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Eastons Bible Dictionary by M.G. Easton

Letter I

Ibhar
Chosen, one of David's sons (1 Chr.3:6; 2 Sam.5:15).

Ibleam
People-waster, a city assigned to Manasseh (Josh.17:11), from which the Israelites, however, could not expel the Canaanites (Judg.1:27). It is also called Bileam (1 Chr.6:70). It was probably the modern Jelamah, a village 2 1/2 miles north of Jenin.

Ibzan
Illustrious, the tenth judge of Israel (Judg.12:8-10). He ruled seven years.

Ice
Frequently mentioned (Job 6:16; 38:29; Ps.147:17, etc.). (See CRYSTAL.)

Ichabod
When the tidings of the disastrous defeat of the Israelites in the battle against the Philistines near to Mizpeh were carried to Shiloh, the wife of Phinehas |was near to be delivered. And when she heard the tidings that the ark of God was taken, and that her father-in-law and her husband were dead, she bowed herself and travailed| (1 Sam.4:19-22). In her great distress she regarded not |the women that stood by her,| but named the child that was born |Ichabod| i.e., no glory, saying, |The glory is departed from Isreal;| and with that word on her lips she expired.

Iconium
The capital of ancient Lycaonia. It was first visited by Paul and Barnabas from Antioch-in-Pisidia during the apostle's first missionary journey (Acts 13:50, 51). Here they were persecuted by the Jews, and being driven from the city, they fled to Lystra. They afterwards returned to Iconium, and encouraged the church which had been founded there (14:21, 22). It was probably again visited by Paul during his third missionary journey along with Silas (18:23). It is the modern Konieh, at the foot of Mount Taurus, about 120 miles inland from the Mediterranean.

Idalah
Snares(?), a city near the west border of Zebulun (Josh.19:15). It has been identified with the modern Jeida, in the valley of Kishon.

Iddo
(1.) Timely (1 Chr.6:21). A Gershonite Levite.

(2.) Lovely. The son of Zechariah (1 Chr.27:21), the ruler of Manasseh in David's time.

(3.) Timely. The father of Ahinadab, who was one of Solomon's purveyors (1 Kings 4:14).

(4.) Lovely. A prophet of Judah who wrote the history of Rehoboam and Abijah (2 Chr.12:15). He has been identified with Oded (2 Chr.15:1).

(5.) Lovely. The father of Berachiah, and grandfather of the prophet Zechariah (Zech.1:1, 7). He returned from Babylon (Neh.12:4).

Idol
(1.) Heb. aven, |nothingness;| |vanity| (Isa.66:3; 41:29; Deut.32:21; 1 Kings 16:13; Ps.31:6; Jer.8:19, etc.).

(2.) Elil, |a thing of naught| (Ps.97:7; Isa.19:3); a word of contempt, used of the gods of Noph (Ezek.30:13).

(3.) Emah, |terror,| in allusion to the hideous form of idols (Jer.50:38).

(4.) Miphletzeth, |a fright;| |horror| (1 Kings 15:13; 2 Chr.15:16).

(5.) Bosheth, |shame;| |shameful thing| (Jer.11:13; Hos.9:10); as characterizing the obscenity of the worship of Baal.

(6.) Gillulim, also a word of contempt, |dung;| |refuse| (Ezek.16:36; 20:8; Deut.29:17, marg.).

(7.) Shikkuts, |filth;| |impurity| (Ezek.37:23; Nah.3:6).

(8.) Semel, |likeness;| |a carved image| (Deut.4:16).

(9.) Tselem, |a shadow| (Dan.3:1; 1 Sam.6:5), as distinguished from the |likeness,| or the exact counterpart.

(10.) Temunah, |similitude| (Deut.4:12-19). Here Moses forbids the several forms of Gentile idolatry.

(11.) Atsab, |a figure;| from the root |to fashion,| |to labour;| denoting that idols are the result of man's labour (Isa.48:5; Ps.139:24, |wicked way;| literally, as some translate, |way of an idol|).

(12.) Tsir, |a form;| |shape| (Isa.45:16).

(13.) Matztzebah, a |statue| set up (Jer.43:13); a memorial stone like that erected by Jacob (Gen.28:18; 31:45; 35:14, 20), by Joshua (4:9), and by Samuel (1 Sam.7:12). It is the name given to the statues of Baal (2 Kings 3:2; 10:27).

(14.) Hammanim, |sun-images.| Hamman is a synonym of Baal, the sun-god of the Phoenicians (2 Chr.34:4, 7; 14:3, 5; Isa.17:8).

(15.) Maskith, |device| (Lev.26:1; Num.33:52). In Lev.26:1, the words |image of stone| (A.V.) denote |a stone or cippus with the image of an idol, as Baal, Astarte, etc.| In Ezek.8:12, |chambers of imagery| (maskith), are |chambers of which the walls are painted with the figures of idols;| comp. ver.10, 11.

(16.) Pesel, |a graven| or |carved image| (Isa.44:10-20). It denotes also a figure cast in metal (Deut.7:25; 27:15; Isa.40:19; 44:10).

(17.) Massekah, |a molten image| (Deut.9:12; Judg.17:3, 4).

(18.) Teraphim, pl., |images,| family gods (penates) worshipped by Abram's kindred (Josh.24:14). Put by Michal in David's bed (Judg.17:5; 18:14, 17, 18, 20; 1 Sam.19:13).

|Nothing can be more instructive and significant than this multiplicity and variety of words designating the instruments and inventions of idolatry.|

Idolatry
Image-worship or divine honour paid to any created object. Paul describes the origin of idolatry in Rom.1:21-25: men forsook God, and sank into ignorance and moral corruption (1:28).

The forms of idolatry are, (1.) Fetishism, or the worship of trees, rivers, hills, stones, etc.

(2.) Nature worship, the worship of the sun, moon, and stars, as the supposed powers of nature.

(3.) Hero worship, the worship of deceased ancestors, or of heroes.

In Scripture, idolatry is regarded as of heathen origin, and as being imported among the Hebrews through contact with heathen nations. The first allusion to idolatry is in the account of Rachel stealing her father's teraphim (Gen.31:19), which were the relics of the worship of other gods by Laban's progenitors |on the other side of the river in old time| (Josh.24:2). During their long residence in Egypt the Hebrews fell into idolatry, and it was long before they were delivered from it (Josh.24:14; Ezek.20:7). Many a token of God's displeasure fell upon them because of this sin.

The idolatry learned in Egypt was probably rooted out from among the people during the forty years' wanderings; but when the Jews entered Palestine, they came into contact with the monuments and associations of the idolatry of the old Canaanitish races, and showed a constant tendency to depart from the living God and follow the idolatrous practices of those heathen nations. It was their great national sin, which was only effectually rebuked by the Babylonian exile. That exile finally purified the Jews of all idolatrous tendencies.

The first and second commandments are directed against idolatry of every form. Individuals and communities were equally amenable to the rigorous code. The individual offender was devoted to destruction (Ex.22:20). His nearest relatives were not only bound to denounce him and deliver him up to punishment (Deut.13:20-10), but their hands were to strike the first blow when, on the evidence of two witnesses at least, he was stoned (Deut.17:2-7). To attempt to seduce others to false worship was a crime of equal enormity (13:6-10). An idolatrous nation shared the same fate. No facts are more strongly declared in the Old Testament than that the extermination of the Canaanites was the punishment of their idolatry (Ex.34:15, 16; Deut.7; 12:29-31; 20:17), and that the calamities of the Israelites were due to the same cause (Jer.2:17). |A city guilty of idolatry was looked upon as a cancer in the state; it was considered to be in rebellion, and treated according to the laws of war. Its inhabitants and all their cattle were put to death.| Jehovah was the theocratic King of Israel, the civil Head of the commonwealth, and therefore to an Israelite idolatry was a state offence (1 Sam.15:23), high treason. On taking possession of the land, the Jews were commanded to destroy all traces of every kind of the existing idolatry of the Canaanites (Ex.23:24, 32; 34:13; Deut.7:5, 25; 12:1-3).

In the New Testament the term idolatry is used to designate covetousness (Matt.6:24; Luke 16:13; Col.3:5; Eph.5:5).

Idumaea
The Greek form of Edom (Isa.34:5, 6; Ezek.35:15; 36:5, but in R.V. |Edom|). (See EDOM).

Igal
Avengers. (1.) Num.13:7, one of the spies of the tribe of Issachar. (2.) Son of Nathan of Zobah, and one of David's warriors (2 Sam.23:36). (3.) 1 Chr.3:22.

Iim
Ruins. (1.) A city in the south of Judah (Josh.15:29).

(2.) One of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness (Num.33:45).

Ije-abarim
Ruins of Abarim, the forty-seventh station of the Israelites in the wilderness, |in the border of Moab| (Num.33:44).

Ijon
A ruin, a city of Naphtali, captured by Ben-hadad of Syria at the instance of Asa (1 Kings 15:20), and afterwards by Tiglath-pileser of Assyria (2 Kings 15:29) in the reign of Pekah; now el-Khiam.

Ilai
An Ahohite, one of David's chief warriors (1 Chr.11:29); called also Zalmon (2 Sam.23:28).

Illyricum
A country to the north-west of Macedonia, on the eastern shores of the Adriatic, now almost wholly comprehended in Dalmatia, a name formerly given to the southern part of Illyricum (2 Tim.4:10). It was traversed by Paul in his third missionary journey (Rom.15:19). It was the farthest district he had reached in preaching the gospel of Christ. This reference to Illyricum is in harmony with Acts 20:2, inasmuch as the apostle's journey over the parts of Macedonia would bring him to the borders of Illyricum.

Imagery
Only in the phrase |chambers of his imagery| (Ezek.8:12). (See CHAMBER.)

Imla
Replenisher, the father of Micaiah the prophet (2 Chr.18:7, 8).

Immanuel
God with us. In the Old Testament it occurs only in Isa.7:14 and 8:8. Most Christian interpreters have regarded these words as directly and exclusively a prophecy of our Saviour, an interpretation borne out by the words of the evangelist Matthew (1:23).

Immer
Talkative. (1.) The head of the sixteenth priestly order (1 Chr.24:14). (2.) Jer.20:1. (3.) Ezra 2:37; Neh.7:40. (4.) Ezra 2:59; Neh.7:61. (5.) The father of Zadok (Neh.3:29).

Immortality
Perpetuity of existence. The doctrine of immortality is taught in the Old Testament. It is plainly implied in the writings of Moses (Gen.5:22, 24; 25:8; 37:35; 47:9; 49:29, comp. Heb.11:13-16; Ex.3:6, comp. Matt.22:23). It is more clearly and fully taught in the later books (Isa.14:9; Ps.17:15; 49:15; 73:24). It was thus a doctrine obviously well known to the Jews.

With the full revelation of the gospel this doctrine was |brought to light| (2 Tim.1:10; 1 Cor.15; 2 Cor.5:1-6; 1 Thess.4:13-18).

Imputation
Is used to designate any action or word or thing as reckoned to a person. Thus in doctrinal language (1) the sin of Adam is imputed to all his descendants, i.e., it is reckoned as theirs, and they are dealt with therefore as guilty; (2) the righteousness of Christ is imputed to them that believe in him, or so attributed to them as to be considered their own; and (3) our sins are imputed to Christ, i.e., he assumed our |law-place,| undertook to answer the demands of justice for our sins. In all these cases the nature of imputation is the same (Rom.5:12-19; comp. Philemon 1:18, 19).

Incarnation
That act of grace whereby Christ took our human nature into union with his Divine Person, became man. Christ is both God and man. Human attributes and actions are predicated of him, and he of whom they are predicated is God. A Divine Person was united to a human nature (Acts 20:28; Rom.8:32; 1 Cor.2:8; Heb.2:11-14; 1 Tim.3:16; Gal.4:4, etc.). The union is hypostatical, i.e., is personal; the two natures are not mixed or confounded, and it is perpetual.

Incense
A fragrant composition prepared by the |art of the apothecary.| It consisted of four ingredients |beaten small| (Ex.30:34-36). That which was not thus prepared was called |strange incense| (30:9). It was offered along with every meat-offering; and besides was daily offered on the golden altar in the holy place, and on the great day of atonement was burnt by the high priest in the holy of holies (30:7, 8). It was the symbol of prayer (Ps.141:1, 2; Rev.5:8; 8:3, 4).

India
Occurs only in Esther 1:1 and 8:9, where the extent of the dominion of the Persian king is described. The country so designated here is not the peninsula of Hindustan, but the country surrounding the Indus, the Punjab. The people and the products of India were well known to the Jews, who seem to have carried on an active trade with that country (Ezek.27:15, 24).

Inkhorn
The Hebrew word so rendered means simply a round vessel or cup for containing ink, which was generally worn by writers in the girdle (Ezek.9:2, 3, 11). The word |inkhorn| was used by the translators, because in former times in this country horns were used for containing ink.

Inn
In the modern sense, unknown in the East. The khans or caravanserais, which correspond to the European inn, are not alluded to in the Old Testament. The |inn| mentioned in Ex.4:24 was just the halting-place of the caravan. In later times khans were erected for the accommodation of travellers. In Luke 2:7 the word there so rendered denotes a place for loosing the beasts of their burdens. It is rendered |guest-chamber| in Mark 14:14 and Luke 22:11. In Luke 10:34 the word so rendered is different. That inn had an |inn-keeper,| who attended to the wants of travellers.

Inspiration
That extraordinary or supernatural divine influence vouchsafed to those who wrote the Holy Scriptures, rendering their writings infallible. |All scripture is given by inspiration of God| (R.V., |Every scripture inspired of God|), 2 Tim.3:16. This is true of all the |sacred writings,| not in the sense of their being works of genius or of supernatural insight, but as |theopneustic,| i.e., |breathed into by God| in such a sense that the writers were supernaturally guided to express exactly what God intended them to express as a revelation of his mind and will. The testimony of the sacred writers themselves abundantly demonstrates this truth; and if they are infallible as teachers of doctrine, then the doctrine of plenary inspiration must be accepted. There are no errors in the Bible as it came from God, none have been proved to exist. Difficulties and phenomena we cannot explain are not errors. All these books of the Old and New Testaments are inspired. We do not say that they contain, but that they are, the Word of God. The gift of inspiration rendered the writers the organs of God, for the infallible communication of his mind and will, in the very manner and words in which it was originally given.

As to the nature of inspiration we have no information. This only we know, it rendered the writers infallible. They were all equally inspired, and are all equally infallible. The inspiration of the sacred writers did not change their characters. They retained all their individual peculiarities as thinkers or writers. (See BIBLE; WORD OF GOD.)

Intercession of Christ
Christ's priestly office consists of these two parts, (1) the offering up of himself as a sacrifice, and (2) making continual intercession for us.

When on earth he made intercession for his people (Luke 23:34; John 17:20; Heb.5:7); but now he exercises this function of his priesthood in heaven, where he is said to appear in the presence of God for us (Heb.9:12, 24).

His advocacy with the Father for his people rests on the basis of his own all-perfect sacrifice. Thus he pleads for and obtains the fulfilment of all the promises of the everlasting covenant (1 John 2:1; John 17:24; Heb.7:25). He can be |touched with the feeling of our infirmities,| and is both a merciful and a faithful high priest (Heb.2:17, 18; 4:15, 16). This intercession is an essential part of his mediatorial work. Through him we have |access| to the Father (John 14:6; Eph.2:18; 3:12). |The communion of his people with the Father will ever be sustained through him as mediatorial Priest| (Ps.110:4; Rev.7:17).

Intercession of the Spirit
(Rom.8:26, 27; John 14:26). |Christ is a royal Priest (Zech.6:13). From the same throne, as King, he dispenses his Spirit to all the objects of his care, while as Priest he intercedes for them. The Spirit acts for him, taking only of his things. They both act with one consent, Christ as principal, the Spirit as his agent. Christ intercedes for us, without us, as our advocate in heaven, according to the provisions of the everlasting covenant. The Holy Spirit works upon our minds and hearts, enlightening and quickening, and thus determining our desires 'according to the will of God,' as our advocate within us. The work of the one is complementary to that of the other, and together they form a complete whole.|, Hodge's Outlines of Theology.

Iphedeiah
Set free by Jehovah, a chief of the tribe of Benjamin (1 Chr.8:25).

Ira
Citizen; wakeful. (1.) A Tekoite, one of David's thirty warriors (2 Sam.23:26).

(2.) An Ithrite, also one of David's heroes (2 Sam.23:38).

(3.) A Jairite and priest, a royal chaplain (2 Sam.20:26) or confidential adviser (comp.2 Sam.8:18; 1 Chr.18:17).

Irad
Runner; wild ass, one of the antediluvian patriarchs, the father of Mehujael (Gen.4:18), and grandson of Cain.

Iram
Citizen, chief of an Edomite tribe in Mount Seir (Gen.36:43).

Irha-heres
According to some MSS., meaning |city of destruction.| Other MSS. read 'Irhahares; rendered |city of the sun|, Isa.19:18, where alone the word occurs. This name may probably refer to Heliopolis. The prophecy here points to a time when the Jews would so increase in number there as that the city would fall under their influence. This might be in the time of the Ptolemies. (See ON.)

Iron
Tubal-Cain is the first-mentioned worker in iron (Gen.4:22). The Egyptians wrought it at Sinai before the Exodus. David prepared it in great abundance for the temple (1 Chr.22:3: 29:7). The merchants of Dan and Javan brought it to the market of Tyre (Ezek.27:19). Various instruments are mentioned as made of iron (Deut.27:5; 19:5; Josh.17:16, 18; 1 Sam.17:7; 2 Sam.12:31; 2 Kings 6:5, 6; 1 Chr.22:3; Isa.10:34).

Figuratively, a yoke of iron (Deut.28:48) denotes hard service; a rod of iron (Ps.2:9), a stern government; a pillar of iron (Jer.1:18), a strong support; a furnace of iron (Deut.4:20), severe labour; a bar of iron (Job 40:18), strength; fetters of iron (Ps.107:10), affliction; giving silver for iron (Isa.60:17), prosperity.

Irrigation
As streams were few in Palestine, water was generally stored up in winter in reservoirs, and distributed through gardens in numerous rills, which could easily be turned or diverted by the foot (Deut.11:10).

For purposes of irrigation, water was raised from streams or pools by water-wheels, or by a shaduf, commonly used on the banks of the Nile to the present day.

Isaac
Laughter. (1) Israel, or the kingdom of the ten tribes (Amos 7:9, 16).

(2.) The only son of Abraham by Sarah. He was the longest lived of the three patriarchs (Gen.21:1-3). He was circumcised when eight days old (4-7); and when he was probably two years old a great feast was held in connection with his being weaned.

The next memorable event in his life is that connected with the command of God given to Abraham to offer him up as a sacrifice on a mountain in the land of Moriah (Gen.22). (See ABRAHAM.) When he was forty years of age Rebekah was chosen for his wife (Gen.24). After the death and burial of his father he took up his residence at Beer-lahai-roi (25:7-11), where his two sons, Esau and Jacob, were born (21-26), the former of whom seems to have been his favourite son (27, 28).

In consequence of a famine (Gen.26:1) Isaac went to Gerar, where he practised deception as to his relation to Rebekah, imitating the conduct of his father in Egypt (12:12-20) and in Gerar (20:2). The Philistine king rebuked him for his prevarication.

After sojourning for some time in the land of the Philistines, he returned to Beersheba, where God gave him fresh assurance of covenant blessing, and where Abimelech entered into a covenant of peace with him.

The next chief event in his life was the blessing of his sons (Gen.27:1). He died at Mamre, |being old and full of days| (35:27-29), one hundred and eighty years old, and was buried in the cave of Machpelah.

In the New Testament reference is made to his having been |offered up| by his father (Heb.11:17; James 2:21), and to his blessing his sons (Heb.11:20). As the child of promise, he is contrasted with Ishmael (Rom.9:7, 10; Gal.4:28; Heb.11:18).

Isaac is |at once a counterpart of his father in simple devoutness and purity of life, and a contrast in his passive weakness of character, which in part, at least, may have sprung from his relations to his mother and wife. After the expulsion of Ishmael and Hagar, Isaac had no competitor, and grew up in the shade of Sarah's tent, moulded into feminine softness by habitual submission to her strong, loving will.| His life was so quiet and uneventful that it was spent |within the circle of a few miles; so guileless that he let Jacob overreach him rather than disbelieve his assurance; so tender that his mother's death was the poignant sorrow of years; so patient and gentle that peace with his neighbours was dearer than even such a coveted possession as a well of living water dug by his own men; so grandly obedient that he put his life at his father's disposal; so firm in his reliance on God that his greatest concern through life was to honour the divine promise given to his race.|, Geikie's Hours, etc.

Isaiah
(Heb. Yesh'yahu, i.e., |the salvation of Jehovah|). (1.) The son of Amoz (Isa.1:1; 2:1), who was apparently a man of humble rank. His wife was called |the prophetess| (8:3), either because she was endowed with the prophetic gift, like Deborah (Judg.4:4) and Huldah (2 Kings 22:14-20), or simply because she was the wife of |the prophet| (Isa.38:1). He had two sons, who bore symbolical names.

He exercised the functions of his office during the reigns of Uzziah (or Azariah), Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah (1:1). Uzziah reigned fifty-two years (B.C.810-759), and Isaiah must have begun his career a few years before Uzziah's death, probably B.C.762. He lived till the fourteenth year of Hezekiah, and in all likelihood outlived that monarch (who died B.C.698), and may have been contemporary for some years with Manasseh. Thus Isaiah may have prophesied for the long period of at least sixty-four years.

His first call to the prophetical office is not recorded. A second call came to him |in the year that King Uzziah died| (Isa.6:1). He exercised his ministry in a spirit of uncompromising firmness and boldness in regard to all that bore on the interests of religion. He conceals nothing and keeps nothing back from fear of man. He was also noted for his spirituality and for his deep-toned reverence toward |the holy One of Israel.|

In early youth Isaiah must have been moved by the invasion of Israel by the Assyrian monarch Pul (q.v.), 2 Kings 15:19; and again, twenty years later, when he had already entered on his office, by the invasion of Tiglath-pileser and his career of conquest. Ahaz, king of Judah, at this crisis refused to co-operate with the kings of Israel and Syria in opposition to the Assyrians, and was on that account attacked and defeated by Rezin of Damascus and Pekah of Samaria (2 Kings 16:5; 2 Chr.28:5, 6). Ahaz, thus humbled, sided with Assyria, and sought the aid of Tiglath-pileser against Israel and Syria. The consequence was that Rezin and Pekah were conquered and many of the people carried captive to Assyria (2 Kings 15:29; 16:9; 1 Chr.5:26). Soon after this Shalmaneser determined wholly to subdue the kingdom of Israel. Samaria was taken and destroyed (B.C.722). So long as Ahaz reigned, the kingdom of Judah was unmolested by the Assyrian power; but on his accession to the throne, Hezekiah (B.C.726), who |rebelled against the king of Assyria| (2 Kings 18:7), in which he was encouraged by Isaiah, who exhorted the people to place all their dependence on Jehovah (Isa.10:24; 37:6), entered into an alliance with the king of Egypt (Isa.30:2-4). This led the king of Assyria to threaten the king of Judah, and at length to invade the land. Sennacherib (B.C.701) led a powerful army into Palestine. Hezekiah was reduced to despair, and submitted to the Assyrians (2 Kings 18:14-16). But after a brief interval war broke out again, and again Sennacherib (q.v.) led an army into Palestine, one detachment of which threatened Jerusalem (Isa.36:2-22; 37:8). Isaiah on that occasion encouraged Hezekiah to resist the Assyrians (37:1-7), whereupon Sennacherib sent a threatening letter to Hezekiah, which he |spread before the Lord| (37:14). The judgement of God now fell on the Assyrian host. |Like Xerxes in Greece, Sennacherib never recovered from the shock of the disaster in Judah. He made no more expeditions against either Southern Palestine or Egypt.| The remaining years of Hezekiah's reign were peaceful (2 Chr.32:23, 27-29). Isaiah probably lived to its close, and possibly into the reign of Manasseh, but the time and manner of his death are unknown. There is a tradition that he suffered martyrdom in the heathen reaction in the time of Manasseh (q.v.).

(2.) One of the heads of the singers in the time of David (1 Chr.25:3, 15, |Jeshaiah|).

(3.) A Levite (1 Chr.26:25). (4.) Ezra 8:7. (5.) Neh.11:7.

Isaiah, The Book of
Consists of prophecies delivered (Isa.1) in the reign of Uzziah (1-5), (2) of Jotham (6), (3) Ahaz (7-14:28), (4) the first half of Hezekiah's reign (14:28-35), (5) the second half of Hezekiah's reign (36-66). Thus, counting from the fourth year before Uzziah's death (B.C.762) to the last year of Hezekiah (B.C.698), Isaiah's ministry extended over a period of sixty-four years. He may, however, have survived Hezekiah, and may have perished in the way indicated above.

The book, as a whole, has been divided into three main parts: (1.) The first thirty-five chapters, almost wholly prophetic, Israel's enemy Assyria, present the Messiah as a mighty Ruler and King. (2.) Four chapters are historical (36-39), relating to the times of Hezekiah. (3.) Prophetical (40-66), Israel's enemy Babylon, describing the Messiah as a suffering victim, meek and lowly.

The genuineness of the section Isa.40-66 has been keenly opposed by able critics. They assert that it must be the production of a deutero-Isaiah, who lived toward the close of the Babylonian captivity. This theory was originated by Koppe, a German writer at the close of the last century. There are other portions of the book also (e.g., ch.13; 24-27; and certain verses in ch.14 and 21) which they attribute to some other prophet than Isaiah. Thus they say that some five or seven, or even more, unknown prophets had a hand in the production of this book. The considerations which have led to such a result are various: (1.) They cannot, as some say, conceive it possible that Isaiah, living in B.C.700, could foretell the appearance and the exploits of a prince called Cyrus, who would set the Jews free from captivity one hundred and seventy years after. (2.) It is alleged that the prophet takes the time of the Captivity as his standpoint, and speaks of it as then present; and (3) that there is such a difference between the style and language of the closing section (40-66) and those of the preceding chapters as to necessitate a different authorship, and lead to the conclusion that there were at least two Isaiahs. But even granting the fact of a great diversity of style and language, this will not necessitate the conclusion attempted to be drawn from it. The diversity of subjects treated of and the peculiarities of the prophet's position at the time the prophecies were uttered will sufficiently account for this.

The arguments in favour of the unity of the book are quite conclusive. When the LXX. version was made (about B.C.250) the entire contents of the book were ascribed to Isaiah, the son of Amoz. It is not called in question, moreover, that in the time of our Lord the book existed in the form in which we now have it. Many prophecies in the disputed portions are quoted in the New Testament as the words of Isaiah (Matt.3:3; Luke 3:4-6; 4:16-41; John 12:38; Acts 8:28; Rom.10:16-21). Universal and persistent tradition has ascribed the whole book to one author.

Besides this, the internal evidence, the similarity in the language and style, in the thoughts and images and rhetorical ornaments, all points to the same conclusion; and its local colouring and allusions show that it is obviously of Palestinian origin. The theory therefore of a double authorship of the book, much less of a manifold authorship, cannot be maintained. The book, with all the diversity of its contents, is one, and is, we believe, the production of the great prophet whose name it bears.

Iscah
Spy, the daughter of Haran and sister of Milcah and Lot (Gen.11:29, 31).

Iscariot
(See JUDAS.)

Ishbak
Leaving, one of Abraham's sons by Keturah (Gen.25:2).

Ishbi-benob
My seat at Nob, one of the Rephaim, whose spear was three hundred shekels in weight. He was slain by Abishai (2 Sam.21:16, 17).

Ish-bosheth
Man of shame or humiliation, the youngest of Saul's four sons, and the only one who survived him (2 Sam.2-4). His name was originally Eshbaal (1 Chr.8:33; 9:39). He was about forty years of age when his father and three brothers fell at the battle of Gilboa. Through the influence of Abner, Saul's cousin, he was acknowledged as successor to the throne of Saul, and ruled over all Israel, except the tribe of Judah (over whom David was king), for two years, having Mahanaim, on the east of Jordan, as his capital (2 Sam.2:9). After a troubled and uncertain reign he was murdered by his guard, who stabbed him while he was asleep on his couch at mid-day (2 Sam.4:5-7); and having cut off his head, presented it to David, who sternly rebuked them for this cold-blooded murder, and ordered them to be immediately executed (9-12).

Ishi
My husband, a symbolical name used in Hos.2:16 (See BAALI.)

Ishmael
God hears. (1.) Abraham's eldest son, by Hagar the concubine (Gen.16:15; 17:23). He was born at Mamre, when Abraham was eighty-six years of age, eleven years after his arrival in Canaan (16:3; 21:5). At the age of thirteen he was circumcised (17:25). He grew up a true child of the desert, wild and wayward. On the occasion of the weaning of Isaac his rude and wayward spirit broke out in expressions of insult and mockery (21:9, 10); and Sarah, discovering this, said to Abraham, |Expel this slave and her son.| Influenced by a divine admonition, Abraham dismissed Hagar and her son with no more than a skin of water and some bread. The narrative describing this act is one of the most beautiful and touching incidents of patriarchal life (Gen.21:14-16). (See HAGAR.)

Ishmael settled in the land of Paran, a region lying between Canaan and the mountains of Sinai; and |God was with him, and he became a great archer| (Gen.21:9-21). He became a great desert chief, but of his history little is recorded. He was about ninety years of age when his father Abraham died, in connection with whose burial he once more for a moment reappears. On this occasion the two brothers met after being long separated. |Isaac with his hundreds of household slaves, Ishmael with his troops of wild retainers and half-savage allies, in all the state of a Bedouin prince, gathered before the cave of Machpelah, in the midst of the men of Heth, to pay the last duties to the father of the faithful,' would make a notable subject for an artist| (Gen.25:9). Of the after events of his life but little is known. He died at the age of one hundred and thirty-seven years, but where and when are unknown (25:17). He had twelve sons, who became the founders of so many Arab tribes or colonies, the Ishmaelites, who spread over the wide desert spaces of Northern Arabia from the Red Sea to the Euphrates (Gen.37:25, 27, 28; 39:1), |their hand against every man, and every man's hand against them.|

(2.) The son of Nethaniah, |of the seed royal| (Jer.40:8, 15). He plotted against Gedaliah, and treacherously put him and others to death. He carried off many captives, |and departed to go over to the Ammonites.|

Ishmaiah
Heard by Jehovah. (1.) A Gibeonite who joined David at Ziklag, |a hero among the thirty and over the thirty| (1 Chr.12:4).

(2.) Son of Obadiah, and viceroy of Zebulun under David and Solomon (1 Chr.27:19).

Ishmeelites
(Gen.37:28; 39:1, A.V.) should be |Ishmaelites,| as in the Revised Version.

Ishtob
Man of Tob, one of the small Syrian kingdoms which together constituted Aram (2 Sam.10:6, 8).

Island
(Heb. i, |dry land,| as opposed to water) occurs in its usual signification (Isa.42:4, 10, 12, 15, comp. Jer.47:4), but more frequently simply denotes a maritime region or sea-coast (Isa.20:6, R.V.,| coastland;| 23:2, 6; Jer.2:10; Ezek.27:6, 7). (See CHITTIM.) The shores of the Mediterranean are called the |islands of the sea| (Isa.11:11), or the |isles of the Gentiles| (Gen.10:5), and sometimes simply |isles| (Ps.72:10); Ezek.26:15, 18; 27:3, 35; Dan.11:18).

Israel
The name conferred on Jacob after the great prayer-struggle at Peniel (Gen.32:28), because |as a prince he had power with God and prevailed.| (See JACOB.) This is the common name given to Jacob's descendants. The whole people of the twelve tribes are called |Israelites,| the |children of Israel| (Josh.3:17; 7:25; Judg.8:27; Jer.3:21), and the |house of Israel| (Ex.16:31; 40:38).

This name Israel is sometimes used emphatically for the true Israel (Ps.73:1: Isa.45:17; 49:3; John 1:47; Rom.9:6; 11:26).

After the death of Saul the ten tribes arrogated to themselves this name, as if they were the whole nation (2 Sam.2:9, 10, 17, 28; 3:10, 17; 19:40-43), and the kings of the ten tribes were called |kings of Israel,| while the kings of the two tribes were called |kings of Judah.|

After the Exile the name Israel was assumed as designating the entire nation.

Israel, Kingdom of
(B.C.975-B.C.722). Soon after the death of Solomon, Ahijah's prophecy (1 Kings 11:31-35) was fulfilled, and the kingdom was rent in twain. Rehoboam, the son and successor of Solomon, was scarcely seated on his throne when the old jealousies between Judah and the other tribes broke out anew, and Jeroboam was sent for from Egypt by the malcontents (12:2, 3). Rehoboam insolently refused to lighten the burdensome taxation and services which his father had imposed on his subjects (12:4), and the rebellion became complete. Ephraim and all Israel raised the old cry, |Every man to his tents, O Israel| (2 Sam.20:1). Rehoboam fled to Jerusalem (1 Kings 12:1-18; 2 Chr.10), and Jeroboam was proclaimed king over all Israel at Shechem, Judah and Benjamin remaining faithful to Solomon's son. War, with varying success, was carried on between the two kingdoms for about sixty years, till Jehoshaphat entered into an alliance with the house of Ahab.

Extent of the kingdom. In the time of Solomon the area of Palestine, excluding the Phoenician territories on the shore of the Mediterranean, did not much exceed 13,000 square miles. The kingdom of Israel comprehended about 9,375 square miles. Shechem was the first capital of this kingdom (1 Kings 12:25), afterwards Tirza (14:17). Samaria was subsequently chosen as the capital (16:24), and continued to be so till the destruction of the kingdom by the Assyrians (2 Kings 17:5). During the siege of Samaria (which lasted for three years) by the Assyrians, Shalmaneser died and was succeeded by Sargon, who himself thus records the capture of that city: |Samaria I looked at, I captured; 27,280 men who dwelt in it I carried away| (2 Kings 17:6) into Assyria. Thus after a duration of two hundred and fifty-three years the kingdom of the ten tribes came to an end. They were scattered throughout the East. (See CAPTIVITY.)

|Judah held its ground against Assyria for yet one hundred and twenty-three years, and became the rallying-point of the dispersed of every tribe, and eventually gave its name to the whole race. Those of the people who in the last struggle escaped into the territories of Judah or other neighbouring countries naturally looked to Judah as the head and home of their race. And when Judah itself was carried off to Babylon, many of the exiled Israelites joined them from Assyria, and swelled that immense population which made Babylonia a second Palestine.|

After the deportation of the ten tribes, the deserted land was colonized by various eastern tribes, whom the king of Assyria sent thither (Ezra 4:2, 10; 2 Kings 17:24-29). (See KINGS.)

In contrast with the kingdom of Judah is that of Israel. (1.) |There was no fixed capital and no religious centre. (2.) The army was often insubordinate. (3.) The succession was constantly interrupted, so that out of nineteen kings there were no less than nine dynasties, each ushered in by a revolution. (4.) The authorized priests left the kingdom in a body, and the priesthood established by Jeroboam had no divine sanction and no promise; it was corrupt at its very source.| (Maclean's O. T. Hist.)

Issachar
Hired (Gen.30:18). |God hath given me,| said Leah, |my hire (Heb. sekhari)...and she called his name Issachar.| He was Jacob's ninth son, and was born in Padan-aram (comp.28:2). He had four sons at the going down into Egypt (46:13; Num.26:23, 25).

Issachar, Tribe of, during the journey through the wilderness, along with Judah and Zebulun (Num.2:5), marched on the east of the tabernacle. This tribe contained 54,400 fighting men when the census was taken at Sinai. After the entrance into the Promised Land, this tribe was one of the six which stood on Gerizim during the ceremony of the blessing and cursing (Deut.27:12). The allotment of Issachar is described in Josh.19:17-23. It included the plain of Esdraelon (=Jezreel), which was and still is the richest portion of Palestine (Deut.33:18, 19; 1 Chr.12:40).

The prophetic blessing pronounced by Jacob on Issachar corresponds with that of Moses (Gen.49:14, 15; comp. Deut.33:18, 19).

Italian band
The name of the Roman cohort to which Cornelius belonged (Acts 10:1), so called probably because it consisted of men recruited in Italy.

Italy
Acts 18:2; 27:1, 6; Heb.13:24), like most geographical names, was differently used at different periods of history. As the power of Rome advanced, nations were successively conquered and added to it till it came to designate the whole country to the south of the Alps. There was constant intercourse between Palestine and Italy in the time of the Romans.

Ithamar
Palm isle, the fourth and youngest son of Aaron (1 Chr.6:3). He was consecrated to the priesthood along with his brothers (Ex.6:23); and after the death of Nadab and Abihu, he and Eleazar alone discharged the functions of that office (Lev.10:6, 12; Num.3:4). He and his family occupied the position of common priest till the high priesthood passed into his family in the person of Eli (1 Kings 2:27), the reasons for which are not recorded. (See ZADOK.)

Ithrite
Two of David's warriors so designated (2 Sam.23:38; 1 Chr.11:40).

Ittai
Near; timely; or, with the Lord. (1.) A Benjamite, one of David's thirty heroes (2 Sam.23:29).

(2.) A native of Gath, a Philistine, who had apparently the command of the six hundred heroes who formed David's band during his wanderings (2 Sam.15:19-22; comp.1 Sam.23:13; 27:2; 30:9, 10). He is afterwards with David at Mahanaim, holding in the army equal rank with Joab and Abishai (2 Sam.18:2, 5, 12). He then passes from view.

Ituraea
A district in the north-east of Palestine, forming, along with the adjacent territory of Trachonitis, the tetrarchy of Philip (Luke 3:1). The present Jedur comprehends the chief part of Ituraea. It is bounded on the east by Trachonitis, on the south by Gaulanitis, on the west by Hermon, and on the north by the plain of Damascus.

Ivah
Overturning, a city of the Assyrians, whence colonists were brought to Samaria (2 Kings 18:34; 19:13). It lay on the Euphrates, between Sepharvaim and Henah, and is supposed by some to have been the Ahava of Ezra (8:15).

Ivory
(Heb. pl. shenhabbim, the |tusks of elephants|) was early used in decorations by the Egyptians, and a great trade in it was carried on by the Assyrians (Ezek.27:6; Rev.18:12). It was used by the Phoenicians to ornament the box-wood rowing-benches of their galleys, and Hiram's skilled workmen made Solomon's throne of ivory (1 Kings 10:18). It was brought by the caravans of Dedan (Isa.21:13), and from the East Indies by the navy of Tarshish (1 Kings 10:22). Many specimens of ancient Egyptian and Assyrian ivory-work have been preserved. The word habbim is derived from the Sanscrit ibhas, meaning |elephant,| preceded by the Hebrew article (ha); and hence it is argued that Ophir, from which it and the other articles mentioned in 1 Kings 10:22 were brought, was in India.

Izhar
Oil, one of the sons of Kohath, and grandson of Levi (Ex.6:18, 21; Num.16:1).

Izrahite
The designation of one of David's officers (1 Chr.27:8).

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