment of the subject dealt with in Thesis III consult J. Kleutgen, Theologie der Vorzeit, Vol. II, 2nd ed., pp.365 sqq., Muenster 1872; C. Weiss, S. Thomae Aquinatis de Septem Donis Spiritus S. Doctrina, Vienne 1895; J. Regler, Die sieben Gaben des Hl. Geistes in ihrer Bedeutung fuer das christliche Leben, Ratisbon 1899; Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.337 sqq., Freiburg 1901. On the connection of the gifts of the Holy Ghost with the beatitudes (cfr. Matth. V, 3 sqq.) and the |twelve fruits of the Holy Ghost| (cfr. Gal. V, 22 sq.), see St. Thomas, Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.69 and 70. The student may also consult Suarez, De Gratia, VI, 10, and Vasquez, Comment. in S. Theol., III, disp.44, cap.2.

1131 Cfr. St. Bonaventure, Compendium Theol. Verit., I, 9: |In iustificatione duplex caritas nobis datur, scil. creata et increata: illa qua diligimus, et illa qua diligimur.... Ex his colligitur, quod licet Deus sit in omnibus per essentiam, praesentiam et potentiam, non tamen habetur ab omnibus per gratiam.|

1132 John XIV, 16 sq.: |... alium Paraclitum dabit vobis, ut maneat vobiscum in aeternum.... Vos autem cognoscetis eum, quia apud vos manebit et in vobis ({GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH DASIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}) erit.|

1133 Rom. V, 5: |Caritas Dei diffusa est in cordibus nostris per Spiritum sanctum, qui datus est nobis.|

1134 Rom. VIII, 11: |Quodsi Spiritus eius, qui suscitavit Iesum a mortuis, habitat in vobis ({GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PERISPOMENI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH DASIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}), qui suscitavit Iesnm Christum a mortuis, vivificabit et mortalia corpora vestra propter inhabitantem Spiritum eius in vobis ({GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH DASIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}).|

1135 |Nescitis, quia templum Dei ({GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK CAPITAL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI}) estis et Spiritus Dei habitat in vobis ({GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PERISPOMENI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH DASIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU})?... Templum enim Dei sanctum est, quod estis vos.|

1136 1 Cor.6, 19: |An nescitis, quoniam membra vestra templum sunt Spiritus S., qui in vobis est, quem habetis a Deo et non estis vestri?| Cfr. Rom. VIII, 9; Gal. IV, 6; 2 Cor. VI, 16.

1137 Ep. ad Serap., I, n.24.

1138 {GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}.

1139 Contra Eunom., I, V.

1140 Dialog., VII, per totum.

1141 De Trinitate, XV, n.36: |Ita enim datur sicut donum Dei, ut etiam seipsum det sicut Deus.|

1142 Serm., 144, c.1: |Gratia quippe Dei donum Dei est; donum autem maximum ipse Spiritus Sanctus est, et ideo gratia dicitur.|

1143 Enchiridion, c.37: |Et utique Spiritus Sanctus Dei donum est, quod quidem et ipsum est aequale donanti; et ideo Deus est etiam Spiritus Sanctus, Patre Filioque non minor.| Additional Patristic texts of like tenor in Petavius, De Trinitate, l. VIII, cap.4 sq.: Franzelin, De Deo Trino, thes.43; J. Kleutgen, Theologie der Vorseit, Vol. II, 2nd ed., pp.369 sqq.

1144 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, The Divine Trinity, pp.230 sqq.

1145 John XIV, 23: |Si quis diligit me, sermonem meum servabit, et Pater meus diliget eum, et ad eum veniemus et mansionem ({GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}) apud eum faciemus.|

1146 Ep.1 ad Serap., n.30: |Ex his una Trinitatis {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA} ostenditur ... profecto quum Dominus ait: Veniemus ego et Pater, simul venit Spiritus, non alio modo quam ut Filius in nobis habitaturus.|

1147 De Trinit., XV, 18, 32: |Dilectio igitur, quae ex Deo est et Deus est, proprie Spiritus S. est, per quem diffunditur in cordibus nostris Dei caritas, per quam nos tota inhabitat Trinitas.|

1148 For a more detailed treatment see Franzelin, De Deo Trino, thes.43-48, Rome 1881.

1149 Cfr. Pseudo-Dionys. Areop., De Hier. Eccl., 1, § 3 (Migne, P. G., III, 376): {GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ETA WITH DASIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH DASIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK CAPITAL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PHI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH DASIA AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}.

1150 Cfr. Petavius, De Trinit., VIII, 7, 12: |Ostendimus enim non semel, coniunctionem illam Spiritus S. neque {GREEK SMALL LETTER PHI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} neque {GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH DASIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} esse, h. e. neque naturalem neque personalem, quasi una fiat ex ambobus natura vel persona. Non enim quia et illi per adoptionis gratiam filii Dei sunt, ait Augustinus (In Ps.67), ideo quisquam illorum est unigenitus. Neque enim ex personarum duarum copulatione unum aliquid per sese, sed {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER BETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER BETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} potest effici.|

1151 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, The Divine Trinity, pp.244 sqq.

1152 Cfr. Scheeben, Die Mysterien des Christentums, 2nd ed., p.165, Freiburg 1898.

1153 Cfr. John XIV, 23; XVII, 20 sqq.

1154 Gutberlet takes middle ground between the two theories and tries to reconcile them. Cfr. Heinrich-Gutberlet, Dogmatische Theologie, Vol. VIII, § 468. See also A. Rademacher, Die uebernatuerliche Lebensordnung nach der paulinischen und johanneischen Theologie, pp.193 sqq., Freiburg 1903.

1155 Cfr. R. F. Clarke, S. J., Logic, p.174.

1156 |Fides fiducialis,| v. supra, pp.255 sqq.

1157 Sess. VI, cap.9; Denzinger-Bannwart, n.684.

1158 Sess. VI, can.13-15; Denzinger-Bannwart, n.823 sqq.

1159 1 Cor. IV, 4: |Nihil enim mihi conscius sum, sed non in hoc iustificatus sum; qui autem iudicat me, Dominus est.|

1160 1 Cor. IX, 27: |Castigo corpus meum et in servitutem redigo, ne forte, quum aliis praedicaverim, ipse reprobus ({GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}) efficiar.|

1161 Phil. II, 12: |Cum metu et tremore vestram salutem operamini.| Other Scriptural texts in Bellarmine, De Iustificatione, III, 4 sqq. For the solution of certain exegetical difficulties see the same author, op. cit., III, 9, and Tepe, Instit. Theol., Vol. III, pp.210 sqq., Paris 1896.

1162 Hom. in I. Epist. ad Cor., 2.

1163 Eccles. IX, 1 sq.: |Nescit homo, utrum amore an odio dignus, etc.|

1164 Hieronymus in h. l. (Migne, P. L., XXIII, 1080): |In futuro igitur scient omnia et in vultu eorum sunt omnia, i.e. antecedet eos, quum de hac vita decesserint, notitia istius rei quia tunc est iudicum et nunc certamen. Et quicunque adversa sustinent, utrum per amorem Dei sustineant, ut Iob, an per odium, ut plurimi peccatores, nunc habetur incertum.|

1165 Ep., VII, 25: |Rem et inutilem et difficilem postulasti: difficilem quidem, quia ego indignus sum, cui revelatio fieri debeat; inutilem vero, quia secura de peccatis tuis fieri non debes, nisi quum iam in die vitae tuae ultimo plangere eadem peccata minime valebis.| The Patristic argument is more fully developed by Bellarmine, De Iustif., III, 7.

1166 Dogmengeschichte, Vol. III, p.617.

1167 Conc. Trident., Sess. VI, cap.9: |Sicut nemo pius de Dei misericordia, de Christi merito deque sacramentorum efficacia dubitare debet, sic quilibet, dum seipsum suamque propriam infirmitatem et indispositionem respicit, de sua gratia formidare et timere potest, quum nullus scire valeat certitudine fidei, cui non potest subesse falsum, se gratiam Dei esse consecutum.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.802.)

1168 |Peirorem sequitur semper conclusio partem.| Cfr. Clarke, Logic, p.322.

1169 Cfr. Conc. Trident., Sess. VI, can.16: |Si quis magnum illud usque in finem perseverantiae donum se certo habiturum absoluta et infallibili certitudine dixerit, nisi hoc speciali revelatione didicerit, anathema sit.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.826.)

1170 In his little treatise De Certitudine Gratiae.

1171 Sess. VI, cap.9: |... iustificatos absque ulla dubitatione apud semetipsos statuere, se esse iustificatos.|

1172 Rom. VIII, 38 sq.: |Certus sum enim ({GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}=persuasum habeo), quia neque mors neque vita ... poterit nos separare a caritate Dei, quae est in Christo Iesu.|

1173 Tract. in Ioa., I, 3, 5, n.10: |Quid nos scimus? Quia transivimus de morte ad vitam. Unde scimus? Quia diligimus fratres. Nemo interroget hominem, redeat unusquisque ad cor suum; si ibi invenerit caritatem fraternam, securus sit, quia transiit a morte ad vitam.|

1174 Cfr. the Imitation of Christ by Thomas a Kempis, III, 54 sqq. On the whole subject of this subdivision the student may profitably consult the Summa Theologica of St. Thomas, 1a 2ae, qu.112, art.5; Suarez, De Gratia, IX, 9-11, and Billuart, De Gratia, diss.6, art.4.

1175 Serm. de Nativitate Mariae: |Omnes Christiani aeque magni sumus sicut mater Dei, et aeque sancti sicut ipsa.|

1176 Sess. VI, cap.7: |Iustitiam in nobis recipientes, unusquisque suam secundum mensuram, quam Spiritus Sanctus partitur singulis prout vult, et secundum propriam cuiusque dispositionem et cooperationem.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.799.)

1177 Sess. VI, cap.10: |Iustificati ... in ipsa iustitia per Christi gratiam accepta, cooperante fide bonis operibus crescunt atque magis iustificantur.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.803.)

1178 Sess. VI, can.24: |Si quis dixerit, iustitiam acceptam non conservari atque etiam augeri coram Deo per bona opera, sed opera ipsa fructus solummodo et signa esse iustificationis adeptae, non autem ipsius augendae causam, anathema sit.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.834.)

1179 Prov. IV, 18: |Iustorum autem semita quasi lux splendens procedit et crescit usque ad perfectam diem.|

1180 Ecclus. XVIII, 22: |Non impediaris orare semper et ne verearis usque ad mortem iustificari, quoniam merces Dei manet in aeternum.|

1181 2 Pet. III, 18: |Crescite vero in gratia et in cognitione Domini nostri et Salvatoris Iesu Christi.|

1182 2 Cor. IX, 10: |[Deus] augebit incrementa frugum iustitiae vestrae.|

1183 Eph. IV, 7: |Unicuique autem nostrum data est gratia secundum mensuram donationis Christi.|

1184 Apoc. XXII, 11 sq.: |Qui iustus est, iustificetur adhuc, et sanctus sanctificetur adhuc. Ecce venio cito et merces mea mecum est, reddere unicuique secundum opera sua.| Cfr. Bellarmine, De Iustific., III, 16.

1185 Contra Iovin., II, n.23: |Unicuique nostrum data est gratia iuxta mensuram gratiae (Eph.4, 7); non quod mensura Christi diversa sit, sed tantum gratiae eius infunditur, quantum valemus haurire.|

1186 Ep., 167, n.13: |Induti sunt sancti iustitia (Job 29, 14), alius magis, alius minus; et nemo hic vivit sine peccato et hoc alius magis, alius minus: optimus autem est qui minimum.|

1187 Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.112, art.4, ad 3: |Vita naturalis pertinet ad substantiam hominis, et ideo non recipit magis et minus; sed vitam gratiae participat homo accidentaliter, et ideo eam potest homo magis vel minus habere.| On the teaching of Tradition cfr. Alb. a Bulsano, Instit. Theol. Dogmat., ed. G. a Graun, O. Cap., Vol. II, p.254, Innsbruck 1894.

1188 Ecclus. XVIII, 22; Apoc. XXII, 11.

1189 Cfr. Vasquez, Comment. in Summam Theol., 1a 2ae, disp.221, cap.9, n.77.

1190 Ecclus. XIX, 1: |Qui spernit modica, paulatim decidet.| For a fuller treatment of this subject we refer the student to St. Thomas, Summa Theol., 2a 2ae, qu.24, art.10.

1191 V. supra, pp.328 sqq.

1192 Cfr. Suarez, Disp. Metaph., l. II, disp.16.

1193 The authority of St. Thomas himself can be invoked by neither party to this controversy. Cfr. Sylvius, Comment. in S. Theol., 2a 2ae, qu.24, art.3.

1194 For a fuller treatment of this topic see Tepe, Instit. Theol., Vol. III, pp.217 sqq.

1195 V. supra, pp.336 sqq.

1196 Suarez, De Gratia, IX, 2, 13.

1197 Suarez, op. cit., IX, 4, 15.

1198 Sess. VI, cap.10: |Hoc vero iustitiae incrementum petit sancta Ecclesia, quum orat: Da nobis, Domine, fidei, spei et caritatis augmentum.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.803). Cfr. De Lugo, De Fide, disp.16, sect.2.

1199 Cfr. St. Thomas, Summa Theol., 2a 2ae, qu.24, art.7.

1200 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, Christology, pp.231 sqq.

1201 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, Mariology, pp.24 sqq.

1202 For a more elaborate treatment the reader is referred to Suarez, De Gratia, IX, 6, 11, and Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.570 sq., Freiburg 1901.

1203 Sess. VI, can.23: |Si quis hominem semel iustificatum dixerit amplius peccare non posse neque gratiam amittere atque ideo eum, qui labitur et peccat, numquam vere fuisse iustificatum; ... anathema sit.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.833.)

1204 Sess. VI, can.27: |Si quis dixerit, nullum esse mortale peccatum nisi infidelitatis, aut nullo alio quantumvis gravi et enormi praeterquam infidelitatis peccato semel acceptam gratiam amitti, anathema sit.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.837).

1205 Sess. VI, cap.11: |Licet in hac mortali vita quantumvis sancti et iusti in levia saltem et quotidiana, quae etiam venialia dicuntur, peccata quandoque cadant, non propterea desinunt esse iusti.|

1206 Ez. XVIII, 24: |Si autem averterit se iustus a iustitia sua, et fecerit iniquitatem secundum omnes abominationes, quas operari solet impius, numquid vivet? Omnes iustitiae eius, quas fecerat, non recordabuntur; in praevaricatione, qua praevaricatus est, et in peccato suo, quod peccavit, in ipsis morietur.|

1207 Matth. XXVI, 41: |Vigilate et orate, ut non intretis in tentationem.|

1208 1 Cor. X, 12: |Qui se existitmat stare, videat ne cadat.|

1209 1 Cor. VI, 9 sq.: |Nolite errare, neque fornicarii neque idolis servientes neque adulteri neque molles neque masculorum concubitores neque fures neque avari neque ebriosi neque maledici neque rapaces regnum Dei possidebunt.| Cfr. Conc. Trident., Sess. VI, cap.15 (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.808).

1210 1 John III, 9: |Omnis, qui natus est ex Deo, peccatum non facit: quoniam semen ipsius in eo manet, et non potest peccare, quoniam ex Deo natus est.|

1211 Contra Iovin., 1. II: |Propterea scribo vobis, filioli mei, omnis qui natus est ex Deo, non peccat, ut non peccetis et tamdiu sciatis vos in generatione Domini permanere, quamdiu non peccaveritis.| On the different interpretations of 1 John III, 9, an admittedly difficult text, see Bellarmine, De Iustific., III, 15.

1212 De Corrept. et Gratia, c. VI, n.9: |Si iam regeneratus et iustificatus in malam vitam sua voluntate relabitur, certe iste non potest dicere: Non accepti, quia acceptam gratiam Dei suo in malum libero amisit arbitrio.|

1213 Hom. in Ez., 9, 1: |Sicuti qui a fide recedit, apostata est, ita qui ad perversum opus, quod deseruerit, redit, ab omnipotente Deo apostata deputatur, etiamsi fidem tenere videatur; unum enim sine altero nil prodesse valet, quia nec fides sine operibus nec opera adiuvant sine fide.|

1214 For the solution of certain difficulties see Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.591 sqq. On the penitential discipline of the early Church cfr. G. Rauschen, Eucharist and Penance in the First Six Centuries, pp.152 sqq., St. Louis 1913.

1215 Cfr. Conc. Trident., Sess. VI, can.28: |Si quis dixerit, amissa per peccatum gratia simul et fidem semper amitti, aut fidem quae remanet non esse veram fidem, licet non sit viva, aut eum qui fidem sine caritate habet, non esse Christianum, anathema sit.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.838.)

1216 Cfr. Conc. Trident., Sess. VI, cap.15: |Non modo infidelitate, per quam et ipsa fides amittitur, sed etiam quocunque alio mortali peccato, quamvis non amittatur fides, acceptam iustificationis gratiam amitti.|

1217 Cfr. Prop. Quesnelli damn. a Clemente XI, prop.57: |Totum deest peccatori, quando ei deest spes, et non est spes in Deo, ubi non est amor Dei.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1407.)

1218 V. supra, Section 2.

1219 The questions discussed in this subdivision of our treatise are more fully treated by Ripalda, De Ente Supernaturali, disp.128, sect.4, and by Suarez, De Gratia, IX, 3 sqq.

1220 Sess. VI, cap.16.

1221 V. supra, p.131.

1222 V. supra, pp.132 sqq.

1223 Realitas sive existentia meriti.

1224 Conditiones meriti.

1225 Obiecta meriti.

1226 Cfr. Conc. Viennense, A. D.1311 (Clementin., l. V, tit.3: |De Haereticis|) in Denzinger-Bannwart, n.471 sqq.

1227 |In omni opere bono iustus peccat.| Prop. Lutheri Damnatae A. D.1520 a Leone X, prop.31 (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.771).

1228 |Opus bonum, optime factum est veniale peccatum.| Prop.32, l. c., n.772.

1229 |Omne opus iusti damnabile est et peccatum mortale, si iudicio Dei iudicetur.|

1230 |Inquinamenta et sordes.| Instit., III, 12, 4.

1231 Quietism (Michael de Molinos et al.) denied the meritoriousness of good works performed in the |state of passive repose| (quies).

1232 |Debetur merces bonis operibus, si fiant; sed gratia, quae non debetur, praecedit ut fiant.| Can.18 (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.191.)

1233 Cap. Firmiter: |Non solum autem virgines et continentes, verum etiam coniugati per rectam fidem et operationem bonam placentes Deo ad aeternam merentur beatitudinem pervenire.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.430.)

1234 Sess. VI, cap.16: |Atque ideo bene operantibus usque in finem et in Deo sperantibus proponenda est vita aeterna et tamquam gratia filiis Dei per Christum Iesum misericorditer promissa et tamquam merces ex ipsius Dei promissione bonis ipsorum operibus et meritis fideliter reddenda.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.809.)

1235 Sess. VI, can.25: |Si quis in quolibet bono opere iustum saltem venialiter peccare dixerit, aut quod intolerabilius est, mortaliter atque ideo poenas aeternas mereri, tantumque ob id non damnari quia Deus ea opera non imputat ad damnationem, anathema sit.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.835.)

1236 Sess. VI, can.26: |Si quis dixerit, iustos non debere pro bonis operibus, quae in Deo fuerint facta, exspectare et sperare aeternam retributionem a Deo per eius misericordiam et Iesu Christi meritum, si bene agendo et divina mandata custodiendo usque in finem perseveraverint, anathema sit.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.836.)

1237 Sess. VI, can.32: |Si quis dixerit, ... ipsum iustificatum bonis operibus, quae ab eo per Dei gratiam et Iesu Christi meritum, cuius vivum membrum est, fiunt, non vere mereri augmentum gratiae, ... anathema sit.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.842.)

1238 Cfr. Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1221 sqq.

1239 Wisd. V, 16: |Iusti autem in perpetuum vivent et apud Dominum est merces eorum.|

1240 Ecclus. XVIII, 22: |Ne verearis usque ad mortem iustificari, quoniam merces Dei manet in aeternum.| Cfr. Gen. XV, 1.

1241 Matth. V, 12: |Gaudete et exultate, quoniam merces vestra copiosa est in caelis.|

1242 Rom. II, 6 sq.: |... qui reddet unicuique secundum opera eius, iis quidem, qui secundum patientiam boni operis gloriam et honorem et incorruptionem quaerunt, vitam aeternam.|

1243 2 Tim. IV, 7 sq.: |Bonum certamen certavi, cursum consummavi, fidem servavi. In reliquo reposita est mihi corona iustitiae, quam reddet mihi Dominus in illa die iustus iudex; non solum autem mihi, sed et iis qui diligunt adventum eius.| Cfr.1 Cor. IX, 25.

1244 1 Cor. III, 8: |Unusquisque autem propriam mercedem accipiet, secundum suum laborem.|

1245 Col. III, 23 sq.: |Quodcunque facitis, ex animo operamini sicut Domino et non hominibus, scientes quod a Domino accipietis retributionem haereditatis.|

1246 Iac. I, 12: |Beatus vir, qui suffert tentationem, quoniam, quum probatus fuerit, accipiet coronam vitae, quam repromisit Deus diligentibus se.|

1247 Apoc. II, 10: |Esto fidelis usque ad mortem, et dabo tibi coronam vitae.| For additional Scripture texts see Bellarmine, De Iustificatione, V, 3, 5.

1248 Ep. ad Rom., IV, 1.

1249 Adv. Haer., IV, 37.

1250 De Offic., I, 15, 57: |Nonne evidens est, meritorum aut praemia aut supplicia post mortem manere?|

1251 De Moribus Ecclesiae, I, 25: |Vita aeterna est totum praemium, cuius promissione gaudemus, nec praemium potest praecedere merita priusque homini dari, quam dignus est. Quid enim hoc iniustius et quid iustius Deo? Non ergo debemus poscere praemia, antequam mereamur accipere.|

1252 Ep. ad Sixt., 194, n.20: |Sicut merito peccati tamquam stipendium redditur mors, ita merito iustitiae tamquam stipendium vita aeterna.... Unde etiam et merces appellatur plurimis s. Scripturarum locis.| Other Patristic texts inculcating the meritoriousness of good works performed in the state of grace can be found in Bellarmine, De Iustif., V, 4, 6. For the solution of objections raised against the Patristic argument consult Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.609 sqq.

1253 Cfr. St. Thomas, Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.21, art.4.

1254 Cfr. Prop. Baii damn, a Pio V, 13 (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1013): |Opera bona a filiis adoptionis facta non accipiunt rationem meriti ex eo, quod fiunt per Spiritum adoptionis inhabitantem corda filiorum Dei, sed tantum ex eo, quod sunt conformia legi quodque per ea praestatur obedientia legi.|

1255 Cfr. Conc. Trident., Sess. VI, cap.16: |Absit, ut Christianus homo in se ipso vel confidat vel glorietur, et non in Domino, cuius tanta est erga homines bonitas, ut eorum velit esse merita, quae sunt ipsius dona.|

1256 Conc. Florent., A. D.1439, (apud Denzinger-Bannwart, n.693): |... et intueri clare ipsum Deum trinum et unum, sicuti est, pro meritorum tamen diversitate alium alio perfectius.|

1257 V. supra, pp.356 sqq.

1258 Conc. Trident., Sess. XIV, cap.8: |Ita non habet homo, unde glorietur, sed omnis gloriatio nostra in Christo est, in quo vivimus, in quo movemur, in quo satisfacimus facientes fructus dignos poenitentiae, qui ex illo vim habent, ab illo offeruntur Patri et per illum acceptantur a Patre.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.904.)

1259 Cfr. Conc. Trident., Sess. VI, can.33: |Si quis dixerit, per hanc doctrinam catholicam de iustificatione, a s. Synodo hoc praesenti decreto expressam, aliqua ex parte gloriae Dei vel meritis Iesu Christi D. N. derogari, et non potius veritatem fidei nostrae, Dei denique ac Christi Iesu gloriam illustrari, anathema sit.|

1260 Cfr. Bellarmine, De Iustificatione, V, 7. See also the article on |Merit| in the Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. X.

1261 Sess. VI, cap.16: |vere promeruisse;| Sess. VI, can.32: |vere mereri.|

1262 Hist. Conc. Trident., VIII, 4.

1263 |Operibus post acceptam iustificationem peractis adeoque divina gratia informatis redditisque ob merita Christi potentioribus, cuius vivum membrum est is qui ea peragit, omnes concedebant rationem meriti condigni ad conservandam augendamque eandem gratiam aeternaeque felicitatis consequendam.| (Pallavicini, l.c.)

1264 V. infra, Sect.2.

1265 Heb. VI, 10: |Non enim iniustus est Deus, ut obliviscatur operis vestri.|

1266 2 Tim. IV, 8: |... reposita est mihi,| etc. See note 24, supra, p.403.

1267 Iac. I, 12: |Beatus vir, qui suffert tentationem,| etc. V. supra, note 27, p.403.

1268 Wisd. III, 5: |Deus tentavit eos et invenit illos dignos se.|

1269 2 Thess. I, 4 sq.: |In omnibus persecutionibus vestris et tribulationibus, quas sustinetis in exemplum iusti iudicii Dei, ut digni habeamini in regno Dei, pro quo et patimini.|

1270 Apoc. III, 4: |Ambulabunt mecum in albis, quia digni sunt.|

1271 Matth. XXV, 34 sq.: |Venite, benedicti Patris mei, possidete paratum vobis regnum a constitutione mundi; esurivi enim et dedistis mihi manducare....|

1272 1 John III, 9.

1273 Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.114, art.3, ad 3: |Gratia Spiritus S., quam in praesenti habemus, etsi non sit aequalis gloriae in actu, est tamen aequalis in virtute, sicut semen arboris, in quo est virtus ad totam arborem. Et similiter per gratiam inhabitat hominem Spiritus S., qui est sufficiens causa vitae aeternae, unde et dicitur esse pignus haereditatis nostrae.|

1274 Summa Theol., 1a, qu.21, art.4, ad 1.

1275 Luke VI, 38: |Date, et dabitur vobis: mensuram bonam, et confectam, et coagitatam, et supereffluentem dabunt in sinum vestrum.| Cfr. Prop. Baii damn. A. D.1567 a Pio V, 14 (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1014): |Opera bona iustorum non accipient in die iudicii extremi mercedem ampliorem, quam iusto Dei iudicio mereantur accipere.| For further information on this topic consult Bellarmine, De Iustificatione, V, 19; De Lugo, De Poenitentia, disp.24, n.10. The Thomistic axiom, |Deus punit citra condignum et remunerat ultra condignum| and Baius' condemned proposition are interpreted somewhat differently than we have explained them by Suarez, De Gratia, XII, 31, 14. On the general argument of this Section the student may profitably consult St. Bonaventure, Breviloquium, P. V, § 12; Billuart, De Gratia, diss.8, art.3; Tepe, Instit. Theol., Vol. III, pp.226 sqq., Paris 1896; Chr. Pesch, Praelect. Dogmat., Vol. V, 3rd ed., pp.218 sqq., Freiburg 1908; Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.614 sqq., Freiburg 1901.

1276 Eph. VI, 8: |Scientes, quoniam unusquisque, quodcunque fecerit bonum, hoc recipiet a Domino.|

1277 2 Cor. V, 10: |Omnes enim nos manifestari oportet ante tribunal Christi, ut referat unusquisque propria corporis, prout gessit, sive bonum sive malum.|

1278 Cfr. St. Thomas, Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.114, art.1, ad 1: |Homo, in quantum propria voluntate facit illud quod debet, meretur; alioquin actus iustitiae, quo quis reddit debitum, non esset meritorius.|

1279 Cfr. Suarez, De Gratia, X, 2, 5 sqq.

1280 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural, pp.291 sqq.

1281 1 Cor. IX, 17: |Si enim volens hoc ago, mercedem habeo.|

1282 Matth. XIX, 17: |Si autem vis ad vitam ingredi, serva mandata.|

1283 Contra Jovin., 1. II, n.3: |Ubi necessitas est, nec corona nec damnatio est.|

1284 For a more extensive treatment of this and allied questions consult Ripalda, De Ente Supernaturali, disp.74, sect.3; De Lugo, De Incarnatione, disp.26, sect.10, n.126 sq.

1285 V. supra, pp.82 sqq.

1286 Especially Banez (Comment. in S. Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.24, art.6, dub.6). This view is also taken by the so-called Augustinians.

1287 Notably Billuart; see his treatise De Gratia, diss.8, art.4.

1288 De Iustificatione, V, 15: |Non sufficere, si quis ad initium anni vel mensis vel etiam diei generali quadam intentione referat omnia sua futura opera in Deum, sed necesse esse ut illud ipsum opus particulare referatur in Deum, quod postea faciendum est.|

1289 Summa Theologica, 1a 2ae, qu.114, art.4: |Et ideo meritum vitae aeternae primo pertinet ad caritatem, ad alias autem virtutes secundario, secundum quod earum actus a caritate imperantur.| And again, l.c., ad 3: |Similiter etiam actus patientiae et fortitudinis non est meritorius, nisi aliquis ex caritate haec operetur.| On the true sense of these passages cfr. Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.647 sqq.

1290 Cfr. Prop. damn. ab Innocentio XI, prop.6 (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1156): |Probabile est, ne singulis quidem rigorose quinquenniis per se obligare praeceptum caritatis erga Deum.|

1291 Cfr. J. Ernst, Die Notwendigkeit der guten Meinung. Untersuchungen ueber die Gottesliebe als Prinzip der Sittlichkeit und Verdienstlichkeit, Freiburg 1905.

1292 De Gratia, IX, 3.

1293 Comment. in S. Theol., 1a 2ae, disp.220.

1294 Concilium Trident., Sess. VI, cap.16: |Haec est enim illa corona iustitiae, quam post suum certamen et cursum repositam sibi esse aiebat Apostolus a iusto iudice sibi reddendam, non solum autem sibi, sed et omnibus qui diligunt adventum eius. Quum enim ille ipse Christus Iesus tamquam caput in membra et tamquam vitis in palmites in ipsos iustificatos iugiter virtutem influat, quae virtus bona eorum opera semper antecedit et comitatur et subsequitur et sine qua nullo pacto Deo grata et meritoria esse possent, nihil ipsis iustificatis amplius deesse credendum est, quominus plene illis quidem operibus, quae in Deo [=per Deum; v. Sess. VI, can.26, 32] sunt facta, divinae legi pro huius vitae statu satisfecisse et vitam aeternam suo etiam tempore, si tamen in gratia decesserint, consequendam vere promeruisse censeantur.| (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.809.)

1295 Cfr. Matth. V, 2 sqq.

1296 Matth. XIX, 16: |Quid boni faciam, ut habeam vitam aeternam?|

1297 Matth. XIX, 17: |Si autem vis ad vitam ingredi, serva mandata.|

1298 Cfr. Matth. XIX, 18 sqq.

1299 The Scriptural argument is more fully developed by Tepe, Inst. Theol., Vol. III, pp.233 sqq.

1300 V. supra, pp.73 sqq.

1301 On a similar controversy regarding the necessity of the motive of faith, see Pesch, Praelect. Dogmat., Vol. III, 3rd ed., pp.225 sqq., and Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.649 sqq.

1302 The Scriptural proof for this proposition will be found in the dogmatic treatise on Eschatology. On the absurdity of the semi-Pelagian hypothesis of merita sub conditione futura see Pohle-Preuss, God: His Knowability, Essence, and Attributes, pp.375 sq.

1303 Cfr. Prop. Baii damn.1567 a Pio V, prop.17 (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1017): |Sentiunt cum Pelagio, qui dicunt esse necessarium ad rationem meriti, ut homo per gratiam adoptionis sublimetur ad statum deificum.|

1304 John XV, 4: |Sicut palmes non potest ferre fructum a semetipso, nisi manserit in vite, sic nec vos, nisi in me manseritis.|

1305 Rom. VIII, 17: |Si autem filii, et haeredes; haeredes quidem Dei, cohaeredes autem Christi.| Additional Biblical texts in Bellarmine, De Iustificatione, V, 12 sq.

1306 Comment. in S. Theol., 3a, disp.6, cap.4.

1307 Suarez (De Gratia, XII, 22), Ripalda (De Ente Supernaturali, disp.81), De Lugo (De Incarnatione, disp.6, sect.2, n.37).

1308 Comment. in Sent., II, dist.29, qu.1, art.4.

1309 Cfr. Job XLII, 8; Dan. III, 35.

1310 Cfr. Scotus, Comment. in Sent., I, dist.17, qu.2.

1311 Cfr. Pohle-Preuss, God: His Knowability, Essence, and Attributes, PP.456 sq.

1312 Rom. VIII, 18: |Non sunt condignae passiones huius temporis ad futuram gloriam.|

1313 De Perfect. Divin., XIII, 2.

1314 Comment. in S. Theol., 1a 2ae, disp.214, 223.

1315 De Incarnatione, disp.3, sect.1 sq.

1316 Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.114, art.1, ad 3: |Dicendum quod, quia actio nostra non habet rationem meriti nisi ex praesuppositione divinae ordinationis, non sequitur quod Deus efficiatur simpliciter debitor nobis, sed sibi ipsi, inquantum debitum est, ut sua ordinatio impleatur.|

1317 Iac. I, 12: |Accipiet coronam vitae [St. Paul says: {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH DASIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PHI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}], quam repromisit ({GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}) Deus diligentibus se.|

1318 Serm., 158, c.2, n.2: |Debitor factus est Deus non aliquid a nobis accipiendo, sed quod ei placuit promittendo. Aliter enim dicimus homini: Debes mihi, quia dedi tibi; et aliter dicimus: Debes mihi, quia promisisti mihi. Deo autem nunquam dicimus: Redde mihi, quia dedi tibi. Quid dedimus Deo, quando totum quod sumus et quod habemus boni, ab illo habemus? Nihil ergo ei dedimus.... Illo ergo modo possumus exigere Dominum nostrum ut dicamus: Redde, quod promisisti, quia fecimus quod iussisti, et hoc tu fecisti, quia laborantes iuvisti.|

1319 Conc. Trident., Sess. VI, cap.16: |In Deo sperantibus proponenda est vita aeterna ... tamquam merces ex ipsius Dei promissione bonis ipsorum operibus et meritis fideliter [i.e. ex fidelitate] reddenda.| Cfr. Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.416 sqq.

1320 Sess. VI, can.32: |Si quis dixerit, iustificatum bonis operibus ... non vere mereri augmentum gratiae, vitam aeternam et ipsius vitae aeternae, si tamen in gratia decesserit, consecutionem atque etiam gloriae augmentum, anathema sit.|

1321 See the article on |Merit| in the Catholic Encyclopedia.

1322 V. supra, Ch. II, Sect.3, Thesis II.

1323 Sess. VI, cap.8: |Gratis autem iustificari ideo dicimur, quia nihil eorum quae iustificationem praecedunt, sive fides, sive opera, ipsam iustificationis gratiam promeretur; si enim gratia est, iam non ex operibus, alioquin, ut idem Apostolus inquit, gratia iam non est gratia.|

1324 V. supra, Sect.2, No.2.

1325 De Natura et Gratia, c.4, n.4: |Haec Christi gratia, sine qua nec infantes nec aetate grandes salvi fieri possunt, non meritis redditur, sed gratis datur, propter quod et gratia nominatur. Iustificati, inquit (Rom. III, 24; V, 4), gratis per sanguinem ipsius.|

1326 Cfr. Conc. Trident., Sess. VI, cap.6; Sess. VI, cap.3; Sess. XIV, cap.4; supra, pp.286 sqq.

1327 For a more exhaustive treatment of this topic consult Tepe, Instit. Theol., Vol. III, pp.158 sqq.

1328 See, for example, Suarez, De Gratia, XII, 26: |De auxiliis sufficientibus et necessariis, quae post aliquod meritum de condigno augmenti gratiae dantur, vel offeruntur, probabile est concomitanter cadere sub idem meritum de condigno augmenti gratiae; nam qui meretur de condigno aliquam formam, meretur quidquid connaturaliter sequitur ex tali forma vel ei connaturaliter debetur.| On the actual distribution of sufficient grace, v. supra, pp.167 sqq.

1329 V. supra, pp.392 sqq.

1330 For a fuller treatment cfr. Tepe, Inst. Theol., Vol. III, pp.258 sqq., and Chr. Pesch, Praelect. Dogmat., Vol. V, 3rd ed., pp.237 sqq.

1331 V. supra, Sect.1.

1332 Sess. VI, cap.16; v. supra, pp.400 sq.

1333 Sess. VI, can.32.

1334 Cfr. Suarez, De Gratia, XII, 29: |Dicendum vitam aeternam et vitae aeternae consecutionem non esse duo praemia distincta, quia mereri mercedem et solutionem mercedis non sunt duae mercedes.|

1335 On the reviviscentia meritorum see the treatise on the Sacrament of Penance, Vol. X of this series; cfr. also Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.661 sqq.

1336 E.g. Ripalda (De Ente Supernat., disp.89, sect.1) and De Lugo (De Incarnatione, disp.3, n.59).

1337 V. supra, Sect.2, No.2.

1338 Cfr. Suarez, De Gratia, XII, 28, and Vasquez, Comment. in S. Theol., 1a 2ae, disp.219, c.2.

1339 Despite Bellarmine's contradiction (De Iustificatione, V, 20.)

1340 Cfr. St. Thomas, Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.122, art.2, ad 1: |Praeparatio hominis ad gratiam habendam quaedam est simul cum ipsa infusione gratiae; et talis operatio est quidem meritoria, sed non gratiae quae iam habetur, sed gloriae quae nondum habetur.|

1341 Cfr. Tepe, Instit. Theol., Vol. III, pp.266 sqq.

1342 Matth. XVI, 27: |Et tunc reddet unicuique secundum opera eius ({GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER XI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI}).|

1343 1 Cor. III, 8: |Unusquisque autem propriam mercedem ({GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}) accipiet secundum suum laborem ({GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}).|

1344 See Eschatology.

1345 Cfr. St. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.114, art.8.

1346 De Praed. Sanctorum, c.2.

1347 V. supra, Sect.2.

1348 Prominent among the dissenters is Billuart (De Gratia, diss.8, art.5).

1349 Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.114, art.6, ad 2: |Impetratio orationis innititur misericordiae, meritum autem condigni innititur iustitiae. Et ideo multa orando impetrat homo ex divina misericordia, quae tamen non meretur secundum iustitiam.|

1350 Ps. L, 19: |Cor contritum et humiliatum Deus non despicies.|

1351 Dan. IV, 24: |Peccata tua eleemosynis redime et iniquitates tuas misericordiis pauperum; forsitan ignoscet delictis tuis.|

1352 Ep. ad Sixt., 194, c.3, n.9: |Sed nec ipsa remissio peccatorum sine aliquo merito est, si fides hanc impetret. Neque enim nullum est meritum fidei, qua fide ille dicebat: Deus propitius esto mihi peccatori, et descendit iustificatus merito fidelis humilitatis.| Cfr. Conc. Trident., Sess. VI, cap.7 (Denzinger-Bannwart, n.799): |Hanc dispositionem seu praeparationem iustificatio ipsa consequitur.| For a fuller treatment cfr. Suarez, De Gratia, XII, 37.

1353 V. supra, pp.123 sqq. The student may also consult Tepe, Instit. Theol., Vol. III, pp.258 sqq., and Bellarmine, De Iustific., V, 22.

1354 Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.114, art.7: |Respondeo dicendum quod nullus potest sibi mereri reparationem post lapsum futurum neque merito condigni neque merito congrui.|

1355 Lect. in Hebr., III, 6, 10: |Duplex est meritum. Unum quod innititur iustitiae et istud est meritum condigni; aliud quod soli misericordiae innititur, quod dicitur meritum congrui. Et de isto dicit [Paulus], quod iustum est, i.e. congruum, quod homo, qui multa bona fecit, mereatur.... Et isto modo non obliviscitur Deus operis nostri et dilectionis.|

1356 Comment. in Sent., IV, dist.2, qu.1, art.2.

1357 Comment. in Sent., II, dist.28, dub.2.

1358 De Gratia, XII, 38, 6.

1359 2 Paral. XIX, 2 sq.: |Impio praebes auxilium et his, qui oderunt Dominum, amicitia iungeris et idcirco iram quidem Domini merebaris; sed bona opera inventa sunt in te.|

1360 Suarez, De Gratia, XII, 38, 7: |Possunt enim praecedentia merita esse tam pauca et tot peccata postea multiplicata, ut omnino obruant merita et efficiant, ut nullo modo Deum ad misericordiam provocent; secus vero erit, si e contrario merita magna fuerint et peccatum subsequens et rarum sit et excusationem aliquam ex ignorantia vel infirmitate habeat.|

1361 Ps. LXX, 9: |Quum defecerit virtus mea, ne derelinquas me.|

1362 Cfr. St. Thomas, Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.114, art.7, ad 1: |Desiderium, quo quis desiderat reparationem post lapsum, iustum dicitur; et similiter oratio, qua petit eiusmodi reparationem, dicitur iusta, quia tendit ad iustitiam; non tamen ita quod iustitiae innitatur per modum meriti, sed solum misericordiae.| Cfr. Schiffini, De Gratia Divina, pp.687 sq.

1363 V. supra, pp.136 sqq.

1364 Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.114, art.6: |Quia enim homo in gratia constitutus implet Dei voluntatem, congruum est secundum amicitiae proportionem ut Deus impleat hominis voluntatem in salvatione alterius, licet quandoque possit habere impedimentum ex parte illius, cuius aliquis sanctus iustificationem desiderat.|

1365 Iac. V, 16: |Orate pro invicem, ut salvemini; multum enim valet deprecatio iusti assidua.|

1366 E.g. Abraham, Job, St. Stephen.

1367 E.g. St. Augustine and his mother St. Monica.

1368 Cfr. Suarez, De Gratia, XII, 38, 21.

1369 Summa Theol., 1a 2ae, qu.114, art.10: |Dicendum est quod, si temporalia bona considerentur, prout sunt utilia ad opera virtutum, quibus perducimur in vitam aeternam, secundum hoc directe et simpliciter cadunt sub merito, sicut et augmentum gratiae et omnia illa, quibus homo adiuvatur ad perveniendum in beatitudinem post primam gratiam.... Si autem considerentur huiusmodi temporalia bona secundum se, sic non sunt simpliciter bona hominis, sed secundum quid, et ita non simpliciter cadunt sub merito, sed secundum quid, inquantum scil. homines moventur a Deo ad aliqua temporaliter agenda, quibus suum propositum consequuntur Deo favente.|

1370 Gen. XV, 1: |Ego ... merces tua magna nimis.|

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