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Eastons Bible Dictionary by M.G. Easton

Letter L

Laban
White. (1.) The son of Bethuel, who was the son of Nahor, Abraham's brother. He lived at Haran in Mesopotamia. His sister Rebekah was Isaac's wife (Gen.24). Jacob, one of the sons of this marriage, fled to the house of Laban, whose daughters Leah and Rachel (ch.29) he eventually married. (See JACOB.)

(2.) A city in the Arabian desert in the route of the Israelites (Deut.1:1), probably identical with Libnah (Num.33:20).

Lachish
Impregnable, a royal Canaanitish city in the Shephelah, or maritime plain of Palestine (Josh.10:3, 5; 12:11). It was taken and destroyed by the Israelites (Josh.10:31-33). It afterwards became, under Rehoboam, one of the strongest fortresses of Judah (2 Chr.10:9). It was assaulted and probably taken by Sennacherib (2 Kings 18:14, 17; 19:8; Isa.36:2). An account of this siege is given on some slabs found in the chambers of the palace of Koyunjik, and now in the British Museum. The inscription has been deciphered as follows:, |Sennacherib, the mighty king, king of the country of Assyria, sitting on the throne of judgment before the city of Lachish: I gave permission for its slaughter.| (See NINEVEH.)

Lachish has been identified with Tell-el-Hesy, where a cuneiform tablet has been found, containing a letter supposed to be from Amenophis at Amarna in reply to one of the Amarna tablets sent by Zimrida from Lachish. This letter is from the chief of Atim (=Etam, 1 Chr.4:32) to the chief of Lachish, in which the writer expresses great alarm at the approach of marauders from the Hebron hills. |They have entered the land,| he says, |to lay waste...strong is he who has come down. He lays waste.| This letter shows that |the communication by tablets in cuneiform script was not only usual in writing to Egypt, but in the internal correspondence of the country. The letter, though not so important in some ways as the Moabite stone and the Siloam text, is one of the most valuable discoveries ever made in Palestine| (Conder's Tell Amarna Tablets, p.134).

Excavations at Lachish are still going on, and among other discoveries is that of an iron blast-furnace, with slag and ashes, which is supposed to have existed B.C.1500. If the theories of experts are correct, the use of the hot-air blast instead of cold air (an improvement in iron manufacture patented by Neilson in 1828) was known fifteen hundred years before Christ. (See FURNACE.)

Ladder
Occurs only once, in the account of Jacob's vision (Gen.28:12).

Laish
A lion. (1.) A city of the Sidonians, in the extreme north of Palestine (Judg.18:7, 14); called also Leshem (Josh.19:47) and Dan (Judg.18:7, 29; Jer.8:16). It lay near the sources of the Jordan, about 4 miles from Paneas. The restless and warlike tribe of Dan (q.v.), looking out for larger possessions, invaded this country and took Laish with its territory. It is identified with the ruin Tell-el-Kady, |the mound of the judge,| to the north of the Waters of Merom (Josh.11:5).

(2.) A place mentioned in Isa.10:30. It has been supposed to be the modern el-Isawiyeh, about a mile north-east of Jerusalem.

(3.) The father of Phalti (1 Sam.25:44).

Lama
(Matt.27:46), a Hebrew word meaning why, quoted from Ps.22:1.

Lamb
(1.) Heb. kebes, a male lamb from the first to the third year. Offered daily at the morning and the evening sacrifice (Ex.29:38-42), on the Sabbath day (Num.28:9), at the feast of the New Moon (28:11), of Trumpets (29:2), of Tabernacles (13-40), of Pentecost (Lev.23:18-20), and of the Passover (Ex.12:5), and on many other occasions (1 Chr.29:21; 2 Chr.29:21; Lev.9:3; 14:10-25).

(2.) Heb. taleh, a young sucking lamb (1 Sam.7:9; Isa.65:25). In the symbolical language of Scripture the lamb is the type of meekness and innocence (Isa.11:6; 65:25; Luke 10:3; John 21:15).

The lamb was a symbol of Christ (Gen.4:4; Ex.12:3; 29:38; Isa.16:1; 53:7; John 1:36; Rev.13:8).

Christ is called the Lamb of God (John 1:29, 36), as the great sacrifice of which the former sacrifices were only types (Num.6:12; Lev.14:12-17; Isa.53:7; 1 Cor.5:7).

Lamech
The strikerdown; the wild man. (1.) The fifth in descent from Cain. He was the first to violate the primeval ordinance of marriage (Gen.4:18-24). His address to his two wives, Adah and Zillah (4:23, 24), is the only extant example of antediluvian poetry. It has been called |Lamech's sword-song.| He was |rude and ruffianly,| fearing neither God nor man. With him the curtain falls on the race of Cain. We know nothing of his descendants.

(2.) The seventh in descent from Seth, being the only son of Methuselah. Noah was the oldest of his several sons (Gen.5:25-31; Luke 3:36).

Lamentation
(Heb. qinah), an elegy or dirge. The first example of this form of poetry is the lament of David over Saul and Jonathan (2 Sam.1:17-27). It was a frequent accompaniment of mourning (Amos 8:10). In 2 Sam.3:33, 34 is recorded David's lament over Abner. Prophecy sometimes took the form of a lament when it predicted calamity (Ezek.27:2, 32; 28:12; 32:2, 16).

Lamentations, Book of
Called in the Hebrew canon 'Ekhah, meaning |How,| being the formula for the commencement of a song of wailing. It is the first word of the book (see 2 Sam.1:19-27). The LXX. adopted the name rendered |Lamentations| (Gr. threnoi = Heb. qinoth) now in common use, to denote the character of the book, in which the prophet mourns over the desolations brought on the city and the holy land by Chaldeans. In the Hebrew Bible it is placed among the Khethubim. (See BIBLE.)

As to its authorship, there is no room for hesitancy in following the LXX. and the Targum in ascribing it to Jeremiah. The spirit, tone, language, and subject-matter are in accord with the testimony of tradition in assigning it to him. According to tradition, he retired after the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar to a cavern outside the Damascus gate, where he wrote this book. That cavern is still pointed out. |In the face of a rocky hill, on the western side of the city, the local belief has placed the grotto of Jeremiah.' There, in that fixed attitude of grief which Michael Angelo has immortalized, the prophet may well be supposed to have mourned the fall of his country| (Stanley, Jewish Church).

The book consists of five separate poems. In chapter 1 the prophet dwells on the manifold miseries oppressed by which the city sits as a solitary widow weeping sorely. In chapter 2 these miseries are described in connection with the national sins that had caused them. Chapter 3 speaks of hope for the people of God. The chastisement would only be for their good; a better day would dawn for them. Chapter 4 laments the ruin and desolation that had come upon the city and temple, but traces it only to the people's sins. Chapter 5 is a prayer that Zion's reproach may be taken away in the repentance and recovery of the people.

The first four poems (chapters) are acrostics, like some of the Psalms (25, 34, 37, 119), i.e., each verse begins with a letter of the Hebrew alphabet taken in order. The first, second, and fourth have each twenty-two verses, the number of the letters in the Hebrew alphabet. The third has sixty-six verses, in which each three successive verses begin with the same letter. The fifth is not acrostic.

Speaking of the |Wailing-place (q.v.) of the Jews| at Jerusalem, a portion of the old wall of the temple of Solomon, Schaff says: |There the Jews assemble every Friday afternoon to bewail the downfall of the holy city, kissing the stone wall and watering it with their tears. They repeat from their well-worn Hebrew Bibles and prayer-books the Lamentations of Jeremiah and suitable Psalms.|

Lamp
(1.) That part of the candle-sticks of the tabernacle and the temple which bore the light (Ex.25:37; 1 Kings 7:49; 2 Chr.4:20; 13:11; Zech.4:2). Their form is not described. Olive oil was generally burned in them (Ex.27:20).

(2.) A torch carried by the soliders of Gideon (Judg.7:16, 20). (R.V., |torches.|)

(3.) Domestic lamps (A.V., |candles|) were in common use among the Hebrews (Matt.5:15; Mark 4:21, etc.).

(4.) Lamps or torches were used in connection with marriage ceremonies (Matt.25:1).

This word is also frequently metaphorically used to denote life, welfare, guidance, etc. (2 Sam.21:17; Ps.119:105; Prov.6:23; 13:9).

Landmark
A boundary line indicated by a stone, stake, etc. (Deut.19:14; 27:17; Prov.22:28; 23:10; Job 24:2). Landmarks could not be removed without incurring the severe displeasure of God.

Laodicea
The city of this name mentioned in Scripture lay on the confines of Phrygia and Lydia, about 40 miles east of Ephesus (Rev.3:14), on the banks of the Lycus. It was originally called Diospolis and then Rhoas, but afterwards Laodicea, from Laodice, the wife of Antiochus II., king of Syria, who rebuilt it. It was one of the most important and flourishing cities of Asia Minor. At a very early period it became one of the chief seats of Christianity (Col.2:1; 4:15; Rev.1:11, etc.). It is now a deserted place, called by the Turks Eski-hissar or |old castle.|

Laodicea, Epistle from
(Col.4:16), was probably the Epistle to the Ephesians, as designed for general circulation. It would reach the Colossians by way of Laodicea.

Lapidoth
Torches. Deborah is called |the wife of Lapidoth| (Judg.4:4). Some have rendered the expression |a woman of a fiery spirit,| under the supposition that Lapidoth is not a proper name, a woman of a torch-like spirit.

Lapping
Of water like a dog, i.e., by putting the hand filled with water to the mouth. The dog drinks by shaping the end of his long thin tongue into the form of a spoon, thus rapidly lifting up water, which he throws into his mouth. The three hundred men that went with Gideon thus employed their hands and lapped the water out of their hands (Judg.7:7).

Lapwing
The name of an unclean bird, mentioned only in Lev.11:19 and Deut.14:18. The Hebrew name of this bird, dukiphath, has been generally regarded as denoting the hoope (Upupa epops), an onomatopoetic word derived from the cry of the bird, which resembles the word |hoop;| a bird not uncommon in Palestine. Others identify it with the English peewit.

Lasaea
A city in the island of Crete (Acts 27:8). Its ruins are still found near Cape Leonda, about 5 miles east of |Fair Havens.|

Lasha
Fissure, a place apparently east of the Dead Sea (Gen.10:19). It was afterwards known as Callirhoe, a place famous for its hot springs.

Latchet
A thong (Acts 22:25), cord, or strap fastening the sandal on the foot (Isa.5:27; Mark 1:7; Luke 3:16).

Latin
The vernacular language of the ancient Romans (John 19:20).

Lattice
(1.) Heb. eshnabh, a latticed opening through which the cool breeze passes (Judg.5:28). The flat roofs of the houses were sometimes enclosed with a parapet of lattice-work on wooden frames, to screen the women of the house from the gaze of the neighbourhood.

(2.) Heb. harakim, the network or lattice of a window (Cant.2:9).

(3.) Heb. sebakhah, the latticed balustrade before a window or balcony (2 Kings 1:2). The lattice window is frequently used in Eastern countries.

Laver
(Heb. kiyor), a |basin| for boiling in, a |pan| for cooking (1 Sam.2:14), a |fire-pan| or hearth (Zech.12:6), the sacred wash-bowl of the tabernacle and temple (Ex.30:18, 28; 31:9; 35:16; 38:8; 39:39; 40:7, 11, 30, etc.), a basin for the water used by the priests in their ablutions.

That which was originally used in the tabernacle was of brass (rather copper; Heb. nihsheth), made from the metal mirrors the women brought out of Egypt (Ex.38:8). It contained water wherewith the priests washed their hands and feet when they entered the tabernacle (40:32). It stood in the court between the altar and the door of the tabernacle (30:19, 21).

In the temple there were ten lavers used for the sacrifices, and the molten sea for the ablutions of the priests (2 Chr.4:6). The position and uses of these are described 1 Kings 7:23-39; 2 Chr.4:6. The |molten sea| was made of copper, taken from Tibhath and Chun, cities of Hadarezer, king of Zobah (1 Chr.18:8; 1 Kings 7:23-26).

No lavers are mentioned in the second temple.

Law
A rule of action. (1.) The Law of Nature is the will of God as to human conduct, founded on the moral difference of things, and discoverable by natural light (Rom.1:20; 2:14, 15). This law binds all men at all times. It is generally designated by the term conscience, or the capacity of being influenced by the moral relations of things.

(2.) The Ceremonial Law prescribes under the Old Testament the rites and ceremonies of worship. This law was obligatory only till Christ, of whom these rites were typical, had finished his work (Heb.7:9, 11; 10:1; Eph.2:16). It was fulfilled rather than abrogated by the gospel.

(3.) The Judicial Law, the law which directed the civil policy of the Hebrew nation.

(4.) The Moral Law is the revealed will of God as to human conduct, binding on all men to the end of time. It was promulgated at Sinai. It is perfect (Ps.19:7), perpetual (Matt.5:17, 18), holy (Rom.7:12), good, spiritual (14), and exceeding broad (Ps.119:96). Although binding on all, we are not under it as a covenant of works (Gal.3:17). (See COMMANDMENTS.)

(5.) Positive Laws are precepts founded only on the will of God. They are right because God commands them.

(6.) Moral positive laws are commanded by God because they are right.

Law of Moses
Is the whole body of the Mosaic legislation (1 Kings 2:3; 2 Kings 23:25; Ezra 3:2). It is called by way of eminence simply |the Law| (Heb. Torah, Deut.1:5; 4:8, 44; 17:18, 19; 27:3, 8). As a written code it is called the |book of the law of Moses| (2 Kings 14:6; Isa.8:20), the |book of the law of God| (Josh.24:26).

The great leading principle of the Mosaic law is that it is essentially theocratic; i.e., it refers at once to the commandment of God as the foundation of all human duty.

Lawyer
Among the Jews, was one versed in the laws of Moses, which he expounded in the schools and synagogues (Matt.22:35; Luke 10:25). The functions of the |lawyer| and |scribe| were identical. (See DOCTOR.)

Lazarus
An abbreviation of Eleazar, whom God helps. (1.) The brother of Mary and Martha of Bethany. He was raised from the dead after he had lain four days in the tomb (John 11:1-44). This miracle so excited the wrath of the Jews that they sought to put both Jesus and Lazarus to death.

(2.) A beggar named in the parable recorded Luke 16:19-31.

Leaf
Of a tree. The olive-leaf mentioned Gen.8:11. The barren fig-tree had nothing but leaves (Matt.21:19; Mark 11:13). The oak-leaf is mentioned Isa.1:30; 6:13. There are numerous allusions to leaves, their flourishing, their decay, and their restoration (Lev.26:36; Isa.34:4; Jer.8:13; Dan.4:12, 14, 21; Mark 11:13; 13:28). The fresh leaf is a symbol of prosperity (Ps.1:3; Jer.17:8; Ezek.47:12); the faded, of decay (Job 13:25; Isa.1:30; 64:6; Jer.8:13).

Leaf of a door (1 Kings 6:34), the valve of a folding door.

Leaf of a book (Jer.36:23), perhaps a fold of a roll.

League
A treaty or confederacy. The Jews were forbidden to enter into an alliance of any kind (1) with the Canaanites (Ex.23:32, 33; 34:12-16); (2) with the Amalekites (Ex.17:8, 14; Deut.25:17-19); (3) with the Moabites and Ammonites (Deut.2:9, 19). Treaties were permitted to be entered into with all other nations. Thus David maintained friendly intercourse with the kings of Tyre and Hamath, and Solomon with the kings of Tyre and Egypt.

Leah
Weary, the eldest daughter of Laban, and sister of Rachel (Gen.29:16). Jacob took her to wife through a deceit of her father (Gen.29:23). She was |tender-eyed| (17). She bore to Jacob six sons (32-35), also one daughter, Dinah (30:21). She accompanied Jacob into Canaan, and died there before the time of the going down into Egypt (Gen.31), and was buried in the cave of Machpelah (49:31).

Leannoth
For answering; i.e., in singing, occurs in the title to Ps.88. The title |Mahalath (q.v.) Leannoth| may be rendered |concerning sickness, to be sung| i.e., perhaps, to be sung in sickness.

Leasing
(Ps.4:2; 5:6) an Old English word meaning lies, or lying, as the Hebrew word kazabh is generally rendered.

Leather
A girdle of, worn by Elijah (2 Kings 1:8) and John the Baptist (Matt.3:4). Leather was employed both for clothing (Num.31:20; Heb.11:37) and for writing upon. The trade of a tanner is mentioned (Acts 9:43; 10:6, 32). It was probably learned in Egypt.

Leaven
(1.) Heb. seor (Ex.12:15, 19; 13:7; Lev.2:11), the remnant of dough from the preceding baking which had fermented and become acid.

(2.) Heb. hamets, properly |ferment.| In Num.6:3, |vinegar of wine| is more correctly |fermented wine.| In Ex.13:7, the proper rendering would be, |Unfermented things [Heb. matstsoth] shall be consumed during the seven days; and there shall not be seen with thee fermented things [hamets], and there shall not be seen with thee leavened mass [seor] in all thy borders.| The chemical definition of ferment or yeast is |a substance in a state of putrefaction, the atoms of which are in a continual motion.|

The use of leaven was strictly forbidden in all offerings made to the Lord by fire (Lev.2:11; 7:12; 8:2; Num.6:15). Its secretly penetrating and diffusive power is referred to in 1 Cor.5:6. In this respect it is used to illustrate the growth of the kingdom of heaven both in the individual heart and in the world (Matt.13:33). It is a figure also of corruptness and of perverseness of heart and life (Matt.16:6, 11; Mark 8:15; 1 Cor.5:7, 8).

Lebanon
White, |the white mountain of Syria,| is the loftiest and most celebrated mountain range in Syria. It is a branch running southward from the Caucasus, and at its lower end forking into two parallel ranges, the eastern or Anti-Lebanon, and the western or Lebanon proper. They enclose a long valley (Josh.11:17) of from 5 to 8 miles in width, called by Roman writers Coele-Syria, now called el-Buka'a, |the valley,| a prolongation of the valley of the Jordan.

Lebanon proper, Jebel es-Sharki, commences at its southern extremity in the gorge of the Leontes, the ancient Litany, and extends north-east, parallel to the Mediterranean coast, as far as the river Eleutherus, at the plain of Emesa, |the entering of Hamath| (Num.34:8; 1 Kings 8:65), in all about 90 geographical miles in extent. The average height of this range is from 6,000 to 8,000 feet; the peak of Jebel Mukhmel is about 10,200 feet, and the Sannin about 9,000. The highest peaks are covered with perpetual snow and ice. In the recesses of the range wild beasts as of old still abound (2 Kings 14:9; Cant.4:8). The scenes of the Lebanon are remarkable for their grandeur and beauty, and supplied the sacred writers with many expressive similes (Ps.29:5, 6; 72:16; 104:16-18; Cant.4:15; Isa.2:13; 35:2; 60:13; Hos.14:5). It is famous for its cedars (Cant.5:15), its wines (Hos.14:7), and its cool waters (Jer.18:14). The ancient inhabitants were Giblites and Hivites (Josh.13:5; Judg.3:3). It was part of the Phoenician kingdom (1 Kings 5:2-6).

The eastern range, or Anti-Lebanon, or |Lebanon towards the sunrising,| runs nearly parallel with the western from the plain of Emesa till it connects with the hills of Galilee in the south. The height of this range is about 5,000 feet. Its highest peak is Hermon (q.v.), from which a number of lesser ranges radiate.

Lebanon is first mentioned in the description of the boundary of Palestine (Deut.1:7; 11:24). It was assigned to Israel, but was never conquered (Josh.13:2-6; Judg.3:1-3).

The Lebanon range is now inhabited by a population of about 300,000 Christians, Maronites, and Druses, and is ruled by a Christian governor. The Anti-Lebanon is inhabited by Mohammedans, and is under a Turkish ruler.

Lebbaeus
Courageous, a surname of Judas (Jude), one of the twelve (Matt.10:3), called also Thaddaeus, not to be confounded with the Judas who was the brother of our Lord.

Lebonah
Frankincense, a town near Shiloh, on the north side of Bethel (Judg.21:19). It has been identified with el-Lubban, to the south of Nablus.

Leek
(Heb. hatsir; the Allium porrum), rendered |grass| in 1 Kings 18:5, 2 Kings 19:26, Job 40:15, etc.; |herb| in Job 8:12; |hay| in Prov.27:25, and Isa.15:6; |leeks| only in Num.11:5. This Hebrew word seems to denote in this last passage simply herbs, such as lettuce or savoury herbs cooked as kitchen vegetables, and not necessarily what are now called leeks. The leek was a favourite vegetable in Egypt, and is still largely cultivated there and in Palestine.

Lees
(Heb. shemarim), from a word meaning to keep or preserve. It was applied to |lees| from the custom of allowing wine to stand on the lees that it might thereby be better preserved (Isa.25:6). |Men settled on their lees| (Zeph.1:12) are men |hardened or crusted.| The image is derived from the crust formed at the bottom of wines long left undisturbed (Jer.48:11). The effect of wealthy undisturbed ease on the ungodly is hardening. They become stupidly secure (comp. Ps.55:19; Amos 6:1). To drink the lees (Ps.75:8) denotes severe suffering.

Left hand
Among the Hebrews, denoted the north (Job 23:9; Gen.14:15), the face of the person being supposed to be toward the east.

Left-handed
(Judg.3:15; 20:16), one unable to use the right hand skilfully, and who therefore uses the left; and also one who uses the left as well as the right, ambidexter. Such a condition of the hands is due to physical causes. This quality was common apparently in the tribe of Benjamin.

Legion
A regiment of the Roman army, the number of men composing which differed at different times. It originally consisted of three thousand men, but in the time of Christ consisted of six thousand, exclusive of horsemen, who were in number a tenth of the foot-men. The word is used (Matt.26:53; Mark 5:9) to express simply a great multitude.

Lehi
A jawbone, a place in the tribe of Judah where Samson achieved a victory over the Philistines (Judg.15:9, 14, 16), slaying a thousand of them with the jawbone of an ass. The words in 15:19, |a hollow place that was in the jaw| (A.V.), should be, as in Revised Version, |the hollow place that is in Lehi.|

Lemuel
Dedicated to God, a king whom his mother instructed (Prov.31:1-9). Nothing is certainly known concerning him. The rabbis identified him with Solomon.

Lentiles
(Heb. adashim), a species of vetch (Gen.25:34; 2 Sam.23:11), common in Syria under the name addas. The red pottage made by Jacob was of lentils (Gen.25:29-34). They were among the provisions brought to David when he fled from Absalom (2 Sam.17:28). It is the Ervum lens of Linnaeus, a leguminous plant which produces a fruit resembling a bean.

Leopard
(Heb. namer, so called because spotted, Cant.4:8), was that great spotted feline which anciently infested the mountains of Syria, more appropriately called a panther (Felis pardus). Its fierceness (Isa.11:6), its watching for its prey (Jer.5:6), its swiftness (Hab.1:8), and the spots of its skin (Jer.13:23), are noticed. This word is used symbolically (Dan.7:6; Rev.13:2).

Leprosy
(Heb. tsara'ath, a |smiting,| a |stroke,| because the disease was regarded as a direct providential infliction). This name is from the Greek lepra, by which the Greek physicians designated the disease from its scaliness. We have the description of the disease, as well as the regulations connected with it, in Lev.13; 14; Num.12:10-15, etc. There were reckoned six different circumstances under which it might develop itself, (1) without any apparent cause (Lev.13:2-8); (2) its reappearance (9-17); (3) from an inflammation (18-28); (4) on the head or chin (29-37); (5) in white polished spots (38, 39); (6) at the back or in the front of the head (40-44).

Lepers were required to live outside the camp or city (Num.5:1-4; 12:10-15, etc.). This disease was regarded as an awful punishment from the Lord (2 Kings 5:7; 2 Chr.26:20). (See MIRIAM; GEHAZI; UZZIAH.)

This disease |begins with specks on the eyelids and on the palms, gradually spreading over the body, bleaching the hair white wherever they appear, crusting the affected parts with white scales, and causing terrible sores and swellings. From the skin the disease eats inward to the bones, rotting the whole body piecemeal.| |In Christ's day no leper could live in a walled town, though he might in an open village. But wherever he was he was required to have his outer garment rent as a sign of deep grief, to go bareheaded, and to cover his beard with his mantle, as if in lamentation at his own virtual death. He had further to warn passers-by to keep away from him, by calling out, Unclean! unclean!' nor could he speak to any one, or receive or return a salutation, since in the East this involves an embrace.|

That the disease was not contagious is evident from the regulations regarding it (Lev.13:12, 13, 36; 2 Kings 5:1). Leprosy was |the outward and visible sign of the innermost spiritual corruption; a meet emblem in its small beginnings, its gradual spread, its internal disfigurement, its dissolution little by little of the whole body, of that which corrupts, degrades, and defiles man's inner nature, and renders him unmeet to enter the presence of a pure and holy God| (Maclear's Handbook O.T). Our Lord cured lepers (Matt.8:2, 3; Mark 1:40-42). This divine power so manifested illustrates his gracious dealings with men in curing the leprosy of the soul, the fatal taint of sin.

Letter
In Rom.2:27, 29 means the outward form. The |oldness of the letter| (7:6) is a phrase which denotes the old way of literal outward obedience to the law as a system of mere external rules of conduct. In 2 Cor.3:6, |the letter| means the Mosaic law as a written law. (See WRITING.)

Leummim
Peoples; nations, the last mentioned of the three sons of Dedan, and head of an Arabian tribe (Gen.25:3).

Levi
Adhesion. (1.) The third son of Jacob by Leah. The origin of the name is found in Leah's words (Gen.29:34), |This time will my husband be joined [Heb. yillaveh] unto me.| He is mentioned as taking a prominent part in avenging his sister Dinah (Gen.34:25-31). He and his three sons went down with Jacob (46:11) into Egypt, where he died at the age of one hundred and thirty-seven years (Ex.6:16).

(2.) The father of Matthat, and son of Simeon, of the ancestors of Christ (Luke 3:29).

(3.) Luke 3:24.

(4.) One of the apostles, the son of Alphaeus (Mark 2:14; Luke 5:27, 29), called also Matthew (Matt.9:9).

Leviathan
A transliterated Hebrew word (livyathan), meaning |twisted,| |coiled.| In Job 3:8, Revised Version, and marg. of Authorized Version, it denotes the dragon which, according to Eastern tradition, is an enemy of light; in 41:1 the crocodile is meant; in Ps.104:26 it |denotes any large animal that moves by writhing or wriggling the body, the whale, the monsters of the deep.| This word is also used figuratively for a cruel enemy, as some think |the Egyptian host, crushed by the divine power, and cast on the shores of the Red Sea| (Ps.74:14). As used in Isa.27:1, |leviathan the piercing [R.V. swift'] serpent, even leviathan that crooked [R.V. marg. winding'] serpent,| the word may probably denote the two empires, the Assyrian and the Babylonian.

Levirate Law
From Latin levir, |a husband's brother,| the name of an ancient custom ordained by Moses, by which, when an Israelite died without issue, his surviving brother was required to marry the widow, so as to continue his brother's family through the son that might be born of that marriage (Gen.38:8; Deut.25:5-10; comp. Ruth 3; 4:10). Its object was |to raise up seed to the departed brother.|

Levite
A descendant of the tribe of Levi (Ex.6:25; Lev.25:32; Num.35:2; Josh.21:3, 41). This name is, however, generally used as the title of that portion of the tribe which was set apart for the subordinate offices of the sanctuary service (1 Kings 8:4; Ezra 2:70), as assistants to the priests.

When the Israelites left Egypt, the ancient manner of worship was still observed by them, the eldest son of each house inheriting the priest's office. At Sinai the first change in this ancient practice was made. A hereditary priesthood in the family of Aaron was then instituted (Ex.28:1). But it was not till that terrible scene in connection with the sin of the golden calf that the tribe of Levi stood apart and began to occupy a distinct position (Ex.32). The religious primogeniture was then conferred on this tribe, which henceforth was devoted to the service of the sanctuary (Num.3:11-13). They were selected for this purpose because of their zeal for the glory of God (Ex.32:26), and because, as the tribe to which Moses and Aaron belonged, they would naturally stand by the lawgiver in his work.

The Levitical order consisted of all the descendants of Levi's three sons, Gershon, Kohath, and Merari; whilst Aaron, Amram's son (Amram, son of Kohat), and his issue constituted the priestly order.

The age and qualification for Levitical service are specified in Num.4:3, 23, 30, 39, 43, 47.

They were not included among the armies of Israel (Num.1:47; 2:33; 26:62), but were reckoned by themselves. They were the special guardians of the tabernacle (Num.1:51; 18:22-24). The Gershonites pitched their tents on the west of the tabernacle (3:23), the Kohathites on the south (3:29), the Merarites on the north (3:35), and the priests on the east (3:38). It was their duty to move the tent and carry the parts of the sacred structure from place to place. They were given to Aaron and his sons the priests to wait upon them and do work for them at the sanctuary services (Num.8:19; 18:2-6).

As being wholly consecrated to the service of the Lord, they had no territorial possessions. Jehovah was their inheritance (Num.18:20; 26:62; Deut.10:9; 18:1, 2), and for their support it was ordained that they should receive from the other tribes the tithes of the produce of the land. Forty-eight cities also were assigned to them, thirteen of which were for the priests |to dwell in|, i.e., along with their other inhabitants. Along with their dwellings they had |suburbs|, i.e., |commons|, for their herds and flocks, and also fields and vineyards (Num.35:2-5). Nine of these cities were in Judah, three in Naphtali, and four in each of the other tribes (Josh.21). Six of the Levitical cities were set apart as |cities of refuge| (q.v.). Thus the Levites were scattered among the tribes to keep alive among them the knowledge and service of God. (See PRIEST.)

Leviticus
The third book of the Pentateuch; so called in the Vulgate, after the LXX., because it treats chiefly of the Levitical service.

In the first section of the book (1-17), which exhibits the worship itself, there is, (1.) A series of laws (1-7) regarding sacrifices, burnt-offerings, meat-offerings, and thank-offerings (1-3), sin-offerings and trespass-offerings (4; 5), followed by the law of the priestly duties in connection with the offering of sacrifices (6; 7). (2.) An historical section (8-10), giving an account of the consecration of Aaron and his sons (8); Aaron's first offering for himself and the people (9); Nadab and Abihu's presumption in offering |strange fire before Jehovah,| and their punishment (10). (3.) Laws concerning purity, and the sacrifices and ordinances for putting away impurity (11-16). An interesting fact may be noted here. Canon Tristram, speaking of the remarkable discoveries regarding the flora and fauna of the Holy Land by the Palestine Exploration officers, makes the following statement:, |Take these two catalogues of the clean and unclean animals in the books of Leviticus and Deuteronomy . There are eleven in Deuteronomy which do not occur in Leviticus, and these are nearly all animals and birds which are not found in Egypt or the Holy Land, but which are numerous in the Arabian desert. They are not named in Leviticus a few weeks after the departure from Egypt; but after the people were thirty-nine years in the desert they are named, a strong proof that the list in Deuteronomy was written at the end of the journey, and the list in Leviticus at the beginning. It fixes the writing of that catalogue to one time and period only, viz., that when the children of Israel were familiar with the fauna and the flora of the desert| (Palest. Expl. Quart., Jan.1887). (4.) Laws marking the separation between Israel and the heathen (17-20). (5.) Laws about the personal purity of the priests, and their eating of the holy things (20; 21); about the offerings of Israel, that they were to be without blemish (22:17-33); and about the due celebration of the great festivals (23; 25). (6.) Then follow promises and warnings to the people regarding obedience to these commandments, closing with a section on vows.

The various ordinances contained in this book were all delivered in the space of a month (comp. Ex.40:17; Num.1:1), the first month of the second year after the Exodus. It is the third book of Moses.

No book contains more of the very words of God. He is almost throughout the whole of it the direct speaker. This book is a prophecy of things to come, a shadow whereof the substance is Christ and his kingdom. The principles on which it is to be interpreted are laid down in the Epistle to the Hebrews. It contains in its complicated ceremonial the gospel of the grace of God.

Levy
(1 Kings 4:6, R.V.; 5:13), forced service. The service of tributaries was often thus exacted by kings. Solomon raised a |great levy| of 30,000 men, about two per cent. of the population, to work for him by courses on Lebanon. Adoram (12:18) presided over this forced labour service (Ger. Frohndienst; Fr. corvee).

Lewdness
(Acts 18:14), villany or wickedness, not lewdness in the modern sense of the word. The word |lewd| is from the Saxon, and means properly |ignorant,| |unlearned,| and hence low, vicious (Acts 17:5).

Libertine
Found only Acts 6:9, one who once had been a slave, but who had been set at liberty, or the child of such a person. In this case the name probably denotes those descendants of Jews who had been carried captives to Rome as prisoners of war by Pompey and other Roman generals in the Syrian wars, and had afterwards been liberated. In A.D.19 these manumitted Jews were banished from Rome. Many of them found their way to Jerusalem, and there established a synagogue.

Libnah
Transparency; whiteness. (1.) One of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness (Num.33:20, 21).

(2.) One of the royal cities of the Canaanites taken by Joshua (Josh.10:29-32; 12:15). It became one of the Levitical towns in the tribe of Judah (21:13), and was strongly fortified. Sennacherib laid siege to it (2 Kings 19:8; Isa.37:8). It was the native place of Hamutal, the queen of Josiah (2 Kings 23:31). It stood near Lachish, and has been identified with the modern Arak el-Menshiyeh.

Libni
White, one of the two sons of Gershon, the son of Levi (Ex.6:17; Num.3:18, 21). (See LAADAN.)

Libya
The country of the Ludim (Gen.10:13), Northern Africa, a large tract lying along the Mediterranean, to the west of Egypt (Acts 2:10). Cyrene was one of its five cities.

Lice
(Heb. kinnim), the creatures employed in the third plague sent upon Egypt (Ex.8:16-18). They were miraculously produced from the dust of the land. |The entomologists Kirby and Spence place these minute but disgusting insects in the very front rank of those which inflict injury upon man. A terrible list of examples they have collected of the ravages of this and closely allied parasitic pests.| The plague of lice is referred to in Ps.105:31.

Some have supposed that the word denotes not lice properly, but gnats. Others, with greater probability, take it to mean the |tick| which is much larger than lice.

Lie
An intentional violation of the truth. Lies are emphatically condemned in Scripture (John 8:44; 1 Tim.1:9, 10; Rev.21:27; 22:15). Mention is made of the lies told by good men, as by Abraham (Gen.12:12, 13; 20:2), Isaac (26:7), and Jacob (27:24); also by the Hebrew midwives (Ex.1:15-19), by Michal (1 Sam.19:14), and by David (1 Sam.20:6). (See ANANIAS.)

Lieutenant
(only in A.V. Esther 3:12; 8:9; 9:3; Ezra 8:36), a governor or viceroy of a Persian province having both military and civil power. Correctly rendered in the Revised Version |satrap.|

Life
Generally of physical life (Gen.2:7; Luke 16:25, etc.); also used figuratively (1) for immortality (Heb.7:16); (2) conduct or manner of life (Rom.6:4); (3) spiritual life or salvation (John 3:16, 17, 18, 36); (4) eternal life (Matt.19:16, 17; John 3:15); of God and Christ as the absolute source and cause of all life (John 1:4; 5:26, 39; 11:25; 12:50).

Light
The offspring of the divine command (Gen.1:3). |All the more joyous emotions of the mind, all the pleasing sensations of the frame, all the happy hours of domestic intercourse were habitually described among the Hebrews under imagery derived from light| (1 Kings 11:36; Isa.58:8; Esther 8:16; Ps.97:11). Light came also naturally to typify true religion and the felicity it imparts (Ps.119:105; Isa.8:20; Matt.4:16, etc.), and the glorious inheritance of the redeemed (Col.1:12; Rev.21:23-25). God is said to dwell in light inaccessible (1 Tim.6:16). It frequently signifies instruction (Matt.5:16; John 5:35). In its highest sense it is applied to Christ as the |Sun of righteousness| (Mal.4:2; Luke 2:32; John 1:7-9). God is styled |the Father of lights| (James 1:17). It is used of angels (2 Cor.11:14), and of John the Baptist, who was a |burning and a shining light| (John 5:35), and of all true disciples, who are styled |the light of the world| (Matt.5:14).

Lightning
Frequently referred to by the sacred writers (Nah.1:3-6). Thunder and lightning are spoken of as tokens of God's wrath (2 Sam.22:15; Job 28:26; 37:4; Ps.135:7; 144:6; Zech.9:14). They represent God's glorious and awful majesty (Rev.4:5), or some judgment of God on the world (20:9).

Lign-aloes
(only in pl., Heb. ahalim), a perfume derived from some Oriental tree (Num.24:6), probably the agallochum or aloe-wood. (See ALOES).

Ligure
(Heb. leshem) occurs only in Ex.28:19 and 39:12, as the name of a stone in the third row on the high priest's breastplate. Some have supposed that this stone was the same as the jacinth (q.v.), others that it was the opal. There is now no mineral bearing this name. The |ligurite| is so named from Liguria in Italy, where it was found.

Lily
The Hebrew name shushan or shoshan, i.e., |whiteness|, was used as the general name of several plants common to Syria, such as the tulip, iris, anemone, gladiolus, ranunculus, etc. Some interpret it, with much probability, as denoting in the Old Testament the water-lily (Nymphoea lotus of Linn.), or lotus (Cant.2:1, 2; 2:16; 4:5; 5:13; 6:2, 3; 7:2). |Its flowers are large, and they are of a white colour, with streaks of pink. They supplied models for the ornaments of the pillars and the molten sea| (1 Kings 7:19, 22, 26; 2 Chr.4:5). In the Canticles its beauty and fragrance shadow forth the preciousness of Christ to the Church. Groser, however (Scrip. Nat. Hist.), strongly argues that the word, both in the Old and New Testaments, denotes liliaceous plants in general, or if one genus is to be selected, that it must be the genus Iris, which is |large, vigorous, elegant in form, and gorgeous in colouring.|

The lilies (Gr. krinia) spoken of in the New Testament (Matt.6:28; Luke 12:27) were probably the scarlet martagon (Lilium Chalcedonicum) or |red Turk's-cap lily|, which |comes into flower at the season of the year when our Lord's sermon on the mount is supposed to have been delivered. It is abundant in the district of Galilee; and its fine scarlet flowers render it a very conspicous and showy object, which would naturally attract the attention of the hearers| (Balfour's Plants of the Bible).

Of the true |floral glories of Palestine| the pheasant's eye (Adonis Palestina), the ranunuculus (R. Asiaticus), and the anemone (A coronaria), the last named is however, with the greatest probability regarded as the |lily of the field| to which our Lord refers. |Certainly,| says Tristram (Nat. Hist. of the Bible), |if, in the wondrous richness of bloom which characterizes the land of Israel in spring, any one plant can claim pre-eminence, it is the anemone, the most natural flower for our Lord to pluck and seize upon as an illustration, whether walking in the fields or sitting on the hill-side.| |The white water-lily (Nymphcea alba) and the yellow water-lily (Nuphar lutea) are both abundant in the marshes of the Upper Jordan, but have no connection with the lily of Scripture.|

Lime
The Hebrew word so rendered means |boiling| or |effervescing.| From Isa.33:12 it appears that lime was made in a kiln lighted by thorn-bushes. In Amos 2:1 it is recorded that the king of Moab |burned the bones of the king of Edom into lime.| The same Hebrew word is used in Deut.27:2-4, and is there rendered |plaster.| Limestone is the chief constituent of the mountains of Syria.

Linen
(1.) Heb., pishet, pishtah, denotes |flax,| of which linen is made (Isa.19:9); wrought flax, i.e., |linen cloth|, Lev.13:47, 48, 52, 59; Deut.22:11.

Flax was early cultivated in Egypt (Ex.9:31), and also in Palestine (Josh.2:6; Hos.2:9). Various articles were made of it: garments (2 Sam.6:14), girdles (Jer.13:1), ropes and thread (Ezek.40:3), napkins (Luke 24:12; John 20:7), turbans (Ezek.44:18), and lamp-wicks (Isa.42:3).

(2.) Heb. buts, |whiteness;| rendered |fine linen| in 1 Chr.4:21; 15:27; 2 Chr.2:14; 3:14; Esther 1:6; 8:15, and |white linen| 2 Chr.5:12. It is not certain whether this word means cotton or linen.

(3.) Heb. bad; rendered |linen| Ex.28:42; 39:28; Lev.6:10; 16:4, 23, 32; 1 Sam.2:18; 2 Sam.6:14, etc. It is uniformly used of the sacred vestments worn by the priests. The word is from a root signifying |separation.|

(4.) Heb. shesh; rendered |fine linen| Ex.25:4; 26:1, 31, 36, etc. In Prov.31:22 it is rendered in Authorized Version |silk,| and in Revised Version |fine linen.| The word denotes Egyptian linen of peculiar whiteness and fineness (byssus). The finest Indian linen, the finest now made, has in an inch one hundred threads of warp and eighty-four of woof; while the Egyptian had sometimes one hundred and forty in the warp and sixty-four in the woof. This was the usual dress of the Egyptian priest. Pharaoh arrayed Joseph in a dress of linen (Gen.41:42).

(5.) Heb. etun. Prov.7:16, |fine linen of Egypt;| in Revised Version, |the yarn of Egypt.|

(6.) Heb. sadin. Prov.31:24, |fine linen;| in Revised Version, |linen garments| (Judg.14:12, 13; Isa.3:23). From this Hebrew word is probably derived the Greek word sindon, rendered |linen| in Mark 14:51, 52; 15:46; Matt.27:59.

The word |linen| is used as an emblem of moral purity (Rev.15:6). In Luke 16:19 it is mentioned as a mark of luxury.

Linen-yarn
(See YARN.)

Lines
Were used for measuring and dividing land; and hence the word came to denote a portion or inheritance measured out; a possession (Ps.16:6).

Lintel
(1.) Heb. mashkoph, a projecting cover (Ex.12:22, 23; ver.7, |upper door post,| but R.V. |lintel|); the head-piece of a door, which the Israelites were commanded to mark with the blood of the paschal lamb.

(2.) Heb. kaphtar. Amos 9:1; Zeph.2:14 (R.V. correctly |chapiters,| as in A.V. marg.).

Lions
The most powerful of all carnivorous animals. Although not now found in Palestine, they must have been in ancient times very numerous there. They had their lairs in the forests (Jer.5:6; 12:8; Amos 3:4), in the caves of the mountains (Cant.4:8; Nah.2:12), and in the canebrakes on the banks of the Jordan (Jer.49:19; 50:44; Zech.11:3).

No fewer than at least six different words are used in the Old Testament for the lion. (1.) Gor (i.e., a |suckling|), the lion's whelp (Gen.49:9; Jer.51:38, etc.). (2.) Kephir (i.e., |shaggy|), the young lion (Judg.14:5; Job 4:10; Ps.91:13; 104:21), a term which is also used figuratively of cruel enemies (Ps.34:10; 35:17; 58:6; Jer.2:15). (3.) 'Ari (i.e., the |puller| in pieces), denoting the lion in general, without reference to age or sex (Num.23:24; 2 Sam.17:10, etc.). (4.) Shahal (the |roarer|), the mature lion (Job 4:10; Ps.91:13; Prov.26:13; Hos.5:14). (5.) Laish, so called from its strength and bravery (Job 4:11; Prov.30:30; Isa.30:6). The capital of Northern Dan received its name from this word. (6.) Labi, from a root meaning |to roar,| a grown lion or lioness (Gen.49:9; Num.23:24; 24:9; Ezek.19:2; Nah.2:11).

The lion of Palestine was properly of the Asiatic variety, distinguished from the African variety, which is larger. Yet it not only attacked flocks in the presence of the shepherd, but also laid waste towns and villages (2 Kings 17:25, 26) and devoured men (1 Kings 13:24, 25). Shepherds sometimes, single-handed, encountered lions and slew them (1 Sam.17:34, 35; Amos 3:12). Samson seized a young lion with his hands and |rent him as he would have rent a kid| (Judg.14:5, 6). The strength (Judg.14:18), courage (2 Sam.17:10), and ferocity (Gen.49:9) of the lion were proverbial.

Lip
Besides its literal sense (Isa.37:29, etc.), is used in the original (saphah) metaphorically for an edge or border, as of a cup (1 Kings 7:26), a garment (Ex.28:32), a curtain (26:4), the sea (Gen.22:17), the Jordan (2 Kings 2:13). To |open the lips| is to begin to speak (Job 11:5); to |refrain the lips| is to keep silence (Ps.40:9; 1 Pet.3:10). The |fruit of the lips| (Heb.13:15) is praise, and the |calves of the lips| thank-offerings (Hos.14:2). To |shoot out the lip| is to manifest scorn and defiance (Ps.22:7). Many similar forms of expression are found in Scripture.

Litter
(Heb. tsab, as being lightly and gently borne), a sedan or palanquin for the conveyance of persons of rank (Isa.66:20). In Num.7:3, the words |covered wagons| are more literally |carts of the litter kind.| There they denote large and commodious vehicles drawn by oxen, and fitted for transporting the furniture of the temple.

Liver
(Heb. kabhed, |heavy;| hence the liver, as being the heaviest of the viscera, Ex.29:13, 22; Lev.3:4, 1, 10, 15) was burnt upon the altar, and not used as sacrificial food. In Ezek.21:21 there is allusion, in the statement that the king of Babylon |looked upon the liver,| to one of the most ancient of all modes of divination. The first recorded instance of divination (q.v.) is that of the teraphim of Laban. By the teraphim the LXX. and Josephus understood |the liver of goats.| By the |caul above the liver,| in Lev.4:9; 7:4, etc., some understand the great lobe of the liver itself.

Living creatures
As represented by Ezekiel (1-10) and John (Rev.4, etc.), are the cherubim. They are distinguished from angels (Rev.15:7); they join the elders in the |new song| (5:8, 9); they warn of danger from divine justice (Isa.6:3-5), and deliver the commission to those who execute it (Ezek.10:2, 7); they associate with the elders in their sympathy with the hundred and forty-four thousand who sing the new song (Rev.14:3), and with the Church in the overthrow of her enemies (19:4).

They are supposed to represent mercy, as distinguished from justice, mercy in its various instrumentalities, and especially as connected with the throne of God, the |throne of grace.|

Lizard
Only in Lev.11:30, as rendering of Hebrew letaah, so called from its |hiding.| Supposed to be the Lacerta gecko or fan-foot lizard, from the toes of which poison exudes. (See
CHAMELEON.)

Lo-ammi
Not my people, a symbolical name given by God's command to Hosea's second son in token of Jehovah's rejection of his people (Hos.1:9, 10), his treatment of them as a foreign people. This Hebrew word is rendered by |not my people| in ver.10; 2:23.

Loan
The Mosaic law required that when an Israelite needed to borrow, what he asked was to be freely lent to him, and no interest was to be charged, although interest might be taken of a foreigner (Ex.22:25; Deut.23:19, 20; Lev.25:35-38). At the end of seven years all debts were remitted. Of a foreigner the loan might, however, be exacted. At a later period of the Hebrew commonwealth, when commerce increased, the practice of exacting usury or interest on loans, and of suretiship in the commercial sense, grew up. Yet the exaction of it from a Hebrew was regarded as discreditable (Ps.15:5; Prov.6:1, 4; 11:15; 17:18; 20:16; 27:13; Jer.15:10).

Limitations are prescribed by the law to the taking of a pledge from the borrower. The outer garment in which a man slept at night, if taken in pledge, was to be returned before sunset (Ex.22:26, 27; Deut.24:12, 13). A widow's garment (Deut.24:17) and a millstone (6) could not be taken. A creditor could not enter the house to reclaim a pledge, but must remain outside till the borrower brought it (10, 11). The Hebrew debtor could not be retained in bondage longer than the seventh year, or at farthest the year of jubilee (Ex.21:2; Lev.25:39, 42), but foreign sojourners were to be |bondmen for ever| (Lev.25:44-54).

Lock
The Hebrews usually secured their doors by bars of wood or iron (Isa.45:2; 1 Kings 4:3). These were the locks originally used, and were opened and shut by large keys applied through an opening in the outside (Judg.3:24). (See KEY.)

Lock of hair (Judg.16:13, 19; Ezek.8:3; Num.6:5, etc.).

Locust
There are ten Hebrew words used in Scripture to signify locust. In the New Testament locusts are mentioned as forming part of the food of John the Baptist (Matt.3:4; Mark 1:6). By the Mosaic law they were reckoned |clean,| so that he could lawfully eat them. The name also occurs in Rev.9:3, 7, in allusion to this Oriental devastating insect.

Locusts belong to the class of Orthoptera, i.e.,
straight-winged. They are of many species. The ordinary Syrian locust resembles the grasshopper, but is larger and more destructive. |The legs and thighs of these insects are so powerful that they can leap to a height of two hundred times the length of their bodies. When so raised they spread their wings and fly so close together as to appear like one compact moving mass.| Locusts are prepared as food in various ways. Sometimes they are pounded, and then mixed with flour and water, and baked into cakes; |sometimes boiled, roasted, or stewed in butter, and then eaten.| They were eaten in a preserved state by the ancient Assyrians.

The devastations they make in Eastern lands are often very appalling. The invasions of locusts are the heaviest calamites that can befall a country. |Their numbers exceed computation: the hebrews called them the countless,' and the Arabs knew them as the darkeners of the sun.' Unable to guide their own flight, though capable of crossing large spaces, they are at the mercy of the wind, which bears them as blind instruments of Providence to the doomed region given over to them for the time. Innumerable as the drops of water or the sands of the seashore, their flight obscures the sun and casts a thick shadow on the earth (Ex.10:15; Judg.6:5; 7:12; Jer.46:23; Joel 2:10). It seems indeed as if a great aerial mountain, many miles in breadth, were advancing with a slow, unresting progress. Woe to the countries beneath them if the wind fall and let them alight! They descend unnumbered as flakes of snow and hide the ground. It may be like the garden of Eden before them, but behind them is a desolate wilderness. At their approach the people are in anguish; all faces lose their colour' (Joel 2:6). No walls can stop them; no ditches arrest them; fires kindled in their path are forthwith extinguished by the myriads of their dead, and the countless armies march on (Joel 2:8, 9). If a door or a window be open, they enter and destroy everything of wood in the house. Every terrace, court, and inner chamber is filled with them in a moment. Such an awful visitation swept over Egypt (Ex.10:1-19), consuming before it every green thing, and stripping the trees, till the land was bared of all signs of vegetation. A strong north-west wind from the Mediterranean swept the locusts into the Red Sea.|, Geikie's Hours, etc., ii., 149.

Lo-debar
No pasture, (2 Sam.17:27), a town in Gilead not far from Mahanaim, north of the Jabbok (9:4, 5). It is probably identical with Debir (Josh.13:26).

Lodge
A shed for a watchman in a garden (Isa.1:8). The Hebrew name melunah is rendered |cottage| (q.v.) in Isa.24:20. It also denotes a hammock or hanging-bed.

Log
The smallest measure for liquids used by the Hebrews (Lev.14:10, 12, 15, 21, 24), called in the Vulgate sextarius. It is the Hebrew unit of measure of capacity, and is equal to the contents of six ordinary hen's eggs=the twelfth part of a him, or nearly a pint.

Lois
The maternal grandmother of Timothy. She is commended by Paul for her faith (2 Tim.1:5).

Loop
A knotted |eye| of cord, corresponding to the |taches| or knobs in the edges of the curtains of the tabernacle, for joining them into a continuous circuit, fifty to a curtain (Ex.26:4, 5, 10, 11).

Lord
There are various Hebrew and Greek words so rendered.

(1.) Heb. Jehovah, has been rendered in the English Bible LORD, printed in small capitals. This is the proper name of the God of the Hebrews. The form |Jehovah| is retained only in Ex.6:3; Ps.83:18; Isa.12:2; 26:4, both in the Authorized and the Revised Version.

(2.) Heb. adon, means one possessed of absolute control. It denotes a master, as of slaves (Gen.24:14, 27), or a ruler of his subjects (45:8), or a husband, as lord of his wife (18:12).

The old plural form of this Hebrew word is 'adonai. From a superstitious reverence for the name |Jehovah,| the Jews, in reading their Scriptures, whenever that name occurred, always pronounced it 'Adonai.

(3.) Greek kurios, a supreme master, etc. In the LXX. this is invariably used for |Jehovah| and |Adonai.|

(4.) Heb. ba'al, a master, as having domination. This word is applied to human relations, as that of husband, to persons skilled in some art or profession, and to heathen deities. |The men of Shechem,| literally |the baals of Shechem| (Judg.9:2, 3). These were the Israelite inhabitants who had reduced the Canaanites to a condition of vassalage (Josh.16:10; 17:13).

(5.) Heb. seren, applied exclusively to the |lords of the Philistines| (Judg.3:3). The LXX. render it by satrapies. At this period the Philistines were not, as at a later period (1 Sam.21:10), under a kingly government. (See Josh.13:3; 1 Sam.6:18.) There were five such lordships, viz., Gath, Ashdod, Gaza, Ashkelon, and Ekron.

Lord's day
Only once, in Rev.1:10, was in the early Christian ages used to denote the first day of the week, which commemorated the Lord's resurrection. There is every reason to conclude that John thus used the name. (See SABBATH.)

Lord's Prayer
The name given to the only form of prayer Christ taught his disciples (Matt.6:9-13). The closing doxology of the prayer is omitted by Luke (11:2-4), also in the R.V. of Matt.6:13. This prayer contains no allusion to the atonement of Christ, nor to the offices of the Holy Spirit. |All Christian prayer is based on the Lord's Prayer, but its spirit is also guided by that of His prayer in Gethsemane and of the prayer recorded John 17. The Lord's Prayer is the comprehensive type of the simplest and most universal prayer.|

Lord's Supper
(1 Cor.11:20), called also |the Lord's table| (10:21), |communion,| |cup of blessing| (10:16), and |breaking of bread| (Acts 2:42).

In the early Church it was called also |eucharist,| or giving of thanks (comp. Matt.26:27), and generally by the Latin Church |mass,| a name derived from the formula of dismission, Ite, missa est, i.e., |Go, it is discharged.|

The account of the institution of this ordinance is given in Matt.26:26-29, Mark 14:22-25, Luke 22:19, 20, and 1 Cor.11:24-26. It is not mentioned by John.

It was designed, (1.) To commemorate the death of Christ: |This do in remembrance of me.| (2.) To signify, seal, and apply to believers all the benefits of the new covenant. In this ordinance Christ ratifies his promises to his people, and they on their part solemnly consecrate themselves to him and to his entire service. (3.) To be a badge of the Christian profession. (4.) To indicate and to promote the communion of believers with Christ. (5.) To represent the mutual communion of believers with each other.

The elements used to represent Christ's body and blood are bread and wine. The kind of bread, whether leavened or unleavened, is not specified. Christ used unleavened bread simply because it was at that moment on the paschal table. Wine, and no other liquid, is to be used (Matt.26:26-29). Believers |feed| on Christ's body and blood, (1) not with the mouth in any manner, but (2) by the soul alone, and (3) by faith, which is the mouth or hand of the soul. This they do (4) by the power of the Holy Ghost. This |feeding| on Christ, however, takes place not in the Lord's Supper alone, but whenever faith in him is exercised.

This is a permanent ordinance in the Church of Christ, and is to be observed |till he come| again.

Lo-ruhamah
Not pitied, the name of the prophet Hosea's first daughter, a type of Jehovah's temporary rejection of his people (Hos.1:6; 2:23).

Lot
(Heb. goral, a |pebble|), a small stone used in casting lots (Num.33:54; Jonah 1:7). The lot was always resorted to by the Hebrews with strictest reference to the interposition of God, and as a method of ascertaining the divine will (Prov.16:33), and in serious cases of doubt (Esther 3:7). Thus the lot was used at the division of the land of Canaan among the serveral tribes (Num.26:55; 34:13), at the detection of Achan (Josh.7:14, 18), the election of Saul to be king (1 Sam.10:20, 21), the distribution of the priestly offices of the temple service (1 Chr.24:3, 5, 19; Luke 1:9), and over the two goats at the feast of Atonement (Lev.16:8). Matthias, who was |numbered with the eleven| (Acts 1:24-26), was chosen by lot.

This word also denotes a portion or an inheritance (Josh.15:1; Ps.125:3; Isa.17:4), and a destiny, as assigned by God (Ps.16:5; Dan.12:13).

Lot, (Heb. lot), a covering; veil, the son of Haran, and nephew of Abraham (Gen.11:27). On the death of his father, he was left in charge of his grandfather Terah (31), after whose death he accompanied his uncle Abraham into Canaan (12:5), thence into Egypt (10), and back again to Canaan (13:1). After this he separated from him and settled in Sodom (13:5-13). There his righteous soul was |vexed| from day to day (2 Pet.2:7), and he had great cause to regret this act. Not many years after the separation he was taken captive by Chedorlaomer, and was rescued by Abraham (Gen.14). At length, when the judgment of God descended on the guilty cities of the plain (Gen.19:1-20), Lot was miraculously delivered. When fleeing from the doomed city his wife |looked back from behind him, and became a pillar of salt.| There is to this day a peculiar crag at the south end of the Dead Sea, near Kumran, which the Arabs call Bint Sheik Lot, i.e., Lot's wife. It is |a tall, isolated needle of rock, which really does bear a curious resemblance to an Arab woman with a child upon her shoulder.| From the words of warning in Luke 17:32, |Remember Lot's wife,| it would seem as if she had gone back, or tarried so long behind in the desire to save some of her goods, that she became involved in the destruction which fell on the city, and became a stiffened corpse, fixed for a time in the saline incrustations. She became |a pillar of salt|, i.e., as some think, of asphalt. (See SALT.)

Lot and his daughters sought refuge first in Zoar, and then, fearing to remain there longer, retired to a cave in the neighbouring mountains (Gen.19:30). Lot has recently been connected with the people called on the Egyptian monuments Rotanu or Lotanu, who is supposed to have been the hero of the Edomite tribe Lotan.

Lotan
Coverer, one of the sons of Seir, the Horite (Gen.36:20, 29).

Love
This word seems to require explanation only in the case of its use by our Lord in his interview with |Simon, the son of Jonas,| after his resurrection (John 21:16, 17). When our Lord says, |Lovest thou me?| he uses the Greek word agapas; and when Simon answers, he uses the Greek word philo, i.e., |I love.| This is the usage in the first and second questions put by our Lord; but in the third our Lord uses Simon's word. The distinction between these two Greek words is thus fitly described by Trench:, |Agapan has more of judgment and deliberate choice; philein has more of attachment and peculiar personal affection. Thus the Lovest thou' (Gr. agapas) on the lips of the Lord seems to Peter at this moment too cold a word, as though his Lord were keeping him at a distance, or at least not inviting him to draw near, as in the passionate yearning of his heart he desired now to do. Therefore he puts by the word and substitutes his own stronger I love' (Gr. philo) in its room. A second time he does the same. And now he has conquered; for when the Lord demands a third time whether he loves him, he does it in the word which alone will satisfy Peter (Lovest thou,' Gr. phileis), which alone claims from him that personal attachment and affection with which indeed he knows that his heart is full.|

In 1 Cor.13 the apostle sets forth the excellency of love, as the word |charity| there is rendered in the Revised Version.

Lubims
The inhabitants of a thirsty or scorched land; the Lybians, an African nation under tribute to Egypt (2 Chr.12:3; 16:8). Their territory was apparently near Egypt. They were probably the Mizraite Lehabim.

Lucas
A friend and companion of Paul during his imprisonment at Rome; Luke (q.v.), the beloved physician (Philemon 1:24; Col.4:14).

Lucifer
Brilliant star, a title given to the king of Babylon (Isa.14:12) to denote his glory.

Lucius
Of Cyrene, a Christian teacher at Antioch (Acts 13:1), and Paul's kinsman (Rom.16:21). His name is Latin, but his birthplace seems to indicate that he was one of the Jews of Cyrene, in North Africa.

Lucre
From the Lat. lucrum, |gain.| 1 Tim.3:3, |not given to filthy lucre.| Some MSS. have not the word so rendered, and the expression has been omitted in the Revised Version.

Lud
(1.) The fourth son of Shem (Gen.10:22; 1 Chr.1:17), ancestor of the Lydians probably.

(2.) One of the Hamitic tribes descended from Mizraim (Gen.10:13), a people of Africa (Ezek.27:10; 30:5), on the west of Egypt. The people called Lud were noted archers (Isa.66:19; comp. Jer.46:9).

Ludim
Probably the same as Lud (2) (comp. Gen.10:13; 1 Chr.1:11). They are associated (Jer.46:9) with African nations as mercenaries of the king of Egypt.

Luhith
Made of boards, a Moabitish place between Zoar and Horonaim (Isa.15:5; Jer.48:5).

Luke
The evangelist, was a Gentile. The date and circumstances of his conversion are unknown. According to his own statement (Luke 1:2), he was not an |eye-witness and minister of the word from the beginning.| It is probable that he was a physician in Troas, and was there converted by Paul, to whom he attached himself. He accompanied him to Philippi, but did not there share his imprisonment, nor did he accompany him further after his release in his missionary journey at this time (Acts 17:1). On Paul's third visit to Philippi (20:5, 6) we again meet with Luke, who probably had spent all the intervening time in that city, a period of seven or eight years. From this time Luke was Paul's constant companion during his journey to Jerusalem (20:6-21:18). He again disappears from view during Paul's imprisonment at Jerusalem and Caesarea, and only reappears when Paul sets out for Rome (27:1), whither he accompanies him (28:2, 12-16), and where he remains with him till the close of his first imprisonment (Philemon 1:24; Col.4:14). The last notice of the |beloved physician| is in 2 Tim.4:11.

There are many passages in Paul's epistles, as well as in the writings of Luke, which show the extent and accuracy of his medical knowledge.

Luke, Gospel according to
Was written by Luke. He does not claim to have been an eye-witness of our Lord's ministry, but to have gone to the best sources of information within his reach, and to have written an orderly narrative of the facts (Luke 1:1-4). The authors of the first three Gospels, the synoptics, wrote independently of each other. Each wrote his independent narrative under the guidance of the Holy Spirit.

Each writer has some things, both in matter and style, peculiar to himself, yet all the three have much in common. Luke's Gospel has been called |the Gospel of the nations, full of mercy and hope, assured to the world by the love of a suffering Saviour;| |the Gospel of the saintly life;| |the Gospel for the Greeks; the Gospel of the future; the Gospel of progressive Christianity, of the universality and gratuitousness of the gospel; the historic Gospel; the Gospel of Jesus as the good Physician and the Saviour of mankind;| the |Gospel of the Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man;| |the Gospel of womanhood;| |the Gospel of the outcast, of the Samaritan, the publican, the harlot, and the prodigal;| |the Gospel of tolerance.| The main characteristic of this Gospel, as Farrar (Cambridge Bible, Luke, Introd.) remarks, is fitly expressed in the motto, |Who went about doing good, and healing all that were oppressed of the devil| (Acts 10:38; comp. Luke 4:18). Luke wrote for the |Hellenic world.| This Gospel is indeed |rich and precious.|

|Out of a total of 1151 verses, Luke has 389 in common with Matthew and Mark, 176 in common with Matthew alone, 41 in common with Mark alone, leaving 544 peculiar to himself. In many instances all three use identical language.| (See MATTHEW; MARK; GOSPELS.)

There are seventeen of our Lord's parables peculiar to this Gospel. (See List of Parables in Appendix.) Luke also records seven of our Lord's miracles which are omitted by Matthew and Mark. (See List of Miracles in Appendix.) The synoptical Gospels are related to each other after the following scheme. If the contents of each Gospel be represented by 100, then when compared this result is obtained:

Mark has 7 peculiarities, 93 coincidences. Matthew 42 peculiarities, 58 coincidences. Luke 59 peculiarities, 41 coincidences.

That is, thirteen-fourteenths of Mark, four-sevenths of Matthew, and two-fifths of Luke are taken up in describing the same things in very similar language.

Luke's style is more finished and classical than that of Matthew and Mark. There is less in it of the Hebrew idiom. He uses a few Latin words (Luke 12:6; 7:41; 8:30; 11:33; 19:20), but no Syriac or Hebrew words except sikera, an exciting drink of the nature of wine, but not made of grapes (from Heb. shakar, |he is intoxicated|, Lev.10:9), probably palm wine.

This Gospel contains twenty-eight distinct references to the Old Testament.

The date of its composition is uncertain. It must have been written before the Acts, the date of the composition of which is generally fixed at about 63 or 64 A.D. This Gospel was written, therefore, probably about 60 or 63, when Luke may have been at Caesarea in attendance on Paul, who was then a prisoner. Others have conjectured that it was written at Rome during Paul's imprisonment there. But on this point no positive certainty can be attained.

It is commonly supposed that Luke wrote under the direction, if not at the dictation of Paul. Many words and phrases are common to both; e.g., compare:

Luke 4:22; with Col.4:6. Luke 4:32; with 1 Cor.2:4. Luke 6:36; with 2 Cor.1:3. Luke 6:39; with Rom.2:19. Luke 9:56; with 2 Cor.10:8. Luke 10:8; with 1 Cor.10:27. Luke 11:41; with Titus 1:15. Luke 18:1; with 2 Thess.1:11. Luke 21:36; with Eph.6:18. Luke 22:19, 20; with 1 Cor.11:23-29. Luke 24:46; with Acts 17:3. Luke 24:34; with 1 Cor.15:5.

Lunatic
Probably the same as epileptic, the symptoms of which disease were supposed to be more aggravated as the moon increased. In Matt.4:24 |lunatics| are distinguished from demoniacs. In 17:15 the name |lunatic| is applied to one who is declared to have been possessed. (See DAEMONIAC.)

Lust
Sinful longing; the inward sin which leads to the falling away from God (Rom.1:21). |Lust, the origin of sin, has its place in the heart, not of necessity, but because it is the centre of all moral forces and impulses and of spiritual activity.| In Mark 4:19 |lusts| are objects of desire.

Luz
A nut-bearing tree, the almond. (1.) The ancient name of a royal Canaanitish city near the site of Bethel (Gen.28:19; 35:6), on the border of Benjamin (Josh.18:13). Here Jacob halted, and had a prophetic vision. (See BETHEL.)

(2.) A place in the land of the Hittites, founded (Judg.1:26) by |a man who came forth out of the city of Luz.| It is identified with Luweiziyeh, 4 miles north-west of Banias.

Lycaonia
An inland province of Asia Minor, on the west of Cappadocia and the south of Galatia. It was a Roman province, and its chief towns were Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe. The |speech of Lycaonia| (Acts 14:11) was probably the ancient Assyrian language, or perhaps, as others think, a corrupt Greek intermingled with Syriac words. Paul preached in this region, and revisited it (Acts 16:1-6; 18:23; 19:1).

Lycia
A wolf, a province in the south-west of Asia Minor, opposite the island of Rhodes. It forms part of the region now called Tekeh. It was a province of the Roman empire when visited by Paul (Acts 21:1; 27:5). Two of its towns are mentioned, Patara (21:1, 2) and Myra (27:5).

Lydda
A town in the tribe of Ephraim, mentioned only in the New Testament (Acts 9:32, 35, 38) as the scene of Peter's miracle in healing the paralytic AEneas. It lay about 9 miles east of Joppa, on the road from the sea-port to Jerusalem. In the Old Testament (1 Chr.8:12) it is called Lod. It was burned by the Romans, but was afterwards rebuilt, and was known by the name of Diospolis. Its modern name is Ludd. The so-called patron saint of England, St. George, is said to have been born here.

Lydia
(1.) Ezek.30:5 (Heb. Lud), a province in the west of Asia Minor, which derived its name from the fourth son of Shem (Gen.10:22). It was bounded on the east by the greater Phrygia, and on the west by Ionia and the AEgean Sea.

(2.) A woman of Thyatira, a |seller of purple,| who dwelt in Philippi (Acts 16:14, 15). She was not a Jewess but a proselyte. The Lord opened her heart as she heard the gospel from the lips of Paul (16:13). She thus became the first in Europe who embraced Christianity. She was a person apparently of considerable wealth, for she could afford to give a home to Paul and his companions. (See THYATIRA.)

Lysanias
Tetrarch of Abilene (Luke 3:1), on the eastern slope of Anti-Lebanon, near the city of Damascus.

Lysias, Claudius
The chief captain (chiliarch) who commanded the Roman troops in Jerusalem, and sent Paul under guard to the procurator Felix at Caesarea (Acts 21:31-38; 22:24-30). His letter to his superior officer is an interesting specimen of Roman military correspondence (23:26-30). He obtained his Roman citizenship by purchase, and was therefore probably a Greek. (See
CLAUDIUS.)

Lystra
A town of Lycaonia, in Asia Minor, in a wild district and among a rude population. Here Paul preached the gospel after he had been driven by persecution from Iconium (Acts 14:2-7). Here also he healed a lame man (8), and thus so impressed the ignorant and superstitious people that they took him for Mercury, because he was the |chief speaker,| and his companion Barnabas for Jupiter, probably in consequence of his stately, venerable appearance; and were proceeding to offer sacrifices to them (13), when Paul earnestly addressed them and turned their attention to the true source of all blessings. But soon after, through the influence of the Jews from Antioch in Pisidia and Iconium, they stoned Paul and left him for dead (14:19). On recovering, Paul left for Derbe; but soon returned again, through Lystra, encouraging the disciples there to steadfastness. He in all likelihood visited this city again on his third missionary tour (Acts 18:23). Timothy, who was probably born here (2 Tim.3:10, 11), was no doubt one of those who were on this occasion witnesses of Paul's persecution and his courage in Lystra.

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