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SermonIndex.net : Christian Books : CONTENTS PART I. QUESTIONS 1-4; 20-23 GENERAL INTRODUCTION, 21 Q. I: WHAT SACRED DOCTRINE IS, AND WHAT IT CONCERNS

Nature And Grace by Aquinas

CONTENTS PART I. QUESTIONS 1-4; 20-23 GENERAL INTRODUCTION, 21 Q. I: WHAT SACRED DOCTRINE IS, AND WHAT IT CONCERNS

Art.1: Whether another doctrine is necessary, besides the philosophical sciences
35

Art.2: Whether sacred doctrine is a science,
37

Art.3: Whether sacred doctrine is a single science, 38

Art.4: Whether sacred doctrine is a practical science, 39

Art.5. Whether sacred doctrine is nobler than other sciences, 40

Art.6: Whether sacred doctrine is wisdom,
41

Art.7: Whether God is the subject of this science, 43

Art.8: Whether sacred doctrine proceeds by argument, 44

Art.9: Whether sacred doctrine should use metaphors 46

Art.10: Whether one passage of sacred Scripture may have several interpretations,
48
Q.2: THE EXISTENCE OF GOD

Art.1: Whether it is self-evident that God exists, 50

Art.2:Whether God's existence can be demonstrated, 52

Art.3:Whether God exists,
53
Q.3: OF THE SIMPLE NATURE OF GOD

Art.1: Whether God is a body,
57

Art.2: Whether there is composition of form and matter in God, 59

Art.3: Whether God is the same as his essence, or nature, 60

Art.4: Whether essence and existence are the same in God, 62

Art.5: Whether God belongs to a genus,
63

Art.6: Whether there is any accident in God,
65

Art.7: Whether God is altogether simple,
66

Art.8: Whether God enters into the composition of other things, 68
Q.4: THE PERFECTION OF GOD

Art.1: Whether God is perfect,
70

Art.2: Whether the perfections of all things are in God, 72

Art.3: Whether any creature can be like God,
73
Q.20: THE LOVE OF GOD

Art.1: Whether there is love in God,
78

Art.2: Whether God loves all things,
80

Art.3: Whether God loves all things equally,
82

Art.4: Whether God always loves better things the more, 83
Q.21: THE JUSTICE AND MERCY OF GOD

Art.1: Whether there is justice in God,
86

Art.2: Whether God's justice is truth,
88

Art.3: Whether there is mercy in God,
89

Art.4: Whether justice and mercy are present in all God's works, 90
Q.22: OF DIVINE PROVIDENCE

Art.1: Whether providence is appropriately ascribed to God, 93

Art.2: Whether all things are under divine providence, 94

Art.3: Whether God provides for all things directly, 98

Art.4: Whether providence imposes a necessity on what it provides, 99
Q.23: OF PREDESTINATION

Art.1: Whether men are predestined by God,
101

Art.2: Whether predestination implies anything in the predestined, 103

Art.3: Whether God rejects any man,
105

Art.4: Whether the predestined are chosen by God,
106

Art.5: Whether the foreknowledge of merits is the cause of predestination,
108

Art.6: Whether predestination is certain,
112

Art.7: Whether the number of the predestined is certain, 113

Art.8: Whether predestination can be furthered by the prayers of the devout,
116
OF SIN. PRIMA SECUNDAE, QUESTIONS 82, 85
Q.82: THE ESSENCE OF ORIGINAL SIN

Art.1: Whether original sin is a habit,
119

Art.2: Whether there are many original sins in one man, 121

Art.3: Whether original sin is desire,
122

Art.4: Whether original sin is in all men equally, 124
Q.85: THE EFFECTS OF SIN

Art.1: Whether sin diminishes natural good,
125

Art.2: Whether the whole good of human nature can be destroyed by sin, 127

Art.3: Whether weakness, ignorance, malice, and desire are rightly named as the wounds of nature due to sin,
129

Art.4: Whether privation of mode, species, and order is the effect of sin,
131

Art.5: Whether death and other defects of the body are the effects of sin,
132

Art.6: Whether death and other defects are natural to man, 134
TREATISE ON GRACE. PRIMA SECUNDAE, QUESTIONS 109-114 Q.109: CONCERNING THE EXTERNAL PRINCIPLE OF HUMAN ACTIONS, THAT IS, THE GRACE OF GOD

Art.1: Whether a man can know any truth without grace, 137

Art.2: Whether a man can will or do good without grace, 140

Art.3: Whether a man can love God above all things by his natural powers alone, without grace,
142

Art.4: Whether a man can fulfil the commandment of the law by his natural powers, without grace,
144

Art.5: Whether a man can merit eternal life, without grace 145

Art.6: Whether without grace a man can prepare himself for grace 146

Art.7: Whether a man can rise from sin without the help of grace 149

Art.8: Whether a man can avoid sin, without grace
150

Art.9: Whether, after receiving grace, a man can do good and avoid sin, without further help of grace
153

Art.10: Whether a man in grace needs the help of grace in order to persevere
154
Q.110 THE ESSENCE OF GOD'S GRACE

Art.1: Whether grace denotes something in the soul 156

Art.2: Whether grace is a quality of the soul
159

Art.3: Whether grace is the same as virtue
160

Art.4: Whether grace is in the soul's essence as its subject, or in one of its powers
162
Q.111: THE DIVISIONS OF GRACE

Art.1: Whether grace is appropriately divided into sanctifying grace and free grace
164

Art.2: Whether grace is appropriately divided into operative and co-operative grace
166

Art.3: Whether grace is appropriately divided into prevenient and subsequent grace
168

Art.4: Whether free grace is appropriately divided by the Apostle 170

Art.5: Whether free grace is nobler than sanctifying grace 172
Q.112: THE CAUSE OF GRACE

Art.1: Whether God is the sole cause of grace
174

Art.2: Whether a preparation or disposition for grace is required on the part of man
175

Art.3: Whether grace is bound to be given to one who prepares himself for grace, or who does what he can
177

Art.4: Whether grace is greater in one man than in another 179

Art.5: Whether a man can know that he has grace
180

Q.113: THE EFFECTS OF GRACE

Art.1: Whether the justification of the ungodly is the remission of sins
183

Art.2: Whether an infusion of grace is required for the remission of guilt, which is the justification of the ungodly
185

Art.3: Whether a movement of the free will is required for the justification of the ungodly
186

Art.4: Whether a movement of faith is required for the justification of the ungodly
188

Art.5: Whether a movement of the free will against sin is required for the justification of the ungodly
190

Art.6: Whether the remission of sins should be numbered with the things required for the justification of the ungodly 192

Art.7: Whether the justification of the ungodly is achieved instantaneously or gradually
193

Art.8: Whether the infusion of grace is the first of the things required for the justification of the ungodly, according to the order of nature
197

Art.9: Whether the justification of the ungodly is the greatest work of God
199

Art.10: Whether the justification of the ungodly is a miracle 200
Q.114: CONCERNING MERIT, WHICH IS THE EFFECT OF COOPERATIVE GRACE

Art.1: Whether a man can merit anything from God
203

Art.2: Whether one can merit eternal life without grace 205

Art.3: Whether a man in grace can merit eternal life condignly 206

Art.4: Whether grace is the principle of merit, through charity more principally than through other virtues
208

Art.5: Whether a man can merit the first grace for himself 209

Art.6: Whether a man can merit the first grace for another 211

Art.7: Whether a man can merit his restoration after a lapse 212

Art.8: Whether a man can merit an increase of grace or charity 214

Art.9: Whether a man can merit perseverance
215

Art.10: Whether temporal goods can be merited
217

TREATISE ON THE THEOLOGICAL VIRTUES
I. ON FAITH. SEGUNDA SECUNDAE, QUESTIONS 1-7
Q. I: THE OBJECT OF FAITH

Art.1: Whether the object of faith is the first truth 219

Art.2: Whether the object of faith is something complex, in the form of a proposition
221

Art.3: Whether what is false can be held in faith
222

Art.4: Whether the object of faith can be something seen 224

Art.5: Whether the things of faith can be known scientifically 225

Art.6: Whether matters of faith ought to be divided into certain articles
227

Art.7: Whether the articles of faith have increased with the passing of time
230

Art.8: Whether the articles of faith are appropriately enumerated 233

Art.9: Whether the articles of faith are appropriately set forth in a symbol
236

Art.10: Whether it is for the chief pontiff to draw up the symbol of the faith
238
Q.2: THE ACT OF FAITH

Art.1: Whether to believe is to think with assent
241

Art.2: Whether to believe God, to believe that there is a God, and to believe in God are rightly distinguished as acts of faith 243

Art.3: Whether, for salvation, it is necessary to believe anything which is beyond natural reason
244

Art.4: Whether it is necessary to believe such things as can be proved by natural reason
246

Art.5: Whether a man is required to believe anything explicitly 247

Art.6: Whether all men equally are required to have explicit faith 249

Art.7: Whether explicit belief in the mystery of the incarnation of Christ is necessary for the salvation of everybody
251

Art.8: Whether explicit belief in the Trinity is necessary for salvation
254

Art.9: Whether to believe is meritorious
255

Art.10: Whether a reason in support of the things of faith diminishes the merit of faith
257

Q.3: THE OUTWARD ACT OF FAITH

Art.1: Whether confession is an act of faith
259

Art.2: Whether confession of faith is necessary for salvation 261
Q.4: THE VIRTUE ITSELF OF FAITH

Art.1: Whether this is a satisfactory definition of faith: Faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen 263

Art.2: Whether faith is in the intellect as its subject 266

Art.3: Whether charity is the form of faith
268

Art.4: Whether unformed faith can become formed, or vice versa 269

Art.5: Whether faith is a virtue
271

Art.6: Whether faith is a single virtue
273

Art.7: Whether faith is the first of the virtues
274

Art.8: Whether faith is more certain than science and the other intellectual virtues
276
Q.5: OF THOSE WHO HAVE FAITH

Art.1: Whether angels and man had faith in their first state 278

Art.2: Whether devils have faith
281

Art.3: Whether one who disbelieves one article of faith can have unformed faith in the other articles
282

Art.4: Whether faith can be greater in one than in another 284
Q.6: THE CAUSE OF FAITH

Art.1: Whether faith is infused into man by God
286

Art.2: Whether unformed faith is a gift of God
287
Q.7: THE EFFECT OF FAITH

Art.1: Whether fear is an effect of faith
289

Art.2: Whether purification of the heart is an effect of faith 291

II. ON HOPE. SEGUNDA SECUNDAE, QUESTIONS 17-21
Q.17: OF HOPE, CONSIDERED IN ITSELF

Art.1: Whether hope is a virtue
293

Art.2: Whether eternal blessedness is the proper object of hope 295

Art.3: Whether one can hope for the eternal blessedness of another 296

Art.4: Whether one may lawfully hope in man
297

Art.5: Whether hope is a theological virtue
298

Art.6: Whether hope is distinct from the other theological virtues 300

Art.7: Whether hope precedes faith
301

Art.8: Whether charity is prior to hope
302
Q. l8: THE SUBJECT OF HOPE

Art.1: Whether hope is in the will as its subject
304

Art.2: Whether there is hope in the blessed
305

Art.3: Whether there is hope in the damned
307

Art.4: Whether the hope of wayfarers is certain
309
Q.19: THE GIFT OF FEAR

Art.1: Whether God can be feared
310

Art.2: Whether fear is appropriately divided into filial, initial, servile, and worldly fear
311

Art.3: Whether worldly fear is always evil
313

Art.4: Whether servile fear is good
315

Art.5: Whether servile fear is substantially the same as filial fear 316

Art.6: Whether servile fear remains when charity is present 318

Art.7: Whether fear is the beginning of wisdom
319

Art.8: Whether initial fear differs substantially from filial fear 321

Art.9: Whether fear is a gift of the Holy Spirit
322

Art.10: Whether fear diminishes as charity increases 324

Art.11: Whether fear remains in Heaven
325

Art.12: Whether poverty of spirit is the beatitude which corresponds to the gift of fear
327
Q.20: OF DESPAIR

Art.1: Whether despair is a sin
329

Art.2: Whether there can be despair without unbelief 331

Art.3: Whether despair is the greatest of sins
333

Art.4: Whether despair arises from listlessness
334

Q.21: OF PRESUMPTION

Art.1: Whether presumption relies on God, or on one's own power 336

Art.2: Whether presumption is a sin
338

Art.3: Whether presumption is opposed to fear rather than to hope 339

Art.4: Whether presumption is caused by vainglory
III. ON CHARITY. SECUNDA SECUNDAE, QUESTIONS 23, 27 Q.23: OF CHARITY, CONSIDERED IN ITSELF

Art.1: Whether charity is friendship
342

Art.2: Whether charity is something created in the soul 344

Art.3: Whether charity is a virtue
346

Art.4: Whether charity is a specific virtue
348

Art.5: Whether charity is a single virtue
349

Art.6: Whether charity is the most excellent of the virtues 350

Art.7: Whether there can be any true virtue without charity 352

Art.8: Whether charity is the form of the virtues
354
Q.27: OF THE PRINCIPAL ACT OF CHARITY, WHICH IS TO LOVE

Art.1: Whether to be loved is more proper to charity than to love 356

Art.2: Whether the love which is an act of charity is the same as benevolence
357

Art.3: Whether by charity God is to be loved on account of himself 359

Art.4: Whether God can be loved immediately in this life 360

Art.5: Whether God can be loved wholly
362

Art.6: Whether love to God ought to have a mode
363

Art.7: Whether it is more meritorious to love an enemy than to love a friend
365

Art.8: Whether it is more meritorious to love one's neighbour than to love God
366
BIBLIOGRAPHY 369
INDEX OF BIBLICAL REFERENCES 375
INDEX OF REFERENCES TO OTHER AUTHORS AND SOURCES 380

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