1. The authentic sources:
The Epistles of Paul, and the Acts of the Apostles 9:1-30 and 13 to 28. Of the Epistles of Paul the four most important Galatians, Romans, two Corinthians -- are universally acknowledged as genuine even by the most exacting critics; the Philippians, Philemon, Colossians, and Ephesians are admitted by nearly all critics; the Pastoral Epistles, especially First Timothy, and Titus, are more or less disputed, but even they bear the stamp of Paul's genius.
On the coincidences between the Acts and the Epistles see the section on the Acts. Comp. also § 22, pp.213 sqq.
2. The legendary and apocryphal sources:
Acta Pauli et Theclae, edition in Greek by E. Grabe (from a Bodleian MS. in Spicileg. SS. PP., Oxon.1698, tom. I. pp.95-128; republished by Jones, 1726), and by Tischendorf (from three Paris MSS, in Acta Apost. Apocrypha, Lips.1851); in Syriac, with an English version by W. Wright (in Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles, Lond.1871); Engl. transl. by Alex. Walker (in Clark's |Ante-Nicene Christian Library,| vol. XVI.279 sqq.). Comp. C. Schlau: Die Acten des Paulus und der Thecla und die ältere Thecla-Legende, Leipz.1877.
The Acts of Paul and Thecla strongly advocate celibacy. They are probably of Gnostic origin and based on some local tradition. They were originally written, according to Tertullian (De Bapt. cap.17, comp. Jerome, Catal. cap.7), by a presbyter in Asia |out of love to Paul,| and in support of the heretical opinion that women have the right to preach and to baptize after the example of Thecla; hence the author was deposed. The book was afterwards purged of its most obnoxious features and extensively used in the Catholic church. (See the patristic quotations in Tischendorf's Prolegomena, p. xxiv.) Thecla is represented as a noble virgin of Iconium, in Lycaonia, who was betrothed to Thamyris, converted by Paul in her seventeenth year, consecrated herself to perpetual virginity, was persecuted, carried to the stake, and thrown before wild beasts, but miraculously delivered, and died 90 years old at Seleucia. In the Greek church she is celebrated as the first female martyr. Paul is described at the beginning of this book (Tischend. p.41) as |little in stature, bald-headed, bow-legged, well-built (or vigorous), with knitted eye-brows, rather long-nosed, full of grace, appearing now as a man, and now having the face of an angel.| From this description Renan has borrowed in part his fancy-sketch of Paul's personal appearance.
Acta Pauli (Praxeis Paulou], used by Origen and ranked by Eusebiu| with the Antilegomena »or notharather). They are, like the Acta Petri (Praxeis, orPeriodoi Petrou), a Gnostic reconstruction of the canonical Acts and ascribed to the authorship of St. Linus. Preserved only in fragments.
Acta Petri et Pauli. A Catholic adaptation of an Ebionite work. The Greek and Latin text was published first in a complete form by Thilo, Halle, 1837-'38, the Greek by Tischendorf (who collated six MSS.) in his Acta Apost. Apoc.1851, 1-39; English transl. byWalker in |Ante-Nicene Libr., | XVI.256 sqq. This book records the arrival of Paul in Rome, his meeting with Peter and Simon Magus, their trial before the tribunal of Nero, and the martyrdom of Peter by crucifixion, and of Paul by decapitation. The legend of Domine quo vadis is here recorded of Peter, and the story of Perpetua is interwoven with the martyrdom of Paul.
The pseudo-Clementine Homilies, of the middle of the second century or later, give a malignant Judaizing caricature of Paul under the disguise of Simon Magus (in part at least), and misrepresent him as an antinomian arch-heretic; while Peter, the proper hero of this romance, is glorified as the apostle of pure, primitive Christianity.
The Correspondence of Paul and Seneca, mentioned by Jerome (De vir. ill. c.12) and Augustin (Ep. ad Maced.153, al.54), and often copied, though with many variations, edited by Fabricius, Cod. Apocr. N. T., and in several editions of Seneca. It consists of eight letters of Seneca and six of Paul. They are very poor in thought and style, full of errors of chronology and history, and undoubtedly a forgery. They arose from the correspondence of the moral maxims of Seneca with those of Paul, which is more apparent than real, and from the desire to recommend the Stoic philosopher to the esteem of the Christians, or to recommend Christianity to the students of Seneca and the Stoic philosophy. Paul was protected at Corinth by Seneca's brother, Gallio (Acts 18:12-16), and might have become acquainted with the philosopher who committed suicide at Rome in 65, but there is no trace of such acquaintance. Comp. Amédée Fleury: Saint-Paul et Sénèque (Paris, 1853, 2 vols.); C. Aubertin: Étude critique sur les rapports supposé entre Sénèque et Saint-Paul (Par.1887); F. C. Baur: Seneca und Paulus, 1858 and 1876; Reuss: art. Seneca in Herzog, vol. XIV.273 sqq.; Lightfoot: Excursus in Com. on Philippians, pp 268-331; art. Paul and Seneca, in |Westminster Review,| Lond.1880, pp.309 sqq.
II. Biographical and Critical.
Bishop Pearson (d.1686): Annales Paulini. Lond.1688. In the various editions of his works, and also separately: Annals of St. Paul, transl. with geographical and critical notes. Cambridge, 1825.
Lord Lyttleton (d.1773): The Conversion and Apostleship of St. Paul.3d ed. Lond.1747. Apologetic as an argument for the truth of Christianity from the personal experience of the author.
Archdeacon William Paley (d.1805): Horae Paulinae: or The Truth of the Scripture History of Paul evinced by a comparison of the Epistles which bear his name, with the Acts of the Apostles and with one another. Lond.1790 (and subsequent editions). Still valuable for apologetic purposes.
J. Hemsen: Der Apostel Paulus. Gött.1830.
Carl Schrader: Der Apostel Paulus. Leipz.1830-'36.5 Parts. Rationalistic.
F. Chr. Baur (d.1860): Paulus, der Apostel Jesu Christi. Tüb.1845, second ed. by E. Zeller, Leipzig, 1866-'67, in 2 vols. Transl. into English by Allan Menzies. Lond. (Williams & Norgate) 1873 and '75, 2 vols. This work of the great leader of the philosophico-critical reconstruction of the Apostolic Age (we may call him the modern Marcion) was preceded by several special treatises on the Christ-Party in Corinth (1831), on the Pastoral Epistles (1835), on the Epistle to the Romans (1836), and a Latin programme on Stephen's address before the Sanhedrin (1829). It marks an epoch in the literature on Paul and opened new avenues of research. It is the standard work of the Tübingen school of critics.
Conybeare and Howson: The Life and Epistles of St. Paul. Lond.1853, 2 vols., and N. York, 1854; 2d ed. Lond.1856, and later editions; also an abridgment in one vol. A very useful and popular work, especially on the geography of Paul's travels. Comp. also Dean Howson: Character of St. Paul (Lond.1862; 2d ed.1864); Scenes from the Life of St. Paul (1867); Metaphors of St. Paul (1868); The Companions of St. Paul (1871). Most of these books were republished in America.
Ad. Monod (d.1856): Saint Paul. Six sermons. See hisSermons, Paris, 1860, vol. II.121-296. The same in German and English.
W. F. Besser: Paulus. Leipz.1861. English transl. by F. Bultmann, with Introduction by J. S. Howson. Lond. and N. York, 1864.
F. Bungener: St. Paul, sa vie, son oeuvre et ses épitres. Paris, 1865.
A. Hausrath: Der Apostel Paulus. Heidelb.1865; 2d ed.1872. Comp. also his N. T. liche Zeitgeschichte, Part III.
M. Krenkel: Paulus, der Apostel der Heiden. Leipz.1869.
Ernest Renan: Saint Paul. Paris, 1869. Transl. from the French by J. Lockwood, N.York, 1869. Very fresh and entertaining, but full ,of fancies and errors.
Thomas Lewin (author of |Fasti Sacri|) The Life and Epistles of St. Paul, new ed. Lond. and N. York, 1875, 2 vols. A magnificent work of many years' labor, with 370 illustrations.
Canon F. W. Farrar: The Life and Work of St. Paul. Lond. and N. York, 1879, 2 vols. Learned and eloquent.
W. M. Taylor: Paul as a Missionary. N. York, 1881.
As biographies, the works of Conybeare and Howson, Lewin, and Farrar are the most complete and instructive.
Also the respective sections in the Histories of the Ap. Age by Neander, Lechler, Thiersch, Lange, Schaff (226-347 and 634-640), Pressensé.
Thomas Lewin: Fasti Sacri, a Key to the Chronology of the New Testament. London, 1865. Chronological Tables from b.c.70 to a.d.70.
Wieseler: Chronologie des apostolischen Zeitalters. Göttingen, 1848.
IV. Doctrinal and Exegetical.
L. Usteri: Entwicklung des Paulinischen Lehrbegriffs. Zürich, 1824, 6th ed.1851.
A. P. Dähne: Entwicklung des Paulinischen Lehrbegriffs. Halle, 1835.
Baur: Paulus. See above.
R. A. Lipsius: Die Paulinische Rechtfertigungslehre. Leipz.1853.
C. Holsten: Zum Evangelium des Paulus und des Petrus. Rostock, 1868. This book, contains: 1. An essay on the Christusvision des Paulus und die Genesis des paulinischen Evangeliums, which had previously appeared in Hilgenfeld's |Zeitschrift,| 1861, but is here enlarged by a reply to Beyschlag; 2. Die Messiasvision des Petrus (new); 3. An analysis of the Epistle to the Galatians (1859); 4. A discussion of the meaning of sarxin Paul's system (1855). By the same: Das Evangelium des Paulus. Part I. Berlin, 1880.
TH. Simar (R. C.): Die Theologie des heil. Paulus. Freiberg, 1864.
Ernesti: Die Ethik des Ap. Paulus. Braunschweig, 1868; 3d ed.1880.
R. Schmidt: Die Christologie des Ap. Paulus. Gött., 1870.
Matthew Arnold: St. Paul and Protestantism. Lond.1870; 3d ed.1875.
William I. Irons (Episcop.): Christianity as taught by St. Paul. Eight Bampton Lectures for 1870. Oxf. and Lond.1871; 2d ed.1876.
A. Sabatier: L'apôtre Paul. Esquisse d'une histoire de sa pensée. Strasb. and Paris, 1870.
Otto Pfleiderer (Prof. in Berlin): Der Paulinismus. Leipzig, 1873. Follows Baur and Holsten in developing the doctrinal system of Paul from his conversion. English translation by E. Peters. Lond.1877, 2 vols. Lectures on the Influence of the Apostle Paul on the Development of Christianity (The Hibbert Lectures). Trsl. by J. Fr. Smith. Lond. and N. Y.1885. Also his Urchristenthum, 1887.
C. Weizsäcker: D. Apost. Zeitalter (1886), pp.68-355.
Fr. Bethge: Die Paulinischen Reden der Apostelgesch. Göttingen, 1887.
The Commentators on Paul's Epistles (in whole or in part) are so numerous that we can only mention some of the most important:
1. On all the Pauline Epp.: Calvin, Beza, Estius (b.c.), Corn. A Lapide (R. C.), Grotius, Wetstein, Bengel, Olshausen, De Wette, Meyer, Lange (Am. ed. enlarged), Ewald, Von Hofmann, Reuss (French), Alford, Wordsworth, Speaker's Com., Ellicott (Pop. Com.), Schaff (Pop. Com., vol. III.1882). Compare also P. J. Gloag: Introduction to the Pauline Epistles. Edinburgh, 1874.
2. On single Epp.: Romans by Tholuck (5th ed.1856), Fritzsche (3 vols. in Latin), Reiche, Rückert, Philippi (3d ed.1866, English transl. by Banks, 1878-'79, 2 vols.), Mos. Stuart, Turner, Hodge, Forbes, Jowett, Shedd (1879), Godet (L'épitre aux Romains, 1879 and 1880, 2 vols). -- Corinthians by Neander, Osiander, Hodge, Stanley, Heinrici, Edwards, Godet, Ellicott. -- Galatians by Luther, Winer, Wieseler, Hilgenfeld, Holsten, Jowett, Eadie, Ellicott, Lightfoot. -- Ephesians by Harless, Matthies, Stier, Hodge, Eadie, Ellicott, J. L. Davies. -- Other minor Epp. explained by Bleek (Col., Philemon, and Eph.), Koch (Thess.), van Hengel (Phil.), Eadie (Col.), Ellicott (Phil., Col., Thess., Philem.), Lightfoot (Phil, Col., Philemon). -- Pastoral Epp. by Matthies, Mack (R. C.), Beck (ed. Lindenmeyer, 1879), Holtzmann (1880), Fairbairn, Ellicott, Weiss (1886), Knoke (1887), Kölling (1887).
3. The Commentaries on the second part of Acts by De Wette, Meyer, Baumgarten, Alexander, Hackett, Lechler, Gloag, Plumptre, Jacobson, Lumby, Howson and Spence.