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Jeremiah by William Smith


1 A. B. Davidson.

2 A. B. Davidson. |Without Jeremiah,| says Wellhausen, |the Psalms could not have been composed.|

3 Cp. e.g. Jer. xi.19, with Is. liii.7; and see Grotius, |Annotata ad Vetus Testamentum,| on Is. lii-liii; Cornill, |Das Buch Jeremia erklaert,| pp.11-12; John Skinner, |Prophecy and Religion,| p.351.

4 II. Chron. xxxvi.21 (with a reference to Lev. xxvi.34, 35) and 22, 23, the latter repeated in Ezra i.1-2. Duhm, indeed, but on insufficient grounds, thinks the former citation, because of its reference to Leviticus, cannot be from our Book of Jeremiah but is from a Midrash unknown to us; yet the chronicler's was the very spirit to associate a Levitical provision with Jer. xxix.10; cp. xxv.9-12. The other quotation Duhm refers to some part of Is. xl. ff. (xliv.28?) as though this had at one time been attributed to Jeremiah.

5 In the Apocrypha proper, (1) |Baruch| to which is attached (2) |The Epistle of Jeremy| warning the Jews of Babylon in general and conventional terms against idolatry. Apocalyptic writings, (3) |Apocalypse of Baruch,| (4) (5) and (6) three other |Apocalypses of Baruch,| (7) |The Rest of the Words of Baruch,| or |Paralipomena Jeremiae,| (8) |Prophecy of Jeremiah.| For particulars of these see |Encyclopaedia Biblica,| arts. |Apocalyptic Literature| (R. H. Charles), and |Apocrypha| (M. R. James).

6 Following Hitzig, C. J. Ball (|The Prophecies of Jeremiah| in |The Expositor's Bible,| 1890, pp.10 ff.) refers Pss. xxiii, xxvi-xxviii to Jeremiah, and it is possible that in particular the personal experiences in Ps. xxvii are reflections of those of the prophet. But such experiences were so common in the history of the prophets and saints of Israel as to render the reference precarious.

7 It has been calculated that the Greek has 2700 words fewer than the Hebrew, i.e. about 120 verses or from four to five average chapters.

8 E.g. ii.19, 29; iii.1; v.4a; viii.16, 21; xxxii.12, etc.

9 ne'um Yahweh: utterance or oracle of Jehovah.

10 E.g. the words at his mouth, xxxvi.17; xxxviii.16.

11 E.g. Jerusalem in viii.5, and in xxxvi.22 the ninth month.

12 E.g. ii.1-2; xxv.1b; xxvii.1; xlvii.1; l.1.

13 E.g. viii.10ab-12; x.6-8; xi.7, 8; xvii.1-4 (perhaps omitted by the Greek, because partly given already in xv.13, 14); xxv.18 and a curse as at this day; xxvii.1, 7, 12b, 13, 14a, 17, 18b, clauses in 19, 20, the whole of 21, and 22b; xxix.14, 16-20; xxx.10, 11 (= xlvi.27 f.), 15a, 22; xxxiii.14-26; xxxix.4-13; xvi.26; xlvii.1 (except to the Philistines); xlviii.45-47; lii.28-30.

14 E.g. i.10, 17, 18; ii.17, 19; vii.28b; xii.3; xiv.4, etc.

15 Verse 14 is not found in the Greek.

16 In his Schweich Lectures on |The Septuagint and Jewish Worship| (for the British Academy, 1921) Mr. St. John Thackeray presents clear evidence from the different vocabularies in the Greek Version that this Version was the work of two translators, the division between whom is at Ch. xxix. verse 7. The dividing line cuts across the Greek arrangement of the chapters, which sets the Oracles on Foreign Nations in the centre of the Book. This shows that it was not the translators who placed them there, but that the translators found the arrangement in the Hebrew MS. from which they translated. Further, he thinks that the division of the Book into two parts was not made by the translators, but already existed in their Hebrew exemplar. For this the Hebrew text gives two evidences: (1) the titles of the Oracles, (2) the colophons appended to two of them. The titles are some long, some short. In the Hebrew order the Oracles with long titles are mixed up with those with short, but in the Greek order the six with long titles come together first and are followed by the five with short. There are two colophons -- one to the Moab Oracle, the other to the Babylon Oracle; but the Moab Oracle stands last in the Greek order and the Babylon Oracle last in the Hebrew order.

From all this two conclusions are drawn: (1) when the titles were inserted the chapters were arranged as in the Greek, which, therefore, was the original arrangement; (2) they afford Hebrew evidence for a break or interruption in the middle of the Oracles -- the longer titles cease about the end of Part I of the Greek Version, which therefore follows a division of the Book into two parts that already existed in the Hebrew original from which it was made. The Hebrew editor who amplified the titles had apparently only Part I before him.

17 E.g. Graf (|Der Prophet J. erklaert,| 1862), George Douglas (|The Book of Jeremiah,| 1903) for the Hebrew; and Workman (|The Text of Jeremiah,| 1888) for the Greek. For a judicial comparison of the two editions, resulting much in favour of the Greek, see W. R. Smith, |The O.T. in the Jewish Church,| Lectures IV and V.

18 |The Hebrew is qualitatively superior to the Greek, but quantitatively the Greek is nearer the original. This judgment is general, admitting many exceptions, and each passage has to be considered by itself.| -- A. B. Davidson. Cp. Duhm, |Das Buch Jer.,| p. xxii.

19 Oracles on the King, xxii.1-xxiii.8 and on the Prophets, xxiii.9-40.

20 The Oracles under Jehoiakim, chs. vii-x, before those on the enforcement of Deuteronomy under Josiah xi.6-8.

21 The Oracle for Baruch, dated in the fourth year of Jehoiakim, 604 B.C., is not given till ch. xlv, a long way off from ch. xxxvi to which it belongs by date and subject, and only after chs. xl-xliv, the story of Jeremiah's life after the fall of Jerusalem.

22 So far as it is common to the Hebrew and the Greek.

23 The end of is wanting in the Greek.

24 Chs. xl-xliv. And between them the title and its supplement ignore the Oracles which Jeremiah uttered under Josiah after the thirteenth year of the King, perhaps iii.6-18, and certainly xi.1-5, 6-8.

25 Ch. lii.

26 E.g. iii.6-18; ix.23-26 with x.1-16; xxi.11-12 with (probably) 13-14.

27 E.g. ii.26; v.13; x.11, the last written in Aramaic.

28 Cp. xxiii.7, 8 with xvi.14, 15, and xxx.23, 24 with xxiii.19, 20.

29 x.1-16; xvii.19-27 (on the Sabbath -- unlike Jeremiah, who did not lay stress on single laws but very like post-exilic teaching, e.g. Neh. xiii and Is. lviii), possibly xxiii.1-8; xxv.12-14 (the obviously late as at this day in verse 18 and verse 26b are omitted by the Greek).

30 Parts of xxx and xxxi, especially xxxi.7-14, the spirit of which is so much that of the Eve of the Return from Exile and the style so akin to that of the Great Prophet of that Eve that some take it as dependent on his prophecies.

31 xlvi-li, especially on Moab, xlviii.40-47, which is based on the earlier prophecy, Is. xv-xvi; on Edom, xlix.7-22, based on Obadiah; Elam, xlix.34-39; and the long prophecy on Babylon, l.1-58, which reflects like Is. xl. ff. the historical situation just before the Medes overthrew Babylon, and expresses an attitude towards the latter very different from Jeremiah's own fifty years earlier. The compiler, or an editor of the Book, has (li.60) erred in attributing this long prophecy to Jeremiah. In all these there may be genuine nuclei.

32 Ch. lii.

33 So Greek, Hebrew has Israel.

34 N. Schmidt in the |Encyclopaedia Biblica.|

35 Professor Schmidt, in the article already quoted, takes this to mean only that Jeremiah |retouched under fresh provocation| the contents of the first Roll. This interpretation would imply that words means nouns, verbs, adjectives and so forth, whereas words can only carry the same sense as it carries in the rest of the Book, viz. whole Oracles or Discourses. Note the phrase words like them, viz. like the words or Oracles on the first Roll.

36 Cp. A. B. Davidson, |Jeremiah,| in Hastings, |B.D.,| ii.522.

37 Schmidt, op. cit.

38 xlv.5.

39 Chs. i., xi., 1-8, 18-xii.6; xiii.1-17; xviii.1-12.

40 Chs. xxiv, xxviii, xxxii (except for the introductory verses 1-5).

41 |De Sacra Poesi Hebraeorum,| 1753.

42 Writing of the early German lyric, Dr. John Lees says in his volume on |The German Lyric| (London, Dent & Sons, 1914): |In regard to the length of the lines, their number, and the arrangement of the rhymes, the poet has absolute freedom in all three classes;| and again of the Volkslied |there is no mechanical counting of syllables; the variation in the number of accented and unaccented syllables is the secret of the verse.| And he quotes from Herder on the Volkslieder: |songs of the people ... songs which often do not scan and are badly rhymed.|

43 Dalman, |Palaestinischer Diwan.|

44 Saintsbury, |History of English Prosody,| vol. ii.53, 54.

45 Snouck Hurgronje, |Mekka,| vol. ii.62.

46 |Kurzer Hand-Commentar,| 1901; and |Das Buch Jeremia,| a translation, 1903.

47 |Das Buch Jeremia,| 1905, p. xlvi.

48 E.g. Sievers, |Metrische Studien,| in the |Transactions of Saxon Society of the Sciences,| vol. xxi (which relies too much on the Massoretic or Canonical text); Erbt, |Jeremia u. seine Zeit,| p.298; Giesebrecht, |Jeremia's Metrik,| iii. ff.; Karl Budde's relevant pages in his |Geschichte der althebraeischen Litteratur,| 1906 reached me after I had expressed the views I have given above. They agree in the main with these views.

49 Certainly the evidence of both the Hebrew text and the Versions are against it, and the sense supports the text. More than once when sharp questions or challenges are thrown out, we have very appropriately two parallel lines of two accents each instead of the usual Qinah couplet of three and two: e.g. ii.14 and iii.5. See below, pp.46 ff. Compare the variety of metres, which Schiller employs to such good effect in his |Song of the Bell| -- a variety in beautiful harmony with that of the different aspects of life on which he touches; and see above, p.36, on the irregularity of metre in Heine's Nordseebilder.

50 Ch. xxix.

51 Op. cit., p. xii.

52 Chs. i, xi and xxxi.

53 |It is an understatement of the case to say that the folk-song has been a source of inspiration. In the very greatest lyricists we simply find the folk-song in a new shape: it has become more polished and artistic, and it has been made the instrument of personal lyrical utterance.| -- John Lees, M.A., D.Litt., |The German Lyric| (London, etc., Dent & Sons, 1914).

54 And in particular sins against the fundamental principle of parallelism, e.g. in iv.3, where even with the help of part of an obvious title to the Oracle he gets only three lines and supposes the fourth to be lost; and though the sense-parallelism is generally within a couplet he divides it between the last line of his first couplet and the first of his second. Again, if we keep in mind what is said above (p.35) of the recurrence in Hebrew poems of longer, heavier lines at intervals -- especially at the end of a strophe or a poem, we must feel a number of Duhm's emendations to be not only unnecessary but harmful to the effectiveness of the verse.

55 Pointing {HEBREW LETTER ALEF}{HEBREW LETTER TAV} with Patah-Sheva for Tsere.


57 Hebrew adds poor.

58 So Duhm after the Greek; see p.97, n.3.

59 After the Greek.

60 By differently arranging the Hebrew consonants, see p.117. Other arrangements are possible. Greek omits destined to ruin.

61 Hebrew and Greek have this couplet in the reverse order.

62 ii.14-17.

63 xxxi.15.

64 While Duhm and Giesebrecht reduce the text to the exact Qinah form, Erbt correctly reads it as varied by lines of four accents.


66 See below, p.92.

67 So Greek.

68 So Greek; Hebrew adds their God.

69 Hebrew adds and is cut off.

70 The Hebrew makom must here as elsewhere be given as equivalent to the Arabic makam (literally like the Hebrew standing-place but) generally sacred site.

71 After Duhm.

72 Hebrew adds the Lord our God; not in the Greek.

73 So Greek and Vulg.; Hebrew has he shall not see.

74 xiii.12-14. The above rendering follows the Greek version.

75 A Hebrew idiom, literally don't, knowing, we know?

76 This couplet is wanting in the Greek.

77 So rightly Duhm after the Greek.

78 Hebrew uselessly adds in the land.

79 So Duhm, reading gar for ger.

80 Hebrew adds, and will make visitation on their sins, which the Greek omits.

81 ix.17 f., 21 f.; see also pp.205, 206.

82 xiii.15-16.

83 So the Greek.

84 iv.11-13, 15-17. The text and so the metre of 16, 17 are uncertain. For besiegers Duhm proposes by the change of one letter to read panthers, to which in v.6 Jeremiah likens the same foes. Skinner, leopards. See below, p.114.

85 Lit. Because of the feebleness of their hands.

86 xv.5-9.

87 Greek; in both cases Hebrew adds the Lord.

88 See previous note.

89 This verse is uncertain; for Hebrew {HEBREW LETTER BET}{HEBREW LETTER AYIN}{HEBREW LETTER TAV}{HEBREW LETTER HE} read with the Greek {HEBREW LETTER BET}{HEBREW LETTER HE}{HEBREW LETTER LAMED}{HEBREW LETTER HE}. For another arrangement see above, p.51.

90 So Greek; Hebrew omits sound.

91 This line is uncertain.

92 Greek.

93 So Greek; Hebrew omits this line.

94 (1) Jeremiah of Libnah, father of Hamutal, II. Kings xxiii.31; xxiv.18; (2) Jeremiah, father of Jaazaniah, the Rechabite, Jer. xxxv.3; (3) Jeremiah the prophet, son of Hilkiah.

95 Not to be confounded with the temple-priest, Hilkiah, who was concerned with the finding of the Law.

96 I. Kings ii.26 f.

97 Duhm, p.3.

98 Jer. i.5.

99 ii.23, 24; iv.11; v.6; viii.7, 22.

100 Gen. xlix.27.

101 iv.3.

102 Is. x.28-32.

103 xxxi.15.

104 Hab. iii.7.

105 See below on ch. iii.

106 vii.12-15; xxvi.6.

107 iv.15.

108 i.103-107 (after Hecataeus).

109 See Appendix I -- Medes and Scythians.

110 |Jerusalem,| ii.263, 264.

111 Micah vi.8.

112 xxii.15, 16.

113 |Jerusalem,| ii.

114 Though not in every case, for Anathoth itself is but the plural of the Syrian goddess Anath, as Ashtaroth is the plural of Astart or Astarte.

115 ii.28; xi.13.

116 iii.2.

117 i.5.

118 Luke i.76.

119 See Lecture vii.

120 ii.18.

121 See his seven Scythian songs below, pp.110 ff.

122 xviii.

123 xxxvi.2, a clause which Duhm merely on the grounds of his theory is obliged to regard as a later intrusion, though it bears no marks of being such.

124 So Cornill after the Greek.

125 xx.7.

126 Hebrew adds the redundant to pull down; Greek omits.

127 Duhm; see above, p.40.

128 This is clear from other passages, v.14; xviii.7-10, etc.

129 Ball happily translates wake-tree.

130 The text reads, its face is from the face of northwards, which some would emend to its face is turned northwards, i.e. the side on which it is blown upon and made to boil. Boiling or bubbling, lit. blown upon, fanned.

131 After the Greek; Hebrew has be opened.

132 Hebrew has races and kingdoms and adds Rede of the Lord.


134 Hebrew adds to them; Greek omits.

135 The last three couplets are uncertain. In v.18 Hebrew adds a basalt pillar and, after bronze, against all the land.

136 xxxvi.32; see pp.22 ff.

137 P.37.

138 See pp.40 f., 72.

139 See p.41.

140 So simply the Greek; the Hebrew, And the word of the Lord came unto me saying, Go and proclaim in the ears of Jerusalem saying, not only betrays an editorial redundancy, but what follows is addressed not to Jerusalem but to all Israel. Here if anywhere the Greek has the original. Jeremiah begins thus to dictate to Baruch.

141 Hebrew kebel = breath.

142 Egypt.

143 So Greek.

144 Lit. shepherds.

145 Hebrew adds Rede of the Lord.

146 Some Hebrew MSS. and Vulgate.

147 Cyprus = Kittim and Kedar, an Arab tribe, are the extremes of the world then known to the Jews.

148 So Greek.

149 Hebrew marg. my.

150 Or heave (Ball), lit. be aghast but the Hebrew is alliterative, shommu shamaim.

151 This couplet is after the Greek, Hebrew has browsed on thy skull for forced. Noph = Memphis, Egypt's capital; Tahpanhes = Daphne on the Egyptian road to Palestine. Either 14-19 or more probably 16 alone is one of Jeremiah's additions to his earlier Oracles after Egypt's invasion of Palestine in 608.

152 So Greek; Hebrew adds, when he led thee by the way.

153 Misraim = Egypt.

154 These last four lines follow the Greek.

155 So Duhm by a better division of words.

156 So the Greek.

157 The Hebrew kal seems to combine here its two meanings of swift and trifling.

158 Hebrew no' ash; with Greek delete the second no.

159 So Greek.

160 The insertion (by a copyist?) of this formula rather weakens the connection.

161 So some Versions.

162 Greek adds and as the number of streets in Jerusalem they burn to Baal; cp. xi.13.

163 So Greek.

164 Greek.

165 Greek.

166 Greek the.

167 Prose, probably a later insertion when the prophet dictated his Oracles. See pp.47 f.

168 The text of this quatrain is corrupt, the rendering above makes use of the versions.

169 The text of this verse too is uncertain. For skirts Greek has hands; to innocent Hebrew adds needy. Some read the second couplet [though] thou did'st not catch them breaking in, but because of all these, i.e. thy sins against Me, thou did'st murder them.

170 Or balked.

171 Greek.

172 Greek; Hebrew land.

173 So Duhm after the Greek. Hebrew is impossible.

174 The two Hebrew verbs in this couplet, natar and shamar mean to keep (or maintain) and to watch; they are usually transitive and (in the sense here intended) are followed by a noun, anger or wrath, which English versions supply here. But its absence from both the Hebrew and Greek texts leads us to take the verbs as intransitive, as is the case with natar in New-Hebrew.

175 Verses 6-18, in prose break the connection both of style and meaning between 5 and 19 and cannot in whole be Jeremiah's or from his period. This is especially true of 16-18 which assume the destruction of the Ark and the Exile of Judah as well as of Israel as already actual. But the passage probably contains genuine fragments from Jeremiah.

176 So Greek.

177 So one Hebrew MS. and Syriac.

178 Hebrew adds her sister.

179 Hebrew adds Rede of the Lord.

180 So Greek.

181 Lit. make not My face to fall.

182 Greek; Hebrew ye have.

183 That is Lord and Husband.

184 So Greek.

185 Hebrew adds to the Name of the Lord to Jerusalem.

186 So Greek; Hebrew your; after North Greek has and from all lands.

187 In antithesis to verse 5 of which it is the immediate sequel both in sense and metre.

188 Feminine, i.e. Judah was a daughter, and a son's portion was designed for her.

189 So finely Ball.

190 The riotous festivals on the high-places.

191 Hebrew adds the Lord.

192 This couplet after the Greek.

193 I agree with Cornill and Skinner that these two verses are a later addition. The answer to the people's confession comes in verses 3 and 4.

194 So some Hebrew MSS. and versions.

195 Hebrew niru lakem nir; also in English the noun and verb are the same -- to fallow or fallow up = to break or plough up.

196 So Greek and other versions.

197 iii.22b, 25; Hos. v.15-vi.3.

198 So Greek.

199 iv.3, 4.

200 xiii.23.

201 xvii.9, 10.

202 See further, Lecture viii.

203 See above, p.73.

204 xxxvi.32.

205 On the subject of this paragraph see the appendix on |The Medes and Scythians.| The following may be consulted: N. Schmidt in |Enc. Bibl.| on |Jeremiah| and |Scythians;| Driver, |The Book of the Prophet Jeremiah,| p.21; J. R. Gillies, |Jeremiah, the Man and His Message,| pp.63 ff., who thinks that the Scythians did invade Judah, and W. R. Thomson, |The Burden of the Lord,| pp.46 ff., who thinks they did not. A thorough study of the question will be found in Skinner's |Prophecy and Religion, Studies in the Life of Jeremiah,| ch. iii. The case against the Scythians being the enemy from the North that Jeremiah describes is best presented by J. F. McCurdy in |History, Prophecy, and the Monuments,| vol. ii. pp.395 ff.

206 Amos iii.6; Joel ii.1.

207 Greek the earth.

208 The text adds from evil, one wonders if Jerusalem was added in 604; without it the line is regular.

209 After the Greek.

210 So Syr., transferred from previous couplet.

211 Metre and meaning of 16 and 17 uncertain. For beleaguerers (?) Duhm reads panthers or leopards; cp. v.6.

212 Duhm after Greek renders, My soul is in storm, my heart throbs.

213 Greek; Hebrew know.

214 Greek; Hebrew adds lo!

215 Probably a later addition.

216 The order of verbs in this couplet is that of the Greek.

217 So Greek; Hebrew city, a change possibly made after the fall of Jerusalem.

218 So Greek.

219 Text uncertain; this reading is derived by differently dividing the consonants -- bah no' ash for bahen 'ish.

220 P.134.

221 Greek; Hebrew her. The clause seems an addition.

222 Hebrew adds therefore.

223 So Duhm after the Greek; p.48, n.2.

224 So Greek.

225 The text is uncertain, the Hebrew margin and versions pointing to an untranslatable original.

226 The text has make not, but this is inconsistent with the context, and not seems a later addition.

227 Hebrew adds, thus be it done them; Greek omits.

228 Hebrew has God after Lord and your for their.

229 This couplet the Greek lacks.

230 Eloquent of death: Ps. v.9.

231 For these four lines the Greek has only A nation thou hearest not its tongue, all of them mighty.

232 Hebrew adds saying.

233 Lit. with no heart, the seat not only of feeling, but of the practical intelligence.

234 Something like this has obviously slipped from the text.

235 Text uncertain.

236 Either with the spoils or with the victims thereof.

237 The text of the whole verse is uncertain. Greek omits things of evil and to prosper.

238 Or take vengeance Myself.

239 Hebrew biteko'a tike'u; a play upon words.

240 After the Greek; the Hebrew text is corrupt.

241 Transferred from the next line to suit the metre.

242 The Hebrew idiom for starting a campaign or a siege, which was formally sanctioned by a religious rite.

243 So some MSS.

244 So Greek: Hebrew, She is a city to be visited.

245 Hebrew adds of Hosts.

246 So Greek.

247 It is difficult to discriminate in these lines between the Lord and the Prophet as speakers. If the Greek I will pour is correct, the Prophet still speaks, otherwise the Lord who began in verse 9 and was followed by the Prophet in 10 and 11a, resumes in 11b.

248 So Greek.

249 Ibid.

250 Hans Schmidt, quoted by Dr. Skinner, does so, and takes it as the earliest evidence of Jeremiah's opposition to Deuteronomy, and Dr. Skinner in his Chapter |In the Wake of the Reform,| says it is almost certainly post-deuteronomic. I am not convinced. See below, p.133.

251 Greek mark ye.

252 See above, p.112.

253 Text both of Greek and Hebrew uncertain; the above is adapted from the Greek.

254 Greek has backslidings.

255 Hebrew adds great, which Greek omits.

256 Greek you.

257 See above, pp.79 ff.

258 Hebrew adds, a fortress, obviously borrowed by some scribe from other appointments by God of Jeremiah, e.g. i.18. For ways in next line Duhm by change of a letter reads value.

259 Greek and Targ. read their evil for the evil ones of the Hebrew.

260 The general meaning is clear, the details obscure for the text is uncertain. Driver's note is the most instructive. In refining, the silver was mixed with lead and the mass, fused in the furnace, had a current of air turned upon it; the lead oxidising acted as a flux, carrying off the alloy or dross. But in Israel's case the dross is too closely mixed with the silver, so that though the bellows blow and the lead is oxidised, the dross is not drawn and the silver remains impure.

261 As Erbt (|Jeremia u. seine Zeit|) and Skinner (p.160) do.

262 v.1-8, see p.119.

263 So Duhm.

264 Deut. xviii.6, II Kings xxiii.8, 9.

265 On this and the following paragraphs see the writer's |Deuteronomy| in the Cambridge Bible for Schools.

266 Deut. iv.19.

267 See above, pp.76, 104 ff.

268 See p.8.

269 Cp. Thomson, op. cit., p.61.

270 xxxi.6.

271 These two extremes are represented by Winckler and Duhm respectively.

272 Sing. as partly in Greek and wholly in Syriac.

273 With Greek omit them of the Hebrew text.

274 Hebrew adds all.

275 As above, Greek omits all of the Hebrew verses 7, 8 except the last clause which follows naturally on verse 6.

276 See above, pp.40 ff.

277 This consideration seems to dispose of Koenig's claim that Jeremiah here maintains the Sinai-Covenant (with the Decalogue) in opposition to the Moab-Covenant set forth in Deuteronomy. How could the former be defined in the time of Josiah as this Covenant or described in Deuteronomic phrases? See also G. Douglas, |Book of Jeremiah,| p.156.

278 Dr. Skinner (op. cit., p.100) thinks that |the accumulation of distinctively Deuteronomic phrases and ideas in verses 4, 5 implies a dependence on that book which savours strongly of editorial workmanship.| But if this Covenant be the Deuteronomic, as he admits, what more natural than to state it in Deuteronomic terms, expressive as these are only of its spiritual essence? I would also refer to what I have said on p.41 as to the effect on the Prophet of the new and haunting style of Deuteronomy.

279 Dr. Skinner's authoritative support to the substance of the thesis maintained above is very welcome, strengthened as it is by the point which he makes in the first of the following sentences: |The deliberate invention of an incident, which had no point of contact in the authentic record of his life, is a procedure of which no assured parallel is found in the book. We must at least believe that a trustworthy tradition lies behind the passage in ch. xi; and the conclusion to which it naturally points is that Jeremiah was at first strongly in favour of the law of Deuteronomy, and lent his moral support to the reformation of Josiah| (pp.102-3). Wellhausen, |Isr. u. Juedische Gesch.| (1894, p.97): |An der Einfuehrung des Deuteronomiums hatte er mitgewirkt, zeitlebens eiferte er gegen die illegitimen Altaere in den Staedten Judas.... Aber mit den Wirkungen der Reformation war er keineswegs zufrieden.| So too J. R. Gillies, |Jeremiah,| p.113, and W. R. Thomson, |The Burden of the Lord,| p.66; and virtually so, Peake, i.11-14.

280 So, too, H. P. Smith, |O.T. History,| p.278, n.2; while Duhm, Giesebrecht, Davidson, Driver, Gillies, Peake and Skinner all take vii.1-15 and xxvi. to refer to the same occasion early in Jehoiakim's reign. Duhm and Skinner remark on an apparently incoherent association of Place ( = Holy Place) and Land in vii.3-7. The clause about the Land may be a later addition. Yet in verses 13-15 (the substance of which Skinner admits to be genuine) the destruction of the Holy Place and ejection of the people from the Land are both threatened.

281 So simply the Greek; the longer Hebrew title, verses 1, 2 may be an expansion by an editor, who took vii.1-15 as reporting the same speech as xxvi.1 ff. In verse 3 Hebrew reads Lord of Hosts.

282 Greek adds for they will be absolutely of no avail to you.

283 So Syriac.

284 Or there they are! -- plural because of the complex of buildings.

285 It is doubtful whether this verb, meaning in earlier Hebrew to make any burnt offering was already confined to its later meaning, to burn incense.

286 So Greek.

287 Much within these brackets is lacking in the Greek.

288 Hebrew all.

289 Verses 9, 25, 29, etc.

290 See above, p.72.

291 Vows, so Greek, but Lucian fat pieces (Lev. vi.5); by these thou escape, so Greek, Hebrew then mightest thou rejoice.

292 ii.8, see above, p.92.

293 Cp. the similar charge of Christ against the scribes.

294 xi.1 ff.; so Giesebrecht on viii.8.

295 Marti, Gesch. der Isr. Religion, 154, 166; Duhm, and especially Cornill, in loco.

296 Hebrew adds of Hosts, the God of Israel.

297 The former were not, the latter were in part, eaten by the worshipper; but it does not matter if now he eats them all alike!

298 xi.1 ff.: above, pp.143 ff.

299 Sam. xv.22, Hos. vi.6. Those who take the passage relatively also quote Paul's words that Christ sent him not to baptize but to preach the gospel, 1 Cor. i.17.

300 Amos v.25; Micah vi.6-8; Ps. l.13, 14; li.16, 17.

301 See Robertson Smith, |The O.T. in the Jewish Church,| 2nd ed., 203, 295 (1892), and Edghill, |The Evidential Value of Prophecy| (1904), 274, one of the best works on the O.T. in our time.

302 II. Chron. xxxv.20, when he had set the Temple again in order.


304 |H. G. H. L.,| p.151.

305 II. Chron. xxxv.21. This may be only the reflection of later Jewish piety on so perplexing a disaster; but it rings like fact.

306 II. King xxiii.29, as soon as he saw him. For other records of Necoh's northward march see Appendix II.

307 The idea that Josiah fought Necoh, as an Assyrian vassal (Benzinger on II. Kings xxiii.28-30) is, of course, quite improbable, even if Nineveh did not fall till 606. But if the latest datum is correct that Nineveh fell in 612 (see Appendix I) it is utterly groundless.

308 See above, p.149.

309 xxvi.2, xxxvi.9.

310 Whether the sacrifices of children in Hinnom had been resumed, vii.31 ff., is uncertain; yet this passage may well belong to Jehoiakim's reign.

311 Greek omits and renders the following I and my by thou and his.

312 Using the Greek, Duhm, Cornill and Skinner render this quatrain thus: --

Did not thy father eat and drink,
And do himself well?
Yet he practised justice and right,
Judged the cause of the needy and poor.

313 ii.8, 31, v.30, 31, vi.13, 14, 19, etc.; see pp.106, 154, etc.

314 xx.10.

315 See above, pp.147 ff.

316 Many take the conditional clauses in vii and xxvi to be later insertions (e.g. Skinner, 169 f.). But it was natural to the malice of his foes to distort Jeremiah's conditional, into an absolute, threat, and in xxvi.13 he corrects them. My translation follows the Greek version, and omits the Hebrew additions which are found in our English versions.

317 Both text and versions add here and all the people; but this may be the careless insertion of a copyist, for in what follows the people are with Jeremiah.

318 So 34 MSS., and Syr. Vulg. and Targ.

319 Hebrew adds against this city and.

320 Hebrew adds and all his mighty men.

321 So Greek; Hebrew the king sought.

322 Hebrew adds a name (El-nathan, son of Ackbor) and repeats.

323 II. Kings xxii.12 ff.; Jer. xxxix.14, xl.5, 6.

324 The designations of the title differ; what is stated above was probably the fact.

325 See Appendix I.

326 As vividly described, or predicted, by Nahum; see the writer's |Twelve Prophets,| vol. ii.; on the date see Appendix I.

327 II. Kings xxiv.1-16. The chronology of the end of Jehoiakim's reign is uncertain. Most have held that the three years of his tribute were his last years, 600-598. But Winckler (|A.T. Untersuchungen,| 81 ff.) gives good reasons for preferring 605-3.

328 See above, pp.22 ff. Our versions render the Hebrew correctly, but the following emendations may be made from the Greek: Verse 1, for this word ... from the Lord read the word of the Lord came unto me; 2, for Israel read Jerusalem; 22, omit in the ninth month, unnecessary after 9; 31, omit their iniquity, for upon them read upon him, and for men read land, of Judah; 32, for Jeremiah took read Baruch took and omit and gave it to Baruch the scribe the son of Neriah, and also the words king of Judah and in the fire.

329 xxxvi.3.

330 xxxvi.29; cp. xxv.9 f.

331 xxxvi.19, 24.

332 Such is the force of the Hebrew idiom in the last clause of xxxvi.16; for the different attitude of the princes in 608 see pp.170 ff.

333 The Hebrew text is accurately rendered by our English Versions; the following are the principal points on which the Greek differs from it: Verse 1, both Greek and Latin lack that was the first year of Nebuchadrezzar, king of Babylon; in verse 2 Greek lacks Jeremiah the prophet and all, and in verse 3 the word of the Lord hath come to me and but ye have not hearkened. In verse 6 for I will do you no hurt Greek reads to your hurt. Again, Greek lacks in 7 saith the Lord, in 8 of Hosts, in 9 saith the Lord and to Nebuchadrezzar the king of Babylon My servant, and for all the families it reads a family; and in 11 lacks this, a desolation, these and the king of Babylon, substituting for the last two shall serve among the nations.

334 E.g. the preposition to before Nebuchadrezzar in verse 9 which does not construe.

335 xxv.1-14 has been denied to Jeremiah by Schwally (|Z.A.T.W.,| viii.177 ff.) and Duhm, but their arguments are answered by Giesebrecht and Cornill in loco; see, too, Gillies, 195-8, 202, and Skinner, 240 f.

336 See Davidson in Hastings' |D.B.,| ii.574, Driver and Gillies in loco.

337 See above, p.14.

338 E.g. cp.26 with 9 and both with i.15.

339 As Duhm asserts; see above, pp.79 ff.

340 The above paragraph on xxv.15-38 is based on Giesebrecht's careful analysis of the passage.

341 xxxvi.5, 19, 26.

342 Worn next the skin; not girdle which came over the other garments. See |Enc. Bibl.,| article |Girdle.|

343 So virtually Cornill, who, indifferent as to whether the story is one of fact or of imagination, emphasises the choice of the Euphrates as its essential point, compares ii.18, to drink of the waters of the River, and dates the story in the earliest years of Jeremiah's ministry. On the other hand Erbt, who also reads Euphrates, interprets the story as one of actual journeys thither by Jeremiah.

344 I visited it in 1901 and 1904, a most surprising oasis!

345 Perath or Parah = Farah was first suggested by Ewald (|Prophets of the O. T.,| Eng. trans, iii.152), quoting Schick (|Ausland,| 1867, 572-4), by Birch (|P.E.F.Q.,| 1880, 235), and by Marti (|Z.D.P.V.,| 1880, 11), and has been accepted by many -- Cheyne, Ball, McFadyen, Peake, etc.

346 See above, p.55.

347 In the valley of Hinnom, where were potteries and above them a city-gate Harsith = (probably) Potsherds; in the upper valley broken pottery is still crushed for cement; lower down traces of ancient potteries appear, and there is the traditional site of the Potter's Field, Matt. xxvii.7.

348 So literally the term rendered wheel, A.V. It was of two discs, originally of stone, but later of wood, of which in earlier times the upper alone revolved and the lower and larger was stationary, but later both revolved by the potter's foot. See |Enc. Bibl.,| article |Pottery.|

349 See above, pp.84 f.

350 Hebrew adds Rede of the Lord.

351 Hebrew adds House of Israel.

352 A. B. Davidson.

353 To this we return in dealing with Jeremiah's religious experience. See below, Lecture vii.

354 See above, p.109 on iv.3.

355 Luke xiii.6 ff. Other parables or actual incidents illustrating either the possibilities of characters commonly deemed hopeless or the fresh chances given them by God's grace, are found in Matt. xviii.23 f., Luke vii.39 f. (the woman who was a sinner) and xix. (Zacchaeus).

356 Cornill in loco, Skinner, pp.162 f., both of them in fine passages on the teaching of the parable, the former exposing the superficiality of Duhm's impulsive judgment upon it. Cornill finds that the genuine words of Jeremiah close with verse 4; Skinner, Erbt and Gillies (p.158) continue them to 6.

357 But see next page.

358 xix.1 ff. The Greek connects this incident with the preceding by reading then for the Hebrew thus, and with many Hebrew MSS. adds to saith the Lord the phrase to me, making Jeremiah himself the narrator. In xix.4 read with Greek whom neither they nor their fathers knew, and the kings of Judah have filled, etc. Throughout Greek lacks phrases which are probably later additions to Hebrew; but these are not important.

359 See p.185, n.2.

360 The above is mainly from the Greek. The following is a significant instance of how the knowledge of the Bible still holds among some at least of the Scottish peasantry. A woman in a rural parish calling on her minister to complain about the harshness of the factor of the landlord said that he was a very Magor-Missabib. And it is no less significant that the minister had to consult his concordance to the Bible to know what she meant!

361 In xxxv the differences between Greek and Hebrew continue to be those generally found in the Book, i.e. Greek omits the expansive formulas, including the Divine titles, redundant words (like all) and phrases, and corrects the wrong preposition to by the right upon (17). Further, it spells differently some of the proper names, reads house for chamber (4 bis), a bowl for bowls (5), to me for to Jeremiah (12), and in 18 does not address the promise to the Rechabites, but utters it of them in the third person, also omitting the name of Jeremiah, and in 19 for for ever, lit. all the days, reads all the days of the land.

362 The ally of Jehu, II. Kings x.15, 23. The tribe was Kenite, I. Chron. ii.55. The Kenites, according to Jud. i.16, I. Sam. xv.6, settled in the South of Judah, but Jonadab is found in North Israel and apparently his descendants, as fugitives before an invasion from the North, came from the same quarter. Heber the Kenite also dwelt on Esdraelon, Jud. iv.17, v.24.

363 Duhm's criticisms of it, and rejection of some of its parts are, even for him, unusually arbitrary, especially his objection to the words in verse 13, Go and say to the men of Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for obviously these people were not gathered in, nor could be addressed from, the Temple chamber. It was the people as a whole, whose fickleness from age to age he was about to condemn; on this verse Duhm's remarks are, besides being arbitrary, inconsistent.

364 Above, pp.147 ff.

365 Above, pp.50, 153 f.

366 Deut. iv.19, xvii.3; II. Kings xxiii.5, 13. See the present writer's |Jerusalem,| ii., pp.186 ff., 260, 263.

367 Deut. xii.31, II. Kings xxiii.10. See |Jerusalem,| ii., pp.263 f.

368 Pp.153 f.

369 The only apparent reason for the compiler putting the two songs together is that the last verse of the one and the first verse of the other open in the same way, O that I had (Hebrew O who would give me).

370 xxxvi.32.

371 Greek omits this clause.

372 Apparently a common proverb.

373 Hebrew adds Jerusalem with no sense and a disturbance to the metre.

374 Mishpat = rule, order, ordinance.

375 Torah = law, see p.154.

376 Reading {HEBREW LETTER TSADI}{HEBREW LETTER SHIN}{HEBREW LETTER HE} with Dagesh in last letter.

377 With 10-12, cp. vi.13-15; 11, 12 are wanting in Greek.

378 Hebrew adds a line of corrupt text.

379 Hebrew, the Lord.

380 So Greek. The verse is another instance of the
two-stresses-to-a-line metre; see p.46.

381 So Greek.

382 So Greek.

383 So Greek.

384 Hebrew adds Rede of the Lord.

385 After the Greek, Hebrew is hopeless.

386 Lit., from a land of distances, usually taken as meaning exile. But exile is not yet. Duhm as above.

387 So Greek.

388 Bubbles, ii.5. The couplet seems an intrusion breaking between the two parts of the people's cry.

389 So Greek.

390 Lit., why cometh not up the fresh skin on.

391 Greek, an uttermost.

392 The Hebrew word seems to me to be taken here rather in its primitive sense of bundle than in the later, official meaning of assembly.

393 Hebrew adds Rede of the Lord for till now the Prophet has spoken. Verse 3 is difficult. Duhm omits most, Cornill all, as breaking the metrical schemes which they think Jeremiah invariably used. But the form of the Hebrew text -- short lines of two beats each, with one longer line -- is one into which Jeremiah sometimes falls (see pp.46 f.). Like a bow so Greek; Hebrew, their bow. Cp. our draw a long bow (Ball).

394 So Syriac.

395 Again Hebrew adds Rede of the Lord. The text is uncertain. Hebrew, thy dwelling is in the midst of deceit, they refuse to know Me.

396 Hebrew adds of Hosts.

397 So Greek, Hebrew omits; more seems to have dropped out.

398 So Hebrew text; Hebrew margin and Greek polished.

399 So Greek.

400 So Greek. Hebrew, I will raise and adds lamentation.

401 Hebrew adds passing over, probably a mistaken transference from verse 12. Greek and Latin omit.

402 So Greek.

403 Hebrew uselessly adds nor walked therein.

404 Hebrew adds of hosts; and this people for them.

405 Hebrew adds of Hosts and consider ye which Greek omits as well as hasten in 18; the text of the four lines is uncertain. For us and our Greek has you and your.

406 So Vulgate.

407 Hebrew has the obvious intrusion, Speak thus, Rede of the Lord, which Greek lacks.

408 I.e. of their hair; see xxv.23, xlix.32. Herodotus says (iii.8) that some Arabs shaved the hair above their temples; forbidden to Jews, Lev. xix.27.

409 So Greek; Hebrew, the land. The Hebrew part. sitting may like that in v.18 be future.

410 So Greek; Hebrew, in the land at this time.

411 So Greek, Hebrew my.

412 So Greek, Hebrew my.

413 So some Greek and Latin versions, Syriac and Targ.

414 Greek; Hebrew omits.

415 I.e. Rulers.

416 Hebrew, pastures.

417 See above, pp.46 f., 93.

418 So, following some Greek MSS., Targ., and the parallel Ps. lxxix.6, 7.

419 Above, pp.152 ff.

420 P.176. Practically all agree to this. Admitting its possibility, Duhm prefers to assign the lines to the Scythian invasion, against which see the reasons offered by Cornill in loco, who further suggests a connection between xi.15, 16 and xii.7-13. Ball, after Naegelsbach, argues for a date before Carchemish.

421 The text of these four lines is hardly metrical.

422 Above, pp.183-185.

423 p.59.

424 In this quatrain Greek reads your soul, and Hebrew my eye and precedes this line by shall weep indeed which Greek omits. The last line is one of those longer ones with which verses or strophes often conclude (see p.35).

425 II. Kings xxiv.8, 15; Jer. xxii.26.

426 So Greek.

427 See ii.36, iv.30; Ezek. xxiii.22.

428 As heads obviously belongs to this second line of the quatrain, from which some copyist has removed it to the fourth.

429 So Hebrew literally.

430 Pp.56 f. The date is quite uncertain.

431 The text of the first four lines is uncertain. I have mainly followed the Greek. Begging, if we borrow the sense of the verb in Syriac, otherwise huckstering, peddling.

432 Hos. vi.1-4.

433 P.189.

434 Hebrew and some Greek MSS. add against thee.

435 Hebrew, they turned not from their ways.

436 The text of verse 8 is uncertain. I have mainly followed the Greek.

437 Hebrew adds Rede of the Lord.

438 Lecture vii.

439 Hebrew adds nor bemoan them, an expansion.

440 Hebrew adds Rede of the Lord, even kindness and compassion; verses 6 and 7 are expansion.

441 Hebrew adds when their children remember their altars and Asherim rightly taken by Duhm and Cornill as a gloss.

442 Hebrew adds in thee for which some read thy hand.

443 These four verses along with the phrase Thus saith the Lord which follows them are lacking in Greek. This is clearly due to the oversight of a copyist, his eye passing inadvertently from the Lord of xvi.21 to the Lord of xvii.5.

444 See pp.53, 54.

445 Cp. |Isaiah,| lvi.2-7, lviii.13, 14; Neh. xiii.15-22.

446 A much manipulated verse! Mountain, taking sadai in its archaic sense as in Assyrian and some Hebrew poems, Jud. v.4, Deut. xxxii.13 (see the writer's |Deut.| in the |Camb. Bible for Schools|) where it is parallel to highlands, rock and flinty rock. The following emendations of the text are therefore unnecessary, and are more or less forced. Sirion (Duhm, Cornill, Peake, McFadyen, Skinner); missurim = from the rocks (Rothstein). The Greek takes sadai as breasts and nominative to the verb: Do the breasts of the rock give out? -- not a bad figure. Hill-streams reading meme harim (Rothstein) for the Hebrew maim zarim = strange (? far off) streams. Ewald takes zarim from zarar = to rush, press. Duhm reads mezarim = Northstar. Cornill turns the couplet to Or do dry up from the western sea the flowing waters? Gillies, the wet winds from the sea, etc., for which there is a suggestion in the Greek {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH YPOGEGRAMMENI}.

447 See p.149, n.1

448 So some MSS.; the text has like.

449 Pp.191 ff.

450 Pp.164-167.

451 Duhm's objection to this title as a mistake by an editor is groundless; for though the following lines are addressed to the land or people as a whole, their climax is upon the fate of the royal house, the choice of thy cedars.

452 Hebrew adds many.

453 Greek from over the sea.

454 Greek, Syriac, Vulgate.

455 Hebrew thee.

456 Hebrew adds to return thither; Greek lacks.

457 In 28-30 the Greek, mainly followed above in accordance with the metre, is far shorter than the Hebrew text.

458 The reasons given by Giesebrecht and Duhm in loco, by Skinner, p.346, and (more fancifully) by Erbt, p.86, for impugning the date given in xlv.1, and relegating the Oracle to the close of Jeremiah's life in exile as his last words to Baruch, have been answered in great detail, and to my mind conclusively, by Cornill, who points out how much more suited the Oracle is to conditions in 605 than to those of Baruch and Jeremiah after 586.

459 Cornill: the words of Jeremiah in a book.

460 Hebrew adds saying.

461 Hebrew adds the God of Israel.

462 So Greek.

463 Superfluous after, not to say inconsistent with, verse 2; probably editorial.

464 I have to or am about to. The Hebrew addition to this couplet, and that is the whole earth, is probably a gloss; it is not found in all Greek versions.

465 His brother Seraiah was a high officer of the king, ch. li.59; see also Josephus X. |Antt.,| ix.1.

466 Here and xxi.9, xxxviii.2, xxxix.18.

467 ix.3, 7 (How else can I do?), xii.9, 11, see p.211.

468 See p.167.

469 2 Kings xxiii.31, xxiv.17; see above, p.164.

470 The exact transliteration of the Hebrew is Sidkiyahu.

471 Ezek. xvi.59, xvii.11-21; especially 15-19.

472 Ps. xv., who sweareth to his own hurt and changeth not.


474 No strong rod, no sceptre to rule, Ezek. xix.14.

475 Or ye are far, etc., Ezek. xi.15.

476 Jer. xxvii.; in verse 1 for Jehoiakim read Sedekiah.

477 Jer. li.59; though some doubt this.

478 Ezek. viii; Jer. xliv.17-19 and his other references to the worship of the Queen or Host of Heaven may also refer to this.

479 Jer. xliv.30, Pharaoh of xxxvii.5, 7, 11, Ezek. xxix.3; Apries, Herodotus ii.161.

480 Jer. xxxiv.8-22; cp. Exod. xxi.1-6, Deut. xv.12-18.

481 2 Kings xxv.21.

482 xxix.29; Skinner, p.253, doubts this.

483 xxxii.16-25.

484 See above, pp.186-188.

485 xvii.16.

486 So Driver; Amos vii.1, 4, 7, viii.1.

487 So Greek.

488 So Greek and other versions.

489 Greek city.

490 Jews who may have stirred up Egypt against Babylon.

491 So Greek; Hebrew adds for an evil, |a corrupt repetition of the preceding word| (Driver).

492 Hebrew adds and to their fathers.

493 xxix.20, 15, 21-32, see pp.245-247.

494 ix.22; x.20.

495 See above, p.236.

496 See above, p.35.

497 This title has been much expanded, as the briefer Greek shows, and indeed much more than it shows. In 1 the addition of priests and prophets is in view of 8 and 15 evidently wrong. The Hebrew remnant of (before the elders) which Greek lacks is difficult. It seems a later addition to the text when many of the elders had died. Duhm's suggestion of a revolt of the early exiles and the execution of many of the elders by Nebuchadrezzar is imaginary. In verse 2 we have such a needless gloss or expansion as later scribes were fond of making.

498 Greek omits this line.

499 Hebrew adds there.

500 Greek; Hebrew city.

501 8 and 9 strike one as a premature reference to the prophets.

502 Greek perhaps better your people, for in seventy years the elders addressed must have died out.

503 Duhm.

504 As even Lucian's version shows in spite of its retaining 16-20.

505 Greek lacks the names of both the fathers, and also the last clause of Hebrew, 21, which prophesy a lie to you in My Name.

506 This verb is a play on the name of Ahab's father.

507 In Hebrew follows in 25a a useless editorial addition.

508 Hebrew precedes this with to all the people which are in Jerusalem and, and follows it with and to all the priests, additions very doubtful in view of verse 29. In II. Kings xxv.18 Sephaniah is second priest.

509 The time of the captivity.

510 Greek lacks the unnecessary remainder.

511 The following are some details as to xxvii. The Hebrew verse 1 is not given by Greek; Jehoiakim is of course a copyist's error for Sedekiah, as 3, 12, 20 and xxviii.1 show. Greek lacks the second clause of verse 5, all 7, several clauses of 8, one of 10, from under onwards in 12, all 13, the first of 14, now shortly in 16 (but adds I have not sent them), all 17, the last half of 18, most of 19, much of 20, all 21, and two clauses of 22.

512 Greek the earth.

513 Hebrew my servant.

514 Hebrew adds pestilence.

515 Greek; Hebrew dreams.

516 Greek; Hebrew your.

517 So adds Greek.

518 The general differences in xxviii are: after the Lord Hebrew adds of Hosts the God of Israel verses 2, 14; in 11 and 14 the name Nebuchadnezzar as in xxvii; in 3, 4, 14, 16, 17 unnecessary explanatory clauses or expansions; and throughout the title the prophet to the names Jeremiah and Hananiah respectively. Of all these the Greek is devoid; other differences are marked in the notes to the translation.

519 The prophetic perfect = I will break, verse 4.

520 As in xxvii.16 Greek puts the priests after the people.

521 Baruch is not well accustomed to long sentences, therefore repeats this clause (Duhm).

522 Greek lacks the bracketed words; famine by changing one letter of the Hebrew for evil.

523 Hebrew adds of the prophet.

524 Recognised or acknowledged.

525 Greek adds In the sight of all the people; also gives the plural bars.

526 Greek lacks these words.

527 So Greek; Hebrew thou shalt.

528 Hebrew adds Hear now Hananiah.

529 Hebrew adds that year.

530 By Giesebrecht.

531 Hebrew adds Before the Lord, yea before His holy words (Greek before His glorious majesty). Both break the connection and are unmetrical.

532 The couplet here given by Hebrew and Greek is too long for the verse, breaks the connection, and is apparently a copyist's dittography expanded by quotation from ix.2 (Duhm). But a single line is needed. Helped by Greek, we might read and because of these mourns.

533 After Duhm.

534 So Syriac, alone yielding a sound division of the lines.

535 Hebrew and Greek add a line breaking metre and parallel.

536 Jerusalem's (?).

537 Greek adds of Hosts concerning the prophets.

538 Cornill rejects this couplet, I think needlessly.

539 So Greek, cp. ii.5, p.92.

540 Or My, Erbt and Cornill.

541 So Greek. Hebrew feared and heard His word. These clauses are not metrical and may be a later intrusion; which 19, 20 certainly are, for they find their proper place in xxx.23, 24.

542 So Greek.

543 Hebrew expands, from their evil way and.

544 So Greek affirmatively. Hebrew, by putting the couplet as a question, confuses the meaning. To near it adds Rede of the Lord.

545 So Duhm happily takes a third repetition (for other cases of this kind, see vii.4; xxii.29) instead of the senseless how long at the beginning of the next verse.

546 Giesebrecht's happy emendation.

547 So Greek.

548 Greek Law.

549 So Greek.

550 Greek adds so My words.

551 Hebrew adds thus.

552 So lit. or call it a Rede; fling out so two Greek versions, Hebrew take.

553 Zeph. iii.4.

554 In 31 and 32 Hebrew repeats Rede of the Lord. The section which follows can hardly be Jeremiah's.

555 xxii.19; II. Kings xxiv.6; just as conversely Huldah's prophecy that Josiah would be gathered to his fathers in peace, II. Kings xxii.20, was belied at Megiddo.

556 xxiii.32, repeating what he has frequently said already.

557 As Amos had more strongly put it, You only have I known of all the families of the earth, therefore I will visit upon you all your iniquities, iii.2.

558 xxiii.27.

559 As we have seen; above, pp.76, 104 f., 137.

560 viii.11; xxiii.14, 17, 22, etc., etc.

561 xxix.23, xxiii.14.

562 xxiii.28, above, p.257; cp. xxvii.18.

563 xxviii.11, cp. xlii.1-7.

564 xxviii.6; above, p.251.

565 xxvi.14, 15.

566 See further, Lecture vii.

567 xxiii.31, p.258.

568 xxiii.21.

569 Stade's combination (ZATW 1892, 277 ff.) of xxi.1, 2; xxxvii.4-10; xxi.3-10; xxxvii.11 ff. yields a contradiction -- a prayer for the raising of the siege (xxi.1, 2) already raised (xxxvii.5). Erbt avoids this by combining only xxi.1, 2a; xxxvii.6-10; similarly Gillies (p.309). But, as Cornill says, one cannot explain how from this form the two accounts have risen. Older critics (except Ewald) and Davidson, Giesebrecht, Peake, Thomson, (196, 198) and Cornill refer the passages to different occasions. Skinner leaves the question in suspense (259 n.). Duhm disposes of xxxvii.3-10 as a Midrash legend and xxi.1-10 as |a free composition| upon it by another hand!

570 Probably the original tenor of verse 4, but the text is confused by additions.

571 Greek; Hebrew he.

572 Greek omits this clause inadvertently. The proposed reversal to thy mouth speak with his mouth (Giesebrecht, etc.) misses the point; surely the captor would speak first.

573 Hebrew adds concerning thee, thou shalt not die by the sword.

574 Of spices. Some Greek versions read mournings, and so shall they mourn for thee.

575 xxxix.7; II. Kings xxv.7.

576 Verses 1, 2 either belonged originally to this section, and mark it as from another source than, or different edition of, Baruch's memoirs, or more probably were added by an editor as necessary after the preceding sections (xxxv, xxxvi) from Jehoiakim's reign.

577 Greek reads say thou and thee for me, and omits you.

578 So Greek.

579 Greek place.

580 Knox's |History of the Reformation in Scotland,| Bk. i.

581 Cp. |declare a Liberty of Tender Consciences,| Declaration of Breda by Charles II.

582 A possible solution is |that the emancipation was undertaken in obedience to the neglected law, and that to make their action even more effective ... they decided to emancipate all their slaves without waiting till the legal term had expired| (Peake). Yet it is also possible that the reference in verses 13, 14 to the law, Deut. xv.12, is due to an editor.

583 The chief differences between Hebrew and Greek are: 8, Greek lacks all and the senseless unto them; 9, Greek reads so that no Jew should be a slave; 10, 11, for Hebrew heard (R.V. obeyed), Greek reads turned, omits the last two clauses of 10, all of 11 save the last and in 12, 13 from the Lord and God of Israel; 14 reads six for Hebrew seven and 15 they for ye (twice); 16 omits and brought them into subjection, 17, to his brother and every man, 18 all reference to the calf and its parts, 20, 21 and into the hand of them that seek their life (twice).

584 Peake.

585 xxxvii.12; the phrase is obscure.

586 xxxvii.11-21.

587 Greek omits this last named.

588 So Greek: Hebrew unto all the people.

589 Greek lacks to him and Syriac the last clause.

590 Greek For thus.

591 See above, p.232.

592 Calvin's discriminating remarks on xxxviii.2, in No. cxlvii of his prelections on the Book of Jeremiah, are well worth reading. See, too, Peake (p.24) and Skinner (261 ff.).

593 So Greek. Hebrew takes this clause as part of Sedekiah's reply: the king is not able to do anything against you.

594 Greek again is devoid of the repetitions, etc., that overload the Hebrew.

595 Hebrew adds sitting, an obvious intrusion (not in Greek), for in the siege the king would hardly hold council in the Benjamin-Gate.

596 Greek reads that he charged not the princes but the king. The text of 9 is uncertain. Duhm thinks the original meant that the princes wished Jeremiah's death so as to save bread.

597 Hebrew and versions thirty, differing little from the Hebrew for three, which is now generally read.

598 xxxix.15-18.

599 xxxviii.14-28; Greek agrees with Hebrew save for its usual omissions as well as secretly, 16. Both read the third entry of the Lord's House, which some, by adding a letter, would change to entry of the Shalishim or guards; unnecessarily, as Haupt shows.

600 After the deportation of 597.

601 So Greek; Hebrew reads thy feet are plunged, and omits from thee; 23 is a late expansion.

602 Pp.258-9 n., thus exceeding Steuernagel's and Buttenwieser's readings of parts of it as a variant of xxxvii.

603 xxxviii.28.

604 Duhm and Cornill take as original only 6-15; Giesebrecht reasonably adds 16, Ah Lord Yahweh in 17, 24, 25, and in the main 26-44, from which probably more deductions should be made than he makes. Gillies (270 ff.) takes 16-25 as later reflections on a prayer by Jeremiah, 24-41 as editorial, 42-44 as bringing us back to the actual situation. This is safer than Peake's distinction of 16, 24-26, 36-44 as genuine (slightly qualified by his notes). Hebrew and Greek throughout are the same, save for the usual Greek omissions, and these are more in the narrative 1-15 (especially 5b, 11b, 14 these deeds with it for them and they, while in 8 for Hebrew the redemption is thine it has thou art the elder) than in the prayer and the divine answer (30b, 36 captivity for pestilence, 41 visit for rejoice over). In 6 for Hebrew me Greek has Jeremiah, but confirms the 1st person in 8, 9-13, 16, 25, and in 26 has me for Hebrew Jeremiah. Greek, too, has some of its unusual surplus: 8 Shallum, 12 son of, 19 {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH DASIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH DASIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH DASIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO} {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK CAPITAL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}, 25 and I wrote the deed and sealed it, 33b still, 43 again.

605 The custom was to have one copy open for reference, and one sealed for confirmation if the open one should be disputed. To sealed Hebrew adds the injunction and conditions.

606 The numerous emendations are purely conjectural; the least unsatisfactory being Cornill's: The houses ... shall be torn down against which the Chaldeans are coming to fight with mounds and sword and to fill with the corpses of men whom I have smitten in my wrath, etc.

607 One may eliminate the few words not found in Greek, and naturally suspect the liturgical clause in 11. Some take 13 as a late expansion of 12.

608 xxxviii.28.

609 Verse 14 follows directly on verse 3. The statement that Nebusaradan was one of them is in verse 13 which belongs to the very late section, 4-13, lacking in the Greek.

610 Hebrew: lit. to the house; Greek omits.

611 Either Neby Samwil or Tell-en-Nasb, both a few miles north of Jerusalem. The above exposition takes xxxix.3, 14 and xl.1-6 as supplementary. But some read them as variants of the same episode, debating which is the more reliable. For a full discussion see Skinner, pp.272 ff.

612 Hebrew, the forces (Greek, the force) in the field.

613 The oscillations of this controversy have been recently so fully recounted (by Cornill and Peake) that it is unnecessary to repeat them here.

614 Whether the datum xxx.2, that Jeremiah was commanded by the Lord to write the words spoken to him in a book, is historical, is uncertain. It is not impossible that as he had been moved to write down his Oracles of doom (xxxvi) he should now be similarly advised about these later Oracles of hope. The rejection of xxx.2, by most critics, seems to me rash.

615 This in answer to Rothstein (Kautzsch's |Heilige Schrift des A. T.,| 754), whose upper date for them after 597 is too early, and to Gillies (p.238) who refers them to the Prophet's imprisonment.

616 Hebrew adds the gloss like a bearing woman.


618 So Greek, Hebrew thy.

619 So Greek, Hebrew thy.

620 So Greek, Hebrew thy.

621 After the Greek.

622 Driver.

623 Hebrew adds Rede of the Lord.

624 Lecture viii.

625 Greek, family.

626 iii.6 f.

627 See p.72.

628 Cornill dates the poem, |surely,| from the earliest stage of Jeremiah's prophetic career; but both its late place in the Book and the reasons given above argue strongly for a date at Mispah under Gedaliah.

629 So Greek.

630 Or continue troth to thee.

631 So Greek; Hebrew deck thee with.

632 So Greek.

633 Lit make common, i.e. not be obliged to wait over the first four crops as required by the law, Lev. xix.23-25, before having the fruit released for their own use. Greek reads the similar Hebrew verb praise.

634 Above, pp.149 f., 152, 155 ff.

635 Duhm emends to on the top of the hills.

636 So Greek and Targ.

637 So Greek.

638 Ibid.

639 So Greek.

640 It is singular how each of these three verses contains not four but five lines. Cornill, by using the introduction Thus saith the Lord, omitting the remnant of Israel, combining two pairs of lines and including the following couplet, effects the arrangement of octastichs to which he has throughout the book arbitrarily committed himself. Duhm has another metrical arrangement.

641 Or coasts.

642 Lit. they stream upon, A.V. flow together; but the verb is to be taken in the same sense as in Ps. xxxiv.5 were lightened and in Is. lx.5, R.V. It is the liquid rippling light, thrown up on the face from water.

643 So Greek.

644 Hebrew adds and will comfort them.

645 Richly lit. with fat, which Greek omits but to priests adds the sons of Levi, an instance of how ready later hands have been to add prose glosses to the poetry.

646 1 Sam. x.2.

647 See above pp.46 f.

648 Hebrew and some versions add for her children.

649 Greek has not the first line of this couplet, and reads differently the second. The whole seems a needless variant or paraphrase of 16.

650 Or turned to (?). Greek reads after my captivity.

651 Some would read was chastised.

652 Still have that on my conscience; there is no need to doubt this line in whole or part as some do.

653 After all that has passed!

654 Compass or change to (?) This couplet has been the despair of commentators. Its exilic terms, created and female, relieve us of it.

655 Hebrew adds of hosts, God of Israel.

656 Hebrew and Greek add holy mount, a late term and here irrelevant, for it is all Judah that is described.

657 Greek each.

658 Doubtful. Jeremiah had nothing to do with dreams as means of prophecy.

659 Hebrew adds to each the house of.

660 Hebrew adds from i.10 (q.v.), pluck up, break down and destroy.

661 As Dr. Skinner says, |it was only by way of the eternal world that Jeremiah could enter on the fruition of his hopes.|

662 |That atrocious brigand| (Renan).

663 The folds of, as Aquila shows that we should read Hebrew Geruth.

664 For the above see ch. xli, continuing from xl what is no doubt Baruch's account.

665 So ch. xlii. This and xli are substantially the same in Hebrew and Greek, the Greek as usual omitting the repetitions of the Divine Titles and of the names of the fathers of the actors, and a few other expansions; and suggesting, as Syriac and Vulg. also do, some minor corrections.

666 xxiv.1 ff.

667 xliii.1-7. Hebrew and Greek still agree in essentials, Greek as usual omitting Divine Titles (which the Hebrew copyists delight in repeating), the needless father-names and also the term proud (or presumptuous) in 2, where it reads the others for the senseless Hebrew participle saying. In 6 it reads remainder for children, and household for daughters -- of the king.

668 xliii.8-13. In 9 for the obscure Hebrew phrase, R.V. in mortar in the brickwork, Greek reads {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}; in 10 lacks My servant, for I and I have reads he and thou hast; and in 12 he shall for I will. Also in 12 for he shall array himself with the land of Egypt as a shepherd putteth on his garment, Greek has he shall clear out the land as a shepherd clears his garment from lice. Suitable and vivid as this figure is and adopted by many moderns, one hesitates to use it for lack of confirmation from other sources. The other one is sufficient.

669 Besides its usual minus Greek omits in 1 and at Noph, in 3 and to serve and neither ... fathers, in 9 and your own wickedness, in 10 neither have they feared, in my law nor, before you and, in 11 against you ... all Judah, at least half of 12, in 15 unto other gods and that stood by, in 18 and to pour out ... unto her, in 19 to portray her, in 22, without inhabitant, in 23 as it is this day, in 28 mine or theirs. Also Greek begins 19, And all the women answered and said, and in 25 for ye and your wives reads properly ye women.

670 Hebrew adds and at Noph (Memphis).

671 Duhm, Rothstein, Cornill, Gillies, etc., eliminate from 15 as a later addition all the men who knew that their wives burned to other gods on the ground that 19 shows the women alone to be the speakers; Duhm, precariously changing besides a great assembly (by the alteration of one letter) to with a great (loud) voice. And these critics and Driver, Giesebrecht and Peake rightly take even all the people ... in Pathros as a late gloss founded on verse 1.

672 That is solemnly sworn; Judg. xi.36; Numb. xxx.2, 12.

673 Some Greek MSS. and Syriac have and all the women answered, an addition felt to be necessary after the mention of both men and women in 15.

674 Hebrew adds to portray her, that is on the cakes.

675 Erbt first made clear the metrical form of these verses, though I think too grudgingly, and has ignored the fact that they are not one but two Oracles.

676 So Greek.

677 Generally accepted instead of Hebrew vows.

678 Calvin.

679 The rest of 27 and 28a, the destruction of all the Jews in Egypt, is a prose expansion.

680 Hebrew adds, but Greek lacks, from me or from them.

681 xx.8.

682 i.6.

683 xx.7.

684 vi.11, xx.9.

685 xv.10; cp. xii.1.

686 i.10, p.83.

687 xx.2 ff.; see p.192.

688 xxii.18 f.; see p.167.

689 xxxviii.19 ff.; pp.282 f.

690 xxix.24-32.

691 xxviii.17.

692 xlv.5; p.228.

693 So Greek; Hebrew thou lettest me see.

694 Greek; Hebrew takes this with the next line.

695 So generally read since Hitzig; Hebrew has bread, i.e. fruit.

696 Others: on Thee I have rolled; cp. xx.12.

697 Greek; Hebrew thy.

698 Hebrew copyists senselessly repeat, Thus saith the Lord of Hosts; Greek omits.

699 So Greek.

700 Greek.

701 Greek, meaning, Thy sanction to their curses.

702 The text of the last six lines is corrupt; the above is Duhm's reading after the Greek. See too J. R. Gillies. Verses 13, 14 are out of place here, see xvii.3, 4.

703 Greek omits.

704 So Greek; Hebrew (with same consonants, but the first two transposed) Found were Thy words.

705 So Greek; Hebrew I did eat them. But all this bracketed quatrain breaks the connection between what precedes and verse 17.

706 Cornill after Greek.

707 Omit of bronze for the metre's sake; it is a copyist's echo of i.18. Cornill omits impassable instead.

708 Hebrew adds Rede of the Lord.

709 Hebrew precedes this with And the Word of the Lord came unto me, which Greek is without, thus closely connecting xvi.2 ff. with xv.21.

710 In 3, 4 the bracketed lines are probably expansions of the original.

711 Hebrew, etc., add nor bemoan them -- expansion.

712 5b, 6a are not in Greek.

713 So Greek.

714 By a change of vowels.

715 So Greek.

716 Greek lacks of Hosts.

717 Perhaps 14 connects with 9, 10. The line For Thou art my praise is a late addition.

718 So Aq. Symm. Syr., reading ra'ah, evil for ro'eh, shepherd.

719 Torah, see p.154.

720 So Greek; Hebrew of mine accusers.

721 To this line Greek adds have privily laid a stumbling block. Most regard both lines as an expansion from 22.

722 Pl.; So Greek.

723 Pl.; So Greek.

724 Above, pp.276 ff.

725 In contrast with its boldness in textual criticism a curious timidity of sentiment has set through recent O.T. scholarship in Germany from which the older German scholars were free.

726 Greek the name of the Lord.

727 Greek; Hebrew adds any more.

728 So Greek.

729 Hebrew adds of Hosts.

730 Verse 13, a doxology, is probably a later addition.

731 So Greek.

732 Cp. xviii.20 f. p.329.

733 xii.5; cp. xv.19.

734 iv.10; p.322; xv.18.

735 i.17 f.; cp. xv.19.

736 See above, p.160.

737 Hebrew adds, Thou seest me.

738 See also p.160. Verse 4 is clearly out of place here, referring to a hardly relevant subject. Verse 6 is less improbable an illustration of the harder troubles in store for the prophet. There is no reason to doubt the genuineness of the rest: Thou can'st not trust, so Greek; Hebrew thou art trusting. Hitzig, etc., by changing one consonant read thou art fleeing. Rankness lit. pride or extravagance. If verse 6 is original, the date of the whole is early.

739 See above, p.202.

740 v.31; p.125.

741 ii.22 f.; xiii.23; xvi.12; xvii.1; etc.

742 ii.11-13, 22, 25, 31 f.

743 ii.35; v.31; vii.4-11, 21 ff.; xi.15; xiv.12.

744 iv.3, 4; vii.3 ff. etc.

745 xv.18.

746 Debase not the throne of Thy Glory, xiv.21.

747 xiv.8, 9; see p.57.

748 x.1-16 is a later writer's; see p.207.

749 vi.27; see pp.132, 133.

750 xii.1 ff., etc.

751 xx.7, 11.

752 xvii.7 f.; p.54.

753 See above, p.299.

754 Shortly before his death, Professor A. B. Davidson said to me, |These prophets were terribly one-idea'd men| -- their one idea being that the Lord was about to do something.

755 ii., iii. passim.

756 ii.31.

757 ii.8; Where is the Lord?

758 i.12 ff.

759 xxvii.5.

760 xxii.7; i.15; iv.6; v.15, etc.

761 xxii.25 f.; xxiv.8 ff.; xxv.9; xxvii.6; xxxii.3; xxxiv.2, 22.

762 xviii.1-11.

763 i.9 f.; etc.

764 ii.9; xii.1 ff.; xiii.1; xviii.1; xix.1, xxiv.1 f.; xxvii.2; xxxii.6; xxxv.2; xxxvi.2, 28.

765 ii.5, 11; viii.19 (?); xiv.22; xvi.19, 20; xviii.15; xxxii.30 (?), etc. Bubble, Hebrew hebel, lit. breath, usually rendered vanity by our versions.

766 Deut. iv.19 reconciles the two by saying that Yahweh had assigned the gods to their respective nations.

767 Above, pp.187 ff.; ii.9, 31 f.; iii.12, 19; etc.

768 ix.24; cp. v.1 ff., etc.

769 vii.3 ff.; xxvi.13. See above, pp.155 ff.

770 xxii.15 f.

771 ix.7; cp. ii.9, 35; v.7-9, 25.

772 Not from the very earliest; ii. and iii. utter pleadings rather than condemnations.

773 iii.1 ff., 20.

774 vi.11; iv.8, 26; xxv.15; xxx.24 (also, but out of place in xxiii.20); cp. xiii.12-14.

775 ii.20; iii.3, 6 ff., 20; xii.8.

776 iv.28; v.7; vii.16; xi.14; xv.1 ff.

777 v.9, 29; ix.9; xxi.7.

778 vi.15; viii.12; ix.15 (xxiii.15); xv.7, 8; xiii.24; xviii.17; vi.26; ix.11; vii.15; xxiv.9, 10.

779 ii.19; iv.18; vii.19; xiii.22.

780 vi.27-30; pp.132 ff.

781 ii.30, v.3.

782 ii.25; xviii.12; vi.15; viii.12; xi.14; xiv.11.

783 v.31; xiii.25; xviii.11 ff.; xxiii.14-17; xxvii.9; xxviii.15.

784 iii.21-25, a vain confession of sin by the people which meets only with a sterner call from God (iv.3-4; see pp.102 f., 107 f.) and was, as the subsequent years proved, ineffective; cp. xviii.15.

785 ii.5, 31, 32.

786 xii.7-9; ii.14.

787 xii.11; cp. Gen. xlviii.7.

788 xxxi.20.

789 I shall judge thee for saying |I am guiltless|: ii.35.

790 Above, pp.186 ff., 348.

791 ii.13; xiv.8; xvii.13; iii.12.

792 i.11 f.; xxxi.35 f.

793 viii.7; v.22 (xxxi.35); xiv.22 (after the Greek); cp. iii.3; v.24.

794 xxiii.23 f.; above, p.256.

795 By Smend.

796 Amos ix.2 ff.

797 See above, pp.238-241.

798 xxix.4-13; cp. vii.14, 21 ff.; iii.16; and see above, pp.143-159.

799 See above, pp.90 ff.

800 v.1-5; viii.8, scribes and wise; and prophets and priests continually.

801 ix.4 f.; v.7 f.; xx.3 f.; xxii.13-18; xxxviii.22; xxviii.15 f.

802 iii.2; v.26; x.21; xxiii.31.

803 v.1.

804 xi.20; xx.12.

805 xvii.9 f.

806 xxiii.24.

807 xxxi.29 f.

808 xxvi.2 f.

809 ix.24.

810 x.23.

811 xvii.7 f.; above, p.54.

812 See above, pp.227-229.

813 xii.3.

814 Above, pp.293 ff. This was rightly perceived by earlier critics of last century, Movers, De Wette, Hitzig, etc., who mostly assigned as a date the end of the exile and read the influence of the Second Isaiah upon any Jeremian material that the chapters may contain. In spite of objections by Graf their thesis was reaffirmed and expanded by Stade (Gesch. Isr. i.643) and by Smend (Lehrbuch der A.T. Religionsgeschichte, 1893), who denied that any part of xxx, xxxi was from Jeremiah, on grounds both of alleged inconsistencies with Jeremiah's teaching, and of the representations of Judah with her people restored and her cultivation resumed. But since Smend criticism has been more discriminating; admitting post-exilic elements and consequently a late age for the whole collection but reserving for our Prophet various passages: Giesebrecht, xxxi.2-6, 15-20, 27-34; Duhm, xxx.12-15, xxxi.2-6, 15-22a; Erbt, xxxi.2-6, 15-17, 18-20; Cornill, xxxi.2-5, 9b, 15-22b, 31-34; J. R. Gillies, xxxi.2-6, 15-20, 29 f., 31b, 33b, 34; Peake, xxxi.2-6, 15-22, 31-34; Skinner, xxxi.2-6, 15 f., 18-20, 21 f., 29 f., 31-34.

815 Above, pp.36 f., 40-42, 49-52, 91.

816 Above, pp.40, 91, 142, 145.

817 xi.1 ff., etc.

818 xxiv.7.

819 ix.24; cp. viii.7b, etc.

820 So Greek, Latin and Syriac; Hebrew though I was an husband to them.

821 So one Greek version.

822 So some MSS.

823 So Greek and Latin.

824 Hebrew adds, Rede of the Lord.

825 Giesebrecht.

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