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Pagan And Christian Rome by Rodolfo Lanciani

INDEX.

For the names of individual arches, basilicas, catacombs, churches, forums, palaces, piazzas, statues, streets, temples, tombs, and villas, see the headings, Arch, Basilica, Catacombs, Churches, etc.

Academy of Pomponio, 359.

Achilleus, martyr, bas-relief representing his execution, 339 (cut).

Acilii Glabriones. See Glabriones.

AErarium Saturni, 163.

Agapae, 42, 336.

Ager Fonteianus, 270.

Agrippa, M., 79, 82, 99;
edifices due to, 176.

Agrippina, fate of her pedestal once in the ustrinum, 183, 184 (cut); her death, 183.

Aius Locutius, 72.

Albanum, amphitheatre of, 6.

Alexamenos, 12.

Alexander VII., Pope, 36.

Altars, ancient, 33;
their usual form, 67.
See also Arae.

-- -- of Aius Locutius, 71, 72 (cut);
-- -- of Dis and Proserpina, 73;
its foundation, 74;
its discovery, 76 (cut);
its shape and surroundings, 77;
-- -- of Hercules, 59;
-- -- Incendii Neroniani, 83;
-- -- Maxima Herculis, 69;
-- -- of Mercurius Sobrius, 34 (cut);
-- -- Pacis Augustae, 82, 83 (cut);
-- -- Roma Quadrata, 70;
-- -- of Vedjovis, at Bovillae, 68;
-- -- of Verminus, 68.

Amasis, King, sphinx of, 94 (cut).

Ambrose, S., 43.

Amphitheatre at Albanum, 6.

Ampliatus, his tomb, 342;
possibly the friend of S. Paul, 343.

Anagni, basilica of, 25.

Anastasius IV., Pope, his sarcophagus, 197.

Ancyra, Augusteum at, 173.

Anisson, Charles d', 36.

Annius, a maker of lamps, in Ostia, 17.

Annona, 27.

Antinous, statue of, 240, 241 (cut).

Apollo, in Christian art, 25.

Appian Way. See Via Appia.

Aqueduct of Damasus, 121.

Aquila and Prisca, 110;
their house and oratory, 111, 126.

Arae compitales, 33. See Altars.

Arch of Claudius, 99;
of Constantine, 101;
testimony of its inscription to the position of Christianity, 20 (plate);
of Marcus Aurelius, panel, 90 (plate).

Arco di S. Lazaro, 181.

Argeorum sacraria, 33.

Artemisium Nemorense, 59.

Arx, 85.

Athens, Acropolis, probable origin of the gold found here by Herodes Atticus, 289.

Atrium sutorium, 275.

Atticus, Herodes, bibliography, 288 n.;
his father's discovery of riches, 288;
his liberality and public spirit, 289;
the buildings erected in memory of his wife, 290.

Atticus, Pomponius, house of, 191.

Atys, 27.

Augustea, 173.

Augustine, S., his pupil Licentius, 14;
on eating and drinking in honor of martyrs, 43;
on the celebration of S. Peter's day, 44.

Augustus, Emperor, strenae calendariae offered to, 34; offerings in the temple of Concord, 54;
his house, 71 n.;
celebrates the Secular games, 79;
dedicates an altar to Peace on the Campus Martius, 82; death and funeral, 168;
resolutions in the senate, 169;
mausoleum, 172;
his Res gestae, 172;
his army, 174;
his liberalities, 175;
public improvements in his time, 176;
his mausoleum destroyed, 179;
other members of the imperial family buried here, 182.

Banqueting-halls, 42.

Basilica, origin of its plan in that of the private house, 114 (cut); its form derived from the schola, 118.

-- -- of Constantine, 162;
Julia, 163;
of Junius Bassus, 28;
of Nereus, Achilleus and Petronilla, 338 (cut).

Bassus, Junius, basilica of, 28.

Bassus, Pomponius, 192.

Baths, in connection with Christian churches, 37;
of Diocletian, 38, 48, 74.

Bayazid, his gift of the holy lance, 243.

Beatrix, martyr, 333;
the name corrupted from Viatrix, 334 (cut).

Belloni, Paolo, 151.

Benedict VII., Pope, tomb, 234.

Benedict XII., Pope, 138.

Benedict XIV., Pope, 37.

Bernini, influence of his school, 250.

Bidentalia, 106.

Biga, in the Vatican, 27.

Bologna, monumental crosses, 35.

Boniface I., Pope, 319.

Bonifatius, origin of the name, 344.

Bosio, Ant., investigator of the Catacombs, 329.

Bovillae, altar to Vedjovis, 68.

Bridge of Caligula, 101.

Brattius Praesens, 10.

Burial, rights of, accorded the Christians, 119;
more common than cremation in prehistoric times, 253; early burial in the trunks of trees, 254;
clay coffins in the same form, 254;
difficulties encountered by the Christians, 308;
within the city walls, 325.

Burial companies, 258.

Byzantine princes, their images in Rome, 162.

Caecilia, S., her tomb discovered by Pope Paschal I., 326.

Caepio, Aulus Crispinius, his tomb, 267.

Caesar, Caius, beloved by Augustus, 184.

Caesar, Julius, his offerings in the temple of Concord, 54.

Caffarella, Valle della, 286.

Calda, 357.

Caligarii, 274.

Caligula, his bridge, so-called, 101;
places his mother's ashes in the mausoleum, 184.

Callixtus, death, 220.

-- -- , Catacombs of. See Catacombs.

Calpurnii, their tomb, 276;
their history, 277.

Cambyses, conquest of Egypt, 94.

Camillus, capture of Veii, 64.

Campagna, 286 (plate).

Campo dell' Augusta, 179.

Campus Esquilinus, 256.

Campus Martius, 74;
early excavations in, 98.

Candelabrum, in church of SS. Nereo ed Achilleo, 26 (cut); in Church of S. Paolo, 239 (cut).

Canevari, Ant., 159.

Canova, his tomb of Clement XIII., 250.

Capitoline games, 281.

Capitoline Hill, 85;
the western summit, 86 (plate).

Capitoline museum, 15, 42, 59, 70, 93, 106, 190, 255, 290 n. See, also, dei Conservatori, under Palaces.

Capitolium. See Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus.

Caracalla, 12.

Carrhae, 355.

Carthage, excitement against the Christians in, 318.

Castel S. Angelo, 234.

Catacombs.
Crypt of the Acilii Glabriones, 4;
its devastation in the 17th cent., 8;
burial of Christian martyrs, 119;
injury occasioned by the building of churches over the tombs of martyrs, 122;
preferred by the early Christians to open-air cemeteries, 308; their development in the 2d century, 317;
the names given them, 317;
their secret entrances, 318;
not habitable, 319;
their extent, 319;
compared to the tombs of the kings at Thebes, 321;
their use declined in the 4th century, 321;
pillaged by the Goths, 324;
restored by Pope Vigilius, 325;
unmentioned by later Church annals, 327;
discovered in 1578, 328;
their wholesale pillage, 329;
the treasures found in them, 331;
the number of the Catacombs, 332.

-- -- of Callixtus, 50, 117, 216, 219, 339;
-- -- ad Catacumbas or of S. Sebastiano, 345;
the bodies of SS. Peter and Paul concealed here, 346; -- -- of Cyriaca, 350;
-- -- of Domitilla, 335;
the Flavian crypt, 316 (cut), 330, 336;
the basilica Ciborio della santa lancia, 243.

Cippus of Agrippina the Elder, 184 (cut).

Circus of Nero and Caligula, 127.

Clemens, Flavius, martyr, 3, 6, 7.

Clement VIII., 150.

Clement IX., 37.

Clement XI., 48.

Clement XIII., 48;
his tomb by Canova, 249, 250 (plate);
and the suppression of the Jesuits, 252.

Clivus Rutarius, 270.

Cocumelle, 172.

Coliseum, Christian churches on the site of, 161.

Colonnas, banished from Rome, 179.

Columbaria, 256;
the cost of loculi, 257;
the three kinds of columbaria, 257;
that on the Via Latina owned by shareholders, 258;
the loculi drawn by lot, 259;
interior, 260 (plate).

Columbus, Christopher, birthplace of, 245 n.

Column of Antoninus, bas-reliefs, 170, 171 (cuts).

Commodus, 313.

Concordia Sagittaria, its cemetery, 323.

Constantia, S., her mausoleum, 199.

Constantine, Emperor, 50;
date of his profession of Christianity, 21;
relation to his pagan subjects, 22;
builds a basilica over the tomb of Peter, 132;
his cross on S. Peter's tomb seen in 1594, 149;
the memorial chapel of his victory over Maxentius, 163; the battle (front.);
statue of, 164 (cut);
discovery of his sarcophagus in 1458, 202;
the edict of Milan, 314.

Consul suffectus, 10 n.

Convent of the Visitation, 71 n.

Cornelii, their family vaults, 218.

Cornelius, Pope, his tomb, 215 (cut), 218 (plate);
portrait, 219 (cut).

Cortile di S. Damaso, 121.

Crassus Frugi, M. Licinius, 277.

Cremation, introduced in the 5th century

of Rome, 255;
the ustrinum on the Appian Way, 256.

Crescentius de Theodora, 234.

Crispina, Bruttia, Empress, 10.

Cross of Henry IV. of France, 36.

Crosses, monumental, 35.

Crows, a platform dedicated to, 268.

Cups, 43.

Cybele, 27.

Cyprian, bishop of Carthage, 217.

Cyril, S., fresco showing the translation of his remains, 32 (plate).

Damasus, Pope, 139, 217, 219;
his aqueduct, 121;
built an oratory to the memory of Simplicius and Faustinus, 333.

Decursiones, 171.

Demetrius, 116.

Dentists, inscriptions from the tombs of, 353 (cuts).

Destruction of Roman monuments in the Middle Ages, 8, 53, 66, 87, 90, 98, 103, 113, 136, 137, 143, 155, 156, 177, 182, 185, 195, 202, 233, 237, 256, 269, 286, 301, 320, 324, 329.

Diocletian, persecution of the Christians, 314.

Diplomata, 91.

Discoveries. See Excavations and discoveries.

Doll, found in the sarcophagus of Crepereia Tryphaena, 305.

Domitian, 5, 6, 281;
dedicates the Ara Incendii Neroniani, 84;
his birthplace, 193;
his death, 193.

Domitilla Flavia, 10;
her villa, 335;
the catacombs on her estate, 336;
her family and relationship, 337.

Domitillae, 3.

Donatists, 21.

Donnus I., Pope, 271.

Drinking cups, 43.

Egeria, grotto of, 293.

Egyptian art, specimens found near the Iseum, 92;
its influence in Rome, 239.

Elagabalus, included Christ among the other gods, 13; his extravagances, 131.

Episcopus, a municipal officer, 12.

Epitaphs, 261, 262;
on the tombs of the Popes in S. Peter's, 222;
on Pope Sylvester II., 237;
imprecations expressed in, 262, 317;
of Pompeius Magnus Crassi f., 279;
of Q. Sulpicius Maximus, 282;
of Julia Prisca, 300;
of a pilgrim from Thrace, 328;
of Aurelius Theophilus, 355.

Eugenius IV., Pope, 92, 138.

Eupor, Fabius, 310.

Excavations and discoveries, in the Campus Martius, 98; in 1374, obelisk of the Piazza della Rotonda, 92;
in 1435, Egyptian lions, 92;
in 1440, figure of a river-god, 93;
in 1458, sarcophagus of Constantine, 202;
cir.1480, temple of Hercules, 69:
in 1485, the long-buried body of a woman near the Casale Rotondo, 295, 298 (cut);
in 1519, in S. Peter's, 202;
in 1527, the mausoleum of Augustus, 182;
in 1544, the tomb of Maria in S. Peter's, 203;
in 1546, the Baths of Caracalla, 249;
in 1549, the temple of Augustus, 103;
in 1554, the Ara Pacis Augustae, 82;
in 1556, statue of Oceanus, 93;
in 1555, house of Pomponius Atticus, 191;
in 1578, in the Catacombs, 328;
in 1588, fragments of a Laocooen under S. Pudentiana, 113; in 1594, the grave of S. Peter, 150;
in 1599, on the Via Latina, 258;
in 1614-16, in S. Peter's, 129;
in 1660, on the site of the Villa Pamfili-Doria, 269; in 1695-1741, in the Naro vineyard, 276;
in 1713-17, in the Catacombs, 330;
in 1719, an Isiac altar, 93;
Egyptian antiquities, 96;
in 1776, near church of S. Prisca, 111;
in 1777, the ustrinum under the Corso, 182;
in 1780, remains of the temple of Jupiter Maximus, 89; in 1793, in the Via di S. Lucia in Selci, 206;
in 1810, silver near Civita Castellana, 207;
in 1817, the temple of Concord, 53;
in 1817-22, remains of the villa Amaranthiana, by the Duchess of Chablais, 335;
in 1820, altar of Aius Locutius, 71;
in 1821, at Parma, 207;
in 1849-52, near the Appian Way, 215;
in 1851, the fresco of the Saviour in the Catacomb ad Duas Lauros, 356; in 1858, Egyptian sculptures, 93;
in 1859, the Ara Pacis Augustae, 82;
five capitals in the Via di S. Ignazio, 93;
in 1862, sarcophagus of Licentius, 14;
temple of Hercules, 59;
in 1864, a schola of the citizens of Serrae, 41;
in 1867, foundations of a memorial chapel to S. Paul, 156; in the cemetery of Callixtus, 318;
in the cemetery of Generosa, 332;
in 1869, the altar of Roma Quadrata, 71;
in 1871, inventory of gifts in the temple of Diana Nemorensis, 54; in 1875, temple of Jupiter Maximus, 85;
coins of Nero, under the abbey of the Tre Fontane, 157; in 1876, favissae of the temple of Hercules, 59;
in 1877, coins at Belinzago, 208;
in 1878, remains of the temple of Neptune, 99;
in 1879, fragments of a bedstead (?) on the Esquiline, 208; in 1880-82, in the Catacombs ad Duas Lauros, 354;
in 1881, shrine of Semo Sancus, 105;
in the catacombs of Domitilla, 342;
in 1883, mensae ponderariae, at Tivoli, 40;
Egyptian remains from the temple of Isis, 92, 94;
in 1884, house of Vegetus, 192;
in the Via di Porta Salaria, 276;
in 1885, temple of Diana Nemorensis, by Lord Savile, 59; in the Villa Bertone, 283;
in 1886, a stonecutter's house, under the Palazzo della Banca Naz., 240;
in 1886-87, altar of Dis and Proserpina, 75;
in 1887, on the Corso d' Italia, 276;
in 1888, crypt of the Acilii Glabriones, 4, 8;
in 1889, ex-votos at Veii, by the Empress of Brazil, 65; under the new Halls of Justice, 301;
in 1890, inscriptions describing the Secular games, 73.

Exedrae, 42.

Ex-votos, found on the sites of temples, 58;
anatomical specimens, 62;
shops for the sale of, 62;
deposits found near the Tiber, 62.

Faliscan Museum, 354.

Farnesina gardens, house discovered in, 263, 264 (plate).

Favissae, 58.

Flavians, the members of the family who became Christians, 337; their crypt in the Catacombs of Domitilla, 316 (cut), 330, 336

Flowers, feasts of, in ancient times, 49.

Fortunatus, S., 360.

Forum Julium, 54;
Romanum, Caligula's bridge, 101; Olitorium, 5;
Trajanum, the earth taken from it placed over the cemetery of the Via Salaria, 284.

Foundation of a city, ceremonies of, 70.

Fountain, in the atrium of S. Peter's, 135, 136 (cut); in front of S. Paolo, 155.

Frescos. See Paintings.

Funeral ceremonies and memorial feasts, 117, 171.
See also Burial.

Funerary banquets, 42.

Funeraticia collegia, 116.

Furnilla, Marcia, wife of Titus, 207;
statue (plate).

Gauls, their invasion foretold by a mysterious voice, 72.

Genesius, S., 360.

Germano, Padre, 158.

Geta, remains of his mausoleum, 196 (cut).

Giardino delle Tre Pile, 101.

Glabrio, Manius Acilius, consul A. D.91, 5;
his martyrdom, 6.

Glabriones, Acilii, discovery of their burial place, 4; history of the family, 5.

Gods, the name and sex of those little known, seldom mentioned, 72.

Goths, their pillage of the Catacombs, 324.

Graecina, Pomponia, a Christian convert, 9.

Graffiti, evidence on the position of the church, 12; in the catacombs, 42, 219, 327, 356.

Granaries, 44;
belonging to the church, 46;
the grain sold by Pope Sabinianus, 47;
the institution long survived, 48;
the granary at Ostia, 47 (cut).

Great litany, 165.

Greek language used by the church, 216.

Gregorian chant, 229.

Gregorovius, Ferdinand, 213.

Gregory I. (the Great), 47;
his tomb, 221, 223;
statue of, 225 (cut);
his work, 228;
the monastery founded by him, 229, 230 (cut);
in the basilica of Nereus and Achilleus, 345.

Gregory XIII., Pope, 48.

Grimaldi, 122.

Hadrian, Emperor, 49, 99;
attitude toward Christianity, 11.

Hadrian's Mole, and apartments built by Paul III., 247.

Hair, restoration of, ascribed to Minerva, 63.

Haran, or Charan, 355.

Helena, tomb of, 197 (cut), 198 (plate).

Henry IV. of France, column of, 36.

Hercules, 104;
labors of, 25;
bronze statue of, 69.

Hermes Trismegistos, 25.

Hermione, Claudia, her tomb, 129.

Herod, King, profaned the tomb of David, 205.

Herodes Atticus. See Atticus.

Hierones, 67.

Hippolytus, statue of, 141, 143 (cut).

Hispellum, temple dedicated to Constantine, 22.

Honorius I., Pope, 137.

Horace, the Carmen Saeculare, 78, 81.

Horrea publica, 44;
advertisement for leasing and regulations for use found, 45.

House of a patrician, discovered in the Farnesina gardens, 263 (cut).

Improvvisatori, 281, 283.

Innocent VIII., Pope, his tomb, 145, 242 (plate).

Inscription, to Acilius Glabrio (cut), 4;
to Pomponius, 9;
found near Porta del Popolo in 1877, 15 (cut);
to M. Anneus Paulus Petrus, 16 (cut);
to Publia AElia Proba, 19;
to Petro Lilluti Paulo, 18 n;
on arch of Constantine, 20;
on the pyramid of Louis XIV., 36;
on the column of Henry IV., 37 n;
in baths of the churches of SS. Sylvester and Martin, 38; in temple of Hercules; Tivoli, 40;
on pagan tombs relating to libations, 42;
inventory of works of art in the temple of Diana Nemorensis, 55; tariff for sacrifices, 57;
mentioning the Roma Quadrata, 71;
altar of Aius Locutius, 72;
to the Genius of Rome, 72;
descriptive of the Ludi Saeculares, 73, 79 (text in appendix); of the Ara Incendii Neroniani, 84;
on the foundation walls of the temple of Jupiter, 88; pedestal of statue of Semo Sancus, 106;
on the label of a dog's collar, 153;
S. Paul's tombstone, 157 (cut);
spurious inscriptions, 301;
the immense number that have been lost, 320;
military inscriptions, from the Praetorian camp, 351. See, also, Epitaphs; Graffiti.

Iseum. See Temple of Isis.

Isis, altar to, in church of Aracoeli, 27;
statue of, 55.

Italians, tolerant in matters of religion, 16.

Januarius, S., his grave in the Catacombs, 322 (cut).

Jerome, S., on the celebration of S. Peter's day, 44.

Jesuits, expelled from Portugal, Spain, and France, 251.

Jews, position in the Roman Empire, 12;
toleration enjoyed in Rome, 16, 309;
responsible for the first Christian persecution, 311.

Johannipolis, 153.

John III., Pope, 38.

John VIII., Pope, builds the defences of S. Paolo, 154; defeats the Saracens off Cape Circeo, 154

John X., Pope, death and burial, 235.

Jubilee of 1350, 166.

Julian the Apostate, 355.

Jupiter, statue of, in Constantine, Algeria, 56.

Labyrinths, in church pavements, 31.

Lamps, ornamented with figure of the Good Shepherd, 18 (cut); found in the Catacombs, 218.

Lance, Holy, story of, 243.

Laocooen, fragments found under the church of S. Pudentiana, 113.

Lateran museum, 141.

Lateran palace, its early occupation by the Church, 21.

Leo I. (the Great), 155; his tomb, 223.

Leo IV., Pope, 137.

Leo X., Pope, 93.

Leto, Pomponio, his academy, 359.

Licentius, a pupil of S. Augustine, his career, 14; his tomb discovered, 14.

Licinianus, Calpurnius, 278.

Licinii Calpurnii, their tomb, 276;
their history, 277.

Linus, the successor of Peter and Paul, 125;
his tomb discovered, 130.

Lipsanotheca, 166.

Locanda della Gaiffa, 181.

Loretto, Santa Casa, 25.

Louis XIV., pyramid of, in Rome, 36.

Love-feasts, 42.

Lucca, Cathedral, 31.

Lucina, a Christian matron, 9.

Ludi saeculares. See Secular games.

Ludi Tarentini, 75.

Luke, cardinal, his tomb, 159.

Mamertine prison, 163.

Map of Rome, the author's, 163 n.

Marius, pillages the ruins of the Temple of Jupiter, 87.

Mark, Pope, 50.

Marriages, mixed, in pagan Rome, 15;
Tertullian on, 15.

Martial, Valerius, house of, 192.

Martyrs, early, 3;
their alleged stupidity, 7;
stones said to be tied to the necks of, 39, 41;
love-feasts celebrated near their tombs, 42;
their tombs decorated with flowers, 49;
their burial and tombs, 119;
scene of the first martyrdoms, 127;
churches connected with their houses, 158;
their tombs in the Catacombs, 322;
their bodies translated from suburban cemeteries to the city, 325; bas-relief representing an execution, 339 (cut).

Mausolea. See Tombs.

Mellini, Pietro and Mario, 166.

Memoriae, 42.

Messalina, 277.

Meta, its signification lost, 128.

Meta di Borgo, 27.

Michael, archangel, summits of hills consecrated to, 226; the statue on the mausoleum of Hadrian, 227, 228 (cut).

Michelangelo, his first design for S. Peter's, 146.

Military inscriptions from the Praetorian camp, 351.

Military service of Christians under the Roman Empire, 18.

Minerva in Christian art, 25;
honored as a restorer of hair, 63.

Monastery of S. Alessio, 235;
of S. Andrew, 229, 230 (cut).

Monte Mario, 165.

Monte Testaccio, 181.

Mosaics, in church of S. Paolo alle Tre Fontane, 25; in church of S. Andrea, 29 (cut);
in church of S. Pudentiana, 113;
in S. Peter's, 139.

Mundus muliebris, 204.

Museo delle Terme, 268.

Museums. See Capitoline, Lateran, Vatican;
also dei Conservatori, under Palaces.

Music, religious, school of, established by Gregory, 229.

Naples, church of the Olivetans, 25.

Nemi, the site of a temple of Diana, 60 (cut).

Neptunium. See Temple of Neptune, 99.

Nereus and Achilleus, martyrs, 337.

Nero, 127, 287;
relation to Christianity, 11;
deserted by the legions, 185;
head of, 186 (cut);
his flight and death, 187;
his funeral, 189;
his tomb, 189.

Nerva, 177.

Nicomachus Flavianus, attempt to restore paganism, 97.

Oaths, 105.

Obelisks, discovered in Rome, 92, 97, 172;
of Rameses the Great, discovered in 1883, 95.

Oils, 218.

Oratories, private, of the early Christians, 109.

Orientation of churches, 120, 152.

Orpheus, in Christian art, 23 (cut).

Ossaria, 256.

Ostia, imperial palace at, 25;
granary at, 47 (cut).

Otho II., his tomb, 136.

Pacuvius, 69.

Paetus, Lucilius, tomb of, 283.

Pagan rites and customs adopted by the Church, 23.

Paintings, fresco in S. Clemente, translation of Cyril's remains, 32 (plate);
in a patrician house in the Farnesina gardens, 263, 264 (plate), 265 (cut);
in the Catacombs, discovered in 1714, 330;
in the Villa Amaranthiana, 335;
of the Saviour with SS. Paul and Peter in the Catacomb ad Duas Lauros, 356;
of the story of Jonah and the Symbolic Supper, 356, 357 (cut); illustrations of the Gospel in the Catacombs, 358;
battle between Constantine and Maxentius, frontispiece.

Palaces: Albani del Drago, 30;
Altieri, 101;
Caffarelli, 85;
dei Conservatori, 30, 53, 77, 100, 185 (see also
Capitoline museum);
Farnese, 100;
Fiano, 82;
Lateran (see Lateran);
Maraini, 280;
Moroni, 88;
Odescalchi, 100.

Pammachius, 158.

Pantheon, 56.

Parenzo, Dalmatia, basilica of, 30.

Paschal I., Pope, 326.

Passion-plays in Rome, 181.

Paul, the apostle, his friendship with Seneca, 17;
silver-gilt statue of, 26;
proofs of his death in Rome, 123;
position of his tomb, 151;
place of his execution, 156;
his grave and tombstone, 157 (cut);
portrait head, 212 (cut);
his liberty to preach in Rome, 311;
his friend Ampliatus, 343;
his body transferred temporarily to the Catacombs, 345.

Paul, S., basilica of. See S. Paolo fuori le Mura, under Churches.

Paul and Peter, names on a pagan tomb, 16.

Paul III., tomb, 245;
character, 246;
his patronage of art, 247;
his apartments on Hadrian's Mole, 247;
and Cellini, 247;
excavates the Baths of Caracalla, 249.

Paul V., Pope, 48, 136, 144.

Paulinus of Nola, 43;
his epistles to Licentius, 14.

Pavements, basilica of Parenzo, 30.

Pavia, Church of S. Michele Maggiore, 31.

Pelagius II., Pope, 121.

Pentecost, celebration of, 50.

Perpetua, Acts of, 49.

Persecution under Claudius, 310;
under Nero, 312;
under later emperors, 313;
under Diocletian, 314.

Peter, S., celebration of the feast of, 43;
his presence in Rome proved by documents, 123;
by monumental evidence, 125;
the exact place of his execution determined, 127;
his tomb, 129;
his chair, 140 (cut);
the bronze statue, 141, 142 (cut);
his body probably still under the altar in his church, 148; portrait head, 212 (cut);
his body transferred temporarily to the Catacombs, 345.

Peter and Paul, houses connected with their stay in Rome, 110, 112.

Petronilla, 3, 200;
her burial-place, 340;
represented in a fresco, 341 (cut);
not a daughter of S. Peter, 342.

Phaon, Nero's flight to villa of, 186;
remains of villa of, 188 (map).

Philip the Arab, Emperor, a Christian, 13.

Philip the Younger, son of Philip the Arab, bust, 13 (cut).

Piacenza, church of S. Sevino, 31;
votive tablet to Minerva found at, 63.

Piazza di S. Maria Maggiore, 172, 182;
di Santa Maria in Trastevere, 220;
della Minerva, 95, 97;
del Pantheon, 95;
di Pietra, 99;
del Quirinale, 172;
della Rotonda, 92, 97;
della Stazione, 97;
di Termini, 48.

Pilate, house of, 180.

Pincian Hill, palace of the Acilii Glabriones, 5.

Piso Frugi Licinianus, L. Calpurnius, 277.

Platorinus, C. Sulpicius, his tomb, 265, 268 (plate).

Poetical contests on the Capitol, 282.

Polla, Lucilia, tomb of, 283.

Polla, Minasia, 267 (plate).

Pompeius Magnus, son of Licinius Crassus, 277;
his epitaph, 279.

Pomponius Laetus, 246;
his academy, 359.

Ponderaria, in churches, 39.

Pons Vaticanus, 126.

Ponte Nomentano, 187 (cut).

Pontius, Bishop, 167.

Popes, their portraits in the basilicas of Rome, 209; their tombs, 213.

Porta Sanqualis, 104.

Portico of the Argonauts, 99;
of church of S. Paolo, 156;
of the Danaids, 71, 80.

Poseidonion. See Temple of Neptune.

Praesens, Bruttius, 10.

|Preaching of Peter,| 124.

Priscilla, wife of Abascantus, tomb of, 300.

Pudens, 110;
his house, 112, 114 (cut), 115 (cut).

Pudens, L. Valerius, 282.

Pyramids on the Via Triumphalis, 271.

Quadragesima Sunday, 50.

Quietus, Postumius, 9.

Quindecemviri, call for the celebration of the Secular games, 75.

Ravenna, church of S. Vitale, 31.

Regilla, Annia, wife of Herodes Atticus, 290;
her supposed tomb, 291 (cut).

Renaissance, the interest in archaeology, 101.

Renzo di Maitano, 32.

Rhodismos, 49.

Ricci, Lorenzo, 252.

Rienzi, 155;
his funeral pyre, 179;
his birthplace, 180.

Robigalia, 165.

Roma Quadrata, 70.

Rome, its transformation to a Christian city, 1;
early Christian buildings, 3;
the freedom enjoyed by the church, 11;
the change gradual, 19;
evidences of it, 20;
artistic feeling among the lower classes, 32;
substitution of chapels and shrines for the arae compitales, 33; monumental crosses, 35;
warehouses, 44;
the calamities of the year 605, 46;
pagan shrines and temples, 51;
capture by the Gauls, B. C.390, 73;
the conflagration under Nero, 83;
occupation by the Saracens in 846, 149;
the author's archaeological map of, 163 n.;
population under Augustus, 175;
public improvements in his time, 176;
the city in the time of Gregory the Great, 226;
the charming surroundings of the city, 286;
the invasions of the Goths in the 5th and 6th centuries, 324; the itineraries of pilgrims, 327.

Rosaria, 48.

Rosationes, 49.

Rose, symbolism of, 49;
the golden rose of Quadragesima Sunday, 50.

Rossi, De, discovers the crypt of the Acilii Glabriones, 4; discovers tomb of Cornelius, 215;
discovers a fresco in the Catacomb ad Duas Lauros, 356.

Rousalia, 49.

Rues de Jerusalem, 31.

Rusalky, 49.

Rusticus, Junius, 40.

Sabinianus, Pope, sold the grain in the church's granaries, 47.

Sabinus, Flavius, 337.

Sacellum Sanci, 104.

Sacrifices, right to perform, granted to civilians, 57; tariff for, 57.

Saint-Omer, church at, labyrinth, 31.

Sallust, gardens of, 276.

Sancus, worship of, 104.

Sannazzaro, tomb of, 25.

Saracens in Rome, in 846, 149;
defeated off Cape Circeo, by John VIII., 154.

Sarcophagi of the Calpurnii, 279, 280 (cut);
from the cemetery of Cyriaca, 352.

Sarcophagus, of the empress Helena, 198 (plate);
of S. Constantia, 198.

Saturus, martyr, 49.

Scholae, 42, 116;
that of the citizens of Serrae, 41:
that above the Catacombs of Callixtus, 117, 118 (plan); transformation of the schola to the church, 118.

Scirtus, charioteer, 260.

Seasons, the four, in Christian art, 25.

Secular games, the inscription describing them found in 1890, 73 (cut); origin of the games, 74;
their celebration under Augustus, 78-82.

Semo Sancus, worship of, 104; statue, 105 (cut).

Senate, resolutions relating to the Secular games, 80.

Senate house, 163.

Seneca, his friendship for Paul, 17.

Septimius Severus, 12.

Sergius II., Pope, 149.

Serrae, citizens of, their banqueting-hall, 41.

Severus Alexander, relation to Christianity 11, 13.

Shoemakers, 274.

Shrines, in Rome, 33;
of Semo Sancus, 104.
See also Altars.

Sibyls in Christian art, 24.

Siena, Duomo, 25, 32.

Silvio Antoniano, an improvvisatore, 283.

Simon the Magician, confused with Semo Sancus, 104, 161.

Simplicius and Faustinus, martyrs, 332;
their bodies translated to S. Biviana, 333.

Siricius, Pope, 112, 152.

Sixtus II., Pope, 117.

Sixtus V., Pope, the dome of St. Peter's, 146.

Skeletons found in tombs, 273, 286.

Solomon, Judgment of, represented in a Roman tomb, 270, 271 (cut).

Sponges, found in tombs, 303 n.

Statues, their immense number in ancient Rome, 52;
those of gods commonly loaded with ornaments, 55;
Egyptian statues, found in Rome, 93.

-- -- to Acilius Glabrio, 5;
of Antinous, 240, 241 (cut);
of Constantine, 164 (cut);
of Gregory the Great, 225 (cut);
of Hercules, 69;
of Hippolytus, 141, 143 (cut);
of Isis, 55;
of Jupiter, 56;
of Marcia Furnilla, 267;
of S. Paul, 26;
of S. Peter, 141, 142 (cut);
of Semo Sancus, 105 (cut);
the sphinx of Amasis, 94 (cut);
of Tiberius, 268;
of Vortumnus, 104.

Stephen III., Pope, 48.

Street-shrines in Rome, 33.

Streets (ancient): Alta Semita, 190, 191 (cut);
Clivus Suburanus, 35;
Vicus Apollinis, 82;
Vicus Sobrius, 35.
See also Via.

Streets (modern): Bocca della Verita, 181;
Borgo Nuovo, 271;
Coronari, 35;
Corso, 180, 182;
Corso d' Italia, 276;
Corso Vittorio Emanuele, 75, 78;
Ferratella, 293;
SS. Giovanni e Paolo, 229;
S. Ignazio, 92, 94;
S. Lucia in Selci, 35;
Marmorata, 181;
Minerva Medica, 62;
Porta S. Paolo, 181;
Quattro Cantoni, 35;
Quirinale-Venti Settembre, 190;
Salara, 181;
Strada di Monte Mario, 127;
Vigne Nuove, 188.

Sublician bridge, 33.

Sulla, reconstructed the Capitolium, 87;
his body burned, 253.

Sulpicius Maximus, Q., his tomb, 280, 282 (plate);
his story, 281.

Sutores, 274.

Sylvester I., 221.

Sylvester II., his tomb, 236.

Symmachus, Pope, 37, 135.

Syringes, 321.

Tablinum, 114.

Tabularium, 53.

Tarpeian Rock, 89.

Tempietto del Bramante, 128.

Temples, standards of weights and measures kept in, 40, 51; the art treasures collected in them, 52;
commonly ornamented with hangings, etc., 56;
evidence obtained from their vaults or favissae, 58; invariably turned into Christian churches, 160.
of AEsculapius, 62;
the stern of the ship, 61 (cut).
of Antoninus and Faustina, 163.
of Apollo, 56, 71;
its treasures of art, 52.
Augusteum at Aneyra, 173.
of Augustus, 101, 163;
its position determined, 102;
plan and sketch, 103 (cut).
of Bacchus (so called), 199 (cut).
of Ceres and Faustina, 292, 294 (cut).
of Claudius, 160.
of Concord, 53 (cut), 163.
of Diana, 70.
of Diana Nemorensis, 59;
an inventory of its works of art discovered, 54.
of the God Rediculus, 291 (cut).
of Health, 69.
of Hercules, 69.
of Hercules, near Porta S. Lorenzo, 59.
of Isis and Serapis, 92;
excavations in 1883, 96;
history and extent of the temple, 96;
its final destruction, 98.
of Janus Quadrifrons, 163.
of Juno, at Veii, 64;
enormous number of ex-votos, 64, 67;
excavations by Cardinal Chigi, 65;
by the Empress of Brazil, 66.
of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, 56, 80, 84;
literature, 84 n;
architecture of the old temple, 86;
destroyed by fire, 86;
its restorations, 87;
its platform and foundation walls, 87, 88 (cut);
plan, 86 (plate);
early notices of its remains, 89;
plundered by the Vandals, 90;
represented in pictorial reliefs, 90 (plate);
public acts, etc., posted here, 91.
of Jupiter Tonans, 80.
of Malakbelos, 57.
of Minerva Medica, 62.
of Neptune, 99, 161;
its bas-reliefs, 100 (cut).
of Peace, 56.
of Piety, 5.
Sacrae Urbis, 28 (cut), 162.
of the Sibyl at Tivoli, 161.
of Venus, 161.
of Venus and Rome, 56.

Terebinth of Nero, 27.

Terentum, the pool, 74.

Thebes, the tombs of the kings, 321.

Theresa, Empress of Brazil, excavations at Veii, 65, 66.

Tiber, ex-votos probably to be found in, 62.

Tiberius, Emp., 11, 96;
statue, 268.

Tiles of the roof of S. Peter's, 139.

Tivoli, mensae ponderariae found at, 40;
temple of the Sibyl, 161.

Toilet-box, in the sarcophagus of Crepereia Tryphaena, 303.

Tombs of Christians of high rank in Rome, 10;
of Christian praetorians, 18;
inscriptions on, 42, 261;
the word meta applied to, 128;
discovered in 1614-16, in the vicinity of S. Peter's, 129; occasion of their destruction, 131;
in S. Peter's, 145;
of Christian emperors, 196, 200 (cut);
of the popes, 213;
the pontifical crypt, 269;
cost, 257;
the immense number surrounding the city, 260;
on the Via Aurelia, 262;
near the Villa Pamfili-Doria, 269;
on the Via Triumphalis, 270;
on the Via Salaria, 275;
their inviolability under Roman law, 307;
the early Christian tombs not concealed, 315.
See also, Burial; Catacombs; Cemeteries; Sarcophagi.

-- -- of Ampliatus, 342;
of M. Anneus Paulus Petrus, 16;
of Annia Regilla, 291 (cut);
of Augustus, 172, 177, 179, 181;
of Benedict VII., 234;
of Ceadwalla, 232;
of Claudia Ecloge, 190;
of Clement XIII., 249, 250 (plate);
of S. Constantia, 198, 199 (cut);
of Pope Cornelius, 215 (cut), 218 (plate);
of Crepereia Tryphaena, 302 (plate);
of the Flavians, 190, 316 (cut), 338;
of Geta, 196 (cut);
of Gregory the Great, 221, 223;
of Hadrian, 227, 228 (cut);
of Helena, mother of Constantine, at Torre Pignattara, 197 (cut); of Helius, the shoemaker, 273, 274 (cut);
of other shoemakers, 275;
of the horse of Lucius Verus, 272;
of Innocent VIII., 242 (plate);
of Leo the Great, 223;
of Licentius, 14;
of the Licinii Calpurnii, 276;
of Linus, 130;
of Lucilia Polla, 283;
its vicissitudes, 284;
of Luke, card. of SS. Giovanni e Paolo, 159;
of Maria, wife of Honorius, 203;
of Nero, 189;
of kings Offa of Essex and Coenred of Mercia, 233;
of Otho II., 136;
of S. Paul, 157;
of Paul III., 245, 246 (plate);
of S. Peter, 129;
of Sannazzaro, 25;
of Q. Sulpicius Maximus, 280, 282 (plate);
of Sulpicius Platorinus, 265, 268 (plate);
of Silvester II., 236;
of Urban VI., 146.

Torre Marancia, 335.

Torre Pignattara, 197 (cut).

Totila, siege of, A. D.546, 46.

Trajan, instructions in regard to the persecution of Christians, 313.

Triopium, 290.

Tryphaena, Crepereia, her tomb discovered in 1889, 302; objects found in the sarcophagus, 303 (plate).

Tubilustrium, 275.

Tulliola, daughter of Cicero, 300.

Tusculum, Roman expedition against, 177.

Urania, daughter of Herodes Atticus, 9.

Urban VI., Pope, desecration of his tomb, 146.

Urbino, Sphaeristerion, 97.

Urns, cinerary, 266.

Ustrinum of the imperial family, 170;
unearthed in 1777, 182;
cippi in, 184;
on the Appian Way, 255.

Val d' Inferno, 287.

Valle della Caffarella, 286.

Valle dei Morti, 178.

Vases, found in the tomb of Maria, 205.

Vassalectus, an inscription of, 238 (cut);
candelabrum and other works, 239 (cut).

Vatican district, its early topography, 127.

Vatican museum, 26, 93, 105, 106, 182, 185, 198.

Vedjovis, shrine of, 85.

Vegetus, Valerius, house of, 192.

Veii, its capture by Camillus, 64;
site of a temple of Juno, 65 (cut).

Verus, Lucius, tomb of his horse, 272.

Vestal virgins, 33, 81.

Via Appia, 172, 215;
its tombs, 286 (plate);
the body of a girl discovered in 1485, 295, 298 (cut); -- -- Ardeatina, 315;
-- -- Aurelia, tombs on, 262;
-- -- Clodia, 127;
-- -- Cornelia, 127, 128;
-- -- Labicana, 172, 354;
-- -- Latina, 116, 178;
-- -- Merulana, 62;
Nomentana, 188, 197;
-- -- Ostiensis, 150, 151;
-- -- Sacra, 82, 161;
-- -- Salaria, 4 (map), 7, 172, 221;
tombs on, 275;
-- -- Triumphalis, 127;
tombs on, 270.

Via Dolorosa of Jerusalem, imitated at Rome, 181.

Viatrix, S., 334 (cut).

Victor, S., Pomponio's academy placed under his patronage, 359.

Vigilius, Pope, 46;
repaired the damages done by the Goths in the Catacombs, 325.

Vigna Barberini, 162.

Vigne Nuove, 287.

Villa Amaranthiana, 335;
Aniciana, 116;
Fonseca, 293;
Madama, 165;
Mattei von Hoffman, 92, 97, 293;
Medici, 83, 89;
Pamfili-Doria, 269;
di Papa Giulio, 254;
of Phaon, 188 (map).

Virgin, immagine di Ponte, 35.

Volesus, founds the Ludi Tarentini, 74.

Volkanalia, 84.

Vortumnus, 104.

Votive head, to Minerva, 63 (cut).

Votive offerings. See Ex-votos.

Warehouses, 44.

Wedding presents, of Maria, wife of Honorius, 204;
of Projecta, wife of Turcius Asterius Secundus, 206.

Weights and measures, standards of, 39.

Wilpert, Joseph, his skill in tracing old paintings, 358.

Xerxes and the battle of Salamis, 289.

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