The Israelites were twice relieved in their privation by a miraculous supply of quails, (1) in the wilderness of Sin (Ex.16:13), and (2) again at Kibroth-hattaavah (q.v.), Num.11:31. God |rained flesh upon them as dust, and feathered fowls like as the sand of the sea| (Ps.78:27). The words in Num.11:31, according to the Authorized Version, appear to denote that the quails lay one above another to the thickness of two cubits above the ground. The Revised Version, however, reads, |about two cubits above the face of the earth|, i.e., the quails flew at this height, and were easily killed or caught by the hand. Being thus secured in vast numbers by the people, they |spread them all abroad| (11:32) in order to salt and dry them.
These birds (the Coturnix vulgaris of naturalists) are found in countless numbers on the shores of the Mediterranean, and their annual migration is an event causing great excitement.
A mountain some 1,200 feet high, about 7 miles north-west of Jericho, the traditional scene of our Lord's temptation (Matt.4:8).
(1.) The |Royal Quarries| (not found in Scripture) is the name given to the vast caverns stretching far underneath the northern hill, Bezetha, on which Jerusalem is built. Out of these mammoth caverns stones, a hard lime-stone, have been quarried in ancient times for the buildings in the city, and for the temples of Solomon, Zerubbabel, and Herod. Huge blocks of stone are still found in these caves bearing the marks of pick and chisel. The general appearance of the whole suggests to the explorer the idea that the Phoenician quarrymen have just suspended their work. The supposition that the polished blocks of stone for Solomon's temple were sent by Hiram from Lebanon or Tyre is not supported by any evidence (comp.1 Kings 5:8). Hiram sent masons and stone-squarers to Jerusalem to assist Solomon's workmen in their great undertaking, but did not send stones to Jerusalem, where, indeed, they were not needed, as these royal quarries abundantly testify.
(2.) The |quarries| (Heb. pesilim) by Gilgal (Judg.3:19), from which Ehud turned back for the purpose of carrying out his design to put Eglon king of Moab to death, were probably the |graven images| (as the word is rendered by the LXX. and the Vulgate and in the marg. A.V. and R.V.), or the idol temples the Moabites had erected at Gilgal, where the children of Israel first encamped after crossing the Jordan. The Hebrew word is rendered |graven images| in Deut.7:25, and is not elsewhere translated |quarries.|
Fourth, a Corinthian Christian who sent by Paul his salutations to friends at Rome (Rom.16:23).
A band of four soldiers. Peter was committed by Herod to the custody of four quaternions, i.e., one quaternion for each watch of the night (Acts 12:4). Thus every precaution was taken against his escape from prison. Two of each quaternion were in turn stationed at the door (12:6), and to two the apostle was chained according to Roman custom.
No explicit mention of queens is made till we read of the |queen of Sheba.| The wives of the kings of Israel are not so designated. In Ps.45:9, the Hebrew for |queen| is not malkah, one actually ruling like the Queen of Sheba, but shegal, which simply means the king's wife. In 1 Kings 11:19, Pharaoh's wife is called |the queen,| but the Hebrew word so rendered (g'birah) is simply a title of honour, denoting a royal lady, used sometimes for |queen-mother| (1 Kings 15:13; 2 Chron.15:16). In Cant.6:8, 9, the king's wives are styled |queens| (Heb. melakhoth).
In the New Testament we read of the |queen of the south|, i.e., Southern Arabia, Sheba (Matt.12:42; Luke 11:31) and the |queen of the Ethiopians| (Acts 8:27), Candace.
Queen of heaven
(Jer.7:18; 44:17, 25), the moon, worshipped by the Assyrians as the receptive power in nature.
Found only in Acts 27:17, the rendering of the Greek Syrtis. On the north coast of Africa were two localities dangerous to sailors, called the Greater and Lesser Syrtis. The former of these is probably here meant. It lies between Tripoli and Barca, and near Cyrene. The Lesser Syrtis lay farther to the west.
The sheath for arrows. The Hebrew word (aspah) thus commonly rendered is found in Job 39:23; Ps.127:5; Isa.22:6; 49:2; Jer.5:16; Lam.3:13. In Gen.27:3 this word is the rendering of the Hebrew teli, which is supposed rather to mean a suspended weapon, literally |that which hangs from one|, i.e., is suspended from the shoulder or girdle.
From the Old Testament in the New, which are very numerous, are not made according to any uniform method. When the New Testament was written, the Old was not divided, as it now is, into chapters and verses, and hence such peculiarities as these: When Luke (20:37) refers to Ex.3:6, he quotes from |Moses at the bush|, i.e., the section containing the record of Moses at the bush. So also Mark (2:26) refers to 1 Sam.21:1-6, in the words, |in the days of Abiathar;| and Paul (Rom.11:2) refers to 1 Kings ch.17-19, in the words, |in Elias|, i.e., in the portion of the history regarding Elias.
In general, the New Testament writers quote from the Septuagint (q.v.) version of the Old Testament, as it was then in common use among the Jews. But it is noticeable that these quotations are not made in any uniform manner. Sometimes, e.g., the quotation does not agree literally either with the LXX. or the Hebrew text. This occurs in about one hundred instances. Sometimes the LXX. is literally quoted (in about ninety instances), and sometimes it is corrected or altered in the quotations (in over eighty instances).
Quotations are sometimes made also directly from the Hebrew text (Matt.4:15, 16; John 19:37; 1 Cor.15:54). Besides the quotations made directly, there are found numberless allusions, more or less distinct, showing that the minds of the New Testament writers were filled with the expressions and ideas as well as historical facts recorded in the Old.
There are in all two hundred and eighty-three direct quotations from the Old Testament in the New, but not one clear and certain case of quotation from the Apocrypha (q.v.).
Besides quotations in the New from the Old Testament, there are in Paul's writings three quotations from certain Greek poets, Acts 17:28; 1 Cor.15:33; Titus 1:12. These quotations are memorials of his early classical education.