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The Seven Ecumenical Councils - Philip Schaff

Title Page


General Introduction. I. Method of Treatment.

II. Concerning Ecumenical Councils in General.

III. The Number of the Ecumenical Synods.

Bibliographical Introduction.

Appended Note on the Eastern Editions of Synodical Literature.

Bibliograficeskij Ukazatel' Pecatnyh Izdanij Apostol'skih I Sobornyh Pravil Na Slavjanskom I Russkom Jazykah.

A Bibliographical Index of the Printed Editions of the Canons of the Apostles and of the Councils in the Slavonic and Russian Languages.

Excursus on the History of the Roman Law and Its Relation to the Canon Law.

The First Ecumenical Council. The First Council of Nice.

Historical Introduction.

The Nicene Creed.

Excursus on the Word Homousios.

Excursus on the Words gennethenta ou poiethenta .

The Canons of the 318 Holy Fathers Assembled in the City of Nice, in Bithynia. Canon I.

Excursus on the Use of the Word |Canon.|

Canon II. Forasmuch as, either from necessity, or through the urgency of individualsà

Canon III. The great Synod has stringently forbidden any bishop, presbyterà

Canon IV. It is by all means proper that a bishop should be appointed by all theà

Canon V. Concerning those, whether of the clergy or of the laityà

Excursus on the Word Prospherein .

Canon VI. Let the ancient customs in Egypt, Libya and Pentapolis prevailà

Excursus on the Extent of the Jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome Over the Suburbican Churches.

Canon VII. Since custom and ancient tradition have prevailed that the Bishop of Ælia i.à

Excursus on the Rise of the Patriarchate of Jerusalem.

Canon VIII. Concerning those who call themselves Cathari, if they come over to the Catholic and Apostolicà

Excursus on the Chorepiscopi.

Canon IX. If any presbyters have been advanced without examination, or if upon examination they have madeà

Canon X. If any who have lapsed have been ordained through the ignoranceà

Canon XI. Concerning those who have fallen without compulsion, without the spoiling of their propertyà

Excursus on the Public Discipline or Exomologesis of the Early Church.

Canon XII. As many as were called by grace, and displayed the first zealà

Canon XIII. Concerning the departing, the ancient canonical law is still to be maintainedà

Excursus on the Communion of the Sick.

Canon XIV. Concerning catechumens who have lapsed, the holy and great Synod has decreed thatà

Canon XV. On account of the great disturbance and discords that occurà

Excursus on the Translation of Bishops.

Canon XVI. Neither presbyters, nor deacons, nor any others enrolled among the clergyà

Canon XVII. Forasmuch as many enrolled among the Clergy, following covetousness and lust of gainà

Excursus on Usury.

Canon XVIII. It has come to the knowledge of the holy and great Synod thatà

Canon XIX. Concerning the Paulianists who have flown for refuge to the Catholic Churchà

Excursus on the Deaconess of the Early Church.

Canon XX. Forasmuch as there are certain persons who kneel on the Lord's Day and in theà

Excursus on the Number of the Nicene Canons.

The Captions of the Arabic Canons Attributed to the Council of Nice.

Proposed Action on Clerical Celibacy.

The Synodal Letter.

On the Keeping of Easter.

Excursus on the Subsequent History of the Easter Question.

Introductory Note to the Canons of the Provincial Synods which in this

The Council of Ancyra.

Historical Note.

The Canons of the Council of Ancyra.

Canon I. With regard to those presbyters who have offered sacrifices and afterwards returned to the conflictà

Canon II. It is likewise decreed that deacons who have sacrificed and afterwards resumed the conflictà

Canon III. Those who have fled and been apprehended, or have been betrayed by their servantsà

Canon IV. Concerning those who have been forced to sacrifice, and whoà

Canon V. As many, however, as went up in mourning attire and sat down and ateà

Canon VI. Concerning those who have yielded merely upon threat of penalties and of the confiscation ofà

Canon VII. Concerning those who have partaken at a heathen feast in a place appointed for heathensà

Canon VIII. Let those who have twice or thrice sacrificed under compulsionà

Canon IX. As many as have not merely apostatized, but have risen against their brethren and forcedà

Canon X. They who have been made deacons, declaring when they were ordained that they must marryà

Canon XI. It is decreed that virgins who have been betrothedà

Canon XII. It is decreed that they who have offered sacrifice before their baptismà

Canon XIII. It is not lawful for Chorepiscopi to ordain presbyters or deaconsà

Canon XIV. It is decreed that among the clergy, presbyters and deacons who abstain from flesh shallà

Canon XV. Concerning things belonging to the church, which presbyters may have sold when there was noà

Canon XVI. Let those who have been or who are guilty of bestial lustsà

Canon XVII. Defilers of themselves with beasts, being also leprous, who have infected others with the leprosyà

Canon XVIII. If any who have been constituted bishops, but have not been received by the parishà

Canon XIX. If any persons who profess virginity shall disregard their professionà

Excursus on Second Marriages, Called Digamy.

Canon XX. If the wife of anyone has committed adultery or if any man commit adultery ità

Canon XXI. Concerning women who commit fornication, and destroy that which they have conceivedà

Canon XXII. Concerning wilful murderers let them remain prostrators; but at the end of life let themà

Canon XXIII. Concerning involuntary homicides, a former decree directs that they be received to full communion afterà

Canon XXIV. They who practice divination, and follow the customs of the heathenà

Canon XXV. One who had betrothed a maiden, corrupted her sisterà

The Council of Neocæsarea.

Historical Note.

The Canons of the Holy and Blessed Fathers Who Assembled at Neocæsarea, Which are Indeed Later in Date Than Those Made at Ancyra, But More Ancient Than the Nicene: However, the Synod of Nice Has Been Placed Before Them on Account of Its Peculiar Dig

Canon I. If a presbyter marry, let him be removed from his orderà

Canon II. If a woman shall have married two brothers, let her be cast out i.à

Canon III. Concerning those who fall into many marriages, the appointed time of penance is well knownà

Canon IV. If any man lusting after a woman purposes to lie with herà

Canon V. If a catechumen coming into the Church have taken his place in the order ofà

Canon VI. Concerning a woman with child, it is determined that she ought to be baptized whensoeverà

Canon VII. A presbyter shall not be a guest at the nuptials of persons contracting a secondà

Canon VIII. If the wife of a layman has committed adultery and been clearly convictedà

Canon IX. A presbyter who has been promoted after having committed carnal sinà

Canon X. Likewise, if a deacon have fallen into the same sinà

Canon XI. Let not a presbyter be ordained before he is thirty years of ageà

Canon XII. If any one be baptized when he is illà

Canon XIII. Country presbyters may not make the oblation in the church of the city when theà

Canon XIV. The chorepiscopi, however, are indeed after the pattern of the Seventyà

Canon XV. The deacons ought to be seven in number, according to the canonà

The Council of Gangra.

Historical Introduction.

Synodical Letter of the Council of Gangra.

The Canons of the Holy Fathers Assembled at Gangra, Which Were Set Forth After the Council of Nice . Canon I.

Canon II. If any one shall condemn him who eats fleshà

Canon III. If any one shall teach a slave, under pretext of pietyà

Canon IV. If any one shall maintain, concerning a married presbyterà

Canon V. If any one shall teach that the house of God and the assemblies held thereinà

Canon VI. If any one shall hold private assemblies outside of the Churchà

Canon VII. If any one shall presume to take the fruits offered to the Churchà

Canon VIII. If anyone, except the bishop or the person appointed for the stewardship of benefactionsà

Canon IX. If any one shall remain virgin, or observe continenceà

Canon X. If any one of those who are living a virgin life for the Lord's sakeà

Canon XI. If anyone shall despise those who out of faith make love-feasts and invite the brethrenà

Canon XII. If any one, under pretence of asceticism, should wear a peribolæum andà

Canon XIII. If any woman, under pretence of asceticism, shall change her apparel andà

Canon XIV. If any woman shall forsake her husband, and resolve to depart from him because sheà

Canon XV. If anyone shall forsake his own children and shall not nurture themà

Canon XVI. If, under any pretence of piety, any children shall forsake their parentsà

Canon XVII. If any woman from pretended asceticism shall cut off her hairà

Canon XVIII. If any one, under pretence of asceticism, shall fast on Sundayà

Canon XIX. If any of the ascetics, without bodily necessity, shall behave with insolence and disregard theà

Canon XX. If any one shall, from a presumptuous disposition, condemn and abhor the assemblies in honour.à


The Synod of Antioch in Encæniis.

Historical Introduction.

The Synodal Letter.

Canon I. Whosoever shall presume to set aside the decree of the holy and great Synod whichà

Canon II. All who enter the church of God and hear the Holy Scripturesà

Canon III. If any presbyter or deacon, or any one whatever belonging to the priesthoodà

Canon IV. If any bishop who has been deposed by a synodà

Canon V. If any presbyter or deacon, despising this own bishopà

Canon VI. If any one has been excommunicated by his own bishopà

Canon VII. No stranger shall be received without letters pacifical.à

Canon VIII. Let not country presbyters give letters canonical, or let them send such letters only toà

Canon IX. It behoves the bishops in every province to acknowledge the bishop who presides in theà

Canon X. The Holy Synod decrees that persons in villages and districtsà

Canon XI. If any bishop, or presbyter, or any one whatever of the canon shall presume toà

Canon XII. If any presbyter or deacon deposed by his own bishopà

Canon XIII. No bishop shall presume to pass from one province to anotherà

Canon XIV. If a bishop shall be tried on any accusationsà

Canon XV. If any bishop, lying under any accusation, shall be judged by all the bishops inà

Canon XVI. If any bishop without a see shall throw himself upon a vacant church and seizeà

Canon XVII. If any one having received the ordination of a bishopà

Canon XVIII. If any bishop ordained to a parish shall not proceed to the parish to whichà

Canon XIX. A bishop shall not be ordained without a synod and the presence of the metropolitanà

Canon XX. With a view to the good of the Church and the settlement of disputesà

Canon XXI. A bishop may not be translated from one parish to anotherà

Canon XXII. Let not a bishop go to a strange cityà

Canon XXIII. It shall not be lawful for a bishop, even at the close of lifeà

Canon XXIV. It is right that what belongs to the Church be preserved with all care toà

Canon XXV. Let the bishop have power over the funds of the Churchà

Synod of Laodicea.

Historical Introduction.

The Canons of the Synod Held in the City of Laodicea, in Phrygia Pacatiana, in which Many Blessed Fathers from Divers Provinces of Asia Were Gathered Together.

Canon I. It is right, according to the ecclesiastical Canon, that the Communion should by indulgence beà

Canon II. They who have sinned in divers particulars, if they have persevered in the prayer ofà

Canon III. He who has been recently baptized ought not to be promoted to the sacerdotal order.à

Canon IV. They who are of the sacerdotal order ought not to lend and receive usuryà

Canon V. Ordinations are not to be held in the presence of hearers.à

Canon VI. It is not permitted to heretics to enter the house of God while they continueà

Canon VII. Persons converted from heresies, that is, of the Novatiansà

Canon VIII. Persons converted from the heresy of those who are called Phrygiansà

Canon IX. The members of the Church are not allowed to meet in the cemeteriesà

Canon X. The members of the Church shall not indiscriminately marry their children to heretics.à

Canon XI. Presbytides, as they are called, or female presidents, are not to be appointed in theà

Canon XII. Bishops are to be appointed to the ecclesiastical government by the judgment of the metropolitansà

Canon XIII. The election of those who are to be appointed to the priesthood is not toà

Canon XIV. The holy things are not to be sent into other dioceses at the feast ofà

Canon XV. No others shall sing in the Church, save only the canonical singersà

Canon XVI. The Gospels are to be read on the Sabbath i.à

Canon XVII. The Psalms are not to be joined together in the congregationsà

Canon XVIII. The same service of prayers is to be said always both at nones and atà

Excursus on the Choir Offices of the Early Church.

Canon XIX. After the sermons of the Bishops, the prayer for the catechumens is to be madeà

Excursus on the Worship of the Early Church.

Canon XX. It is not right for a deacon to sit in the presence of a presbyterà

Canon XXI. The subdeacons have no right to a place in the Diaconicumà

Canon XXII. The subdeacon has no right to wear an orarium i.à

Excursus on the Vestments of the Early Church.

Canon XXIII. The readers and singers have no right to wear an orariumà

Canon XXIV. No one of the priesthood, from presbyters to deaconsà

Excursus on the Minor Orders of the Early Church.

Canon XXV. A subdeacon must not give the Bread, nor bless the Cup.à

Canon XXVI. They who have not been promoted to that office.à

Canon XXVII. Neither they of the priesthood, nor clergymen, nor laymenà

Canon XXVIII. It is not permitted to hold love feasts, as they are calledà

Canon XXIX. Christians must not judaize by resting on the Sabbathà

Canon XXX. None of the priesthood, nor clerics of lower rank.à

Canon XXXI. It is not lawful to make marriages with all sorts of.à

Canon XXXII. It is unlawful to receive the eulogiæ of hereticsà

Canon XXXIII. No one shall join in prayers with heretics or schismatics.à

Canon XXXIV. No Christian shall forsake the martyrs of Christ, and turn to FALSE martyrsà

Canon XXXV. Christians must not forsake the Church of God, and go away and invoke angels andà

Canon XXXVI. They who are of the priesthood, or of the clergyà

Canon XXXVII. It is not lawful to receive portions sent from the feasts of Jews or hereticsà

Canon XXXVIII. It is not lawful to receive unleavened bread from the Jewsà

Canon XXXIX. It is not lawful to feast together with the heathenà

Canon XL. Bishops called to a synod must not be guilty of contemptà

Canon XLI. None of the priesthood nor of the clergy may go on a journeyà

Canon XLII. None of the priesthood nor of the clergy may travel without letters canonical.à

Canon XLIII. The subdeacons may not leave the doors to engage in the prayerà

Canon XLIV. Women may not go to the altar.à

Canon XLV. Candidates. for baptism are not to be received after the second week in Lent.à

Canon XLVI. They who are to be baptized must learn the faith Creed.à

Canon XLVII. They who are baptized in sickness and afterwards recoverà

Canon XLVIII. They who are baptized must after Baptism be anointed with the heavenly chrismà

Canon XLIX. During Lent the Bread must not be offered except on the Sabbath Day and onà

Canon L. The fast must not be broken on the fifth day of the last week inà

Canon LI. The nativities of Martyrs are not to be celebrated in Lentà

Canon LII. Marriages and birthday feasts are not to be celebrated in Lent.à

Canon LIII. Christians, when they attend weddings, must not join in wanton dancesà

Canon LIV. Members of the priesthood and of the clergy must not witness the plays at weddingsà

Canon LV. Neither members of the priesthood nor of the clergyà

Canon LVI. Presbyters may not enter and take their seats in the bema before the entrance ofà

Canon LVII. Bishops must not be appointed in villages or country districtsà

Canon LVIII. The Oblation must not be made by bishops or presbyters in any private houses.à

Canon LIX. No psalms composed by private individuals nor any uncanonical books may be read in theà

Canon LX. These are all the books of Old Testament appointed to be readà

The Second Ecumenical Council. The First Council of Constantinople.

Historical Introduction.

The Holy Creed Which the 150 Holy Fathers Set Forth, Which is Consonant with the Holy and Great Synod of Nice .

Historical Excursus on the Introduction into the Creed of the Words |and the Son.|

Historical Note on the Lost |Tome| of the Second Council.

Letter of the Same Holy Synod to the Most Pious Emperor Theodosius the Great, to Which are Appended the Canons Enacted by Them.

Introduction on the Number of the Canons.

Canons of the One Hundred and Fifty Fathers who assembled at Constantinople during the Consulate of those Illustrious Men, Flavius Eucherius and Flavius Evagrius on the VII of the Ides of July.

Canon I. The Faith of the Three Hundred and Eighteen Fathers assembled at Nice in Bithynia shallà

Excursus on the Heresies Condemned in Canon I.

Canon II. The bishops are not to go beyond their dioceses to churches lying outside of theirà

Canon III. The Bishop of Constantinople, however, shall have the prerogative of honour after the Bishop ofà

Canon IV. Concerning Maximus the Cynic and the disorder which has happened in Constantinople on his accountà

Canon V. Probably adopted at a Council held in Constantinople the next yearà

Canon VI. Probably adopted at a Council held in Constantinople the next yearà

Warning to the Reader Touching Canon VII.

Canon VII. Those who from heresy turn to orthodoxy, and to the portion of those who areà

Excursus on the Authority of the Second Ecumenical Council.

Council of Constantinople.

The Third Ecumenical Council. The Council of Ephesus.

Historical Introduction.

Note on the Emperor's Edict to the Synod.

Extracts from the Acts. Session I.

The Epistle of Cyril to Nestorius.

Extracts from the Acts. Session I. (Continued).

Historical Introduction to St. Cyril's Anathematisms.

The Epistle of Cyril to Nestorius with the XII. Anathematisms.

The XII. Anathematisms of St. Cyril Against Nestorius.

Excursus on the Word Theotokos .




V. If anyone shall dare to say that the Christ is a Theophorus that isà

VI. If anyone shall dare say that the Word of God the Father is the Godà

VII. If anyone shall say that Jesus as man is only energized by the Word ofà

VIII. If anyone shall dare to say that the assumed man analephthenta ought to beà


Excursus on How Our Lord Worked Miracles.

X. Whosoever shall say that it is not the divine Word himselfà

XI. Whosoever shall not confess that the flesh of the Lord giveth life and that ità

XII. Whosoever shall not recognize that the Word of God suffered in the fleshà

Extracts from the Acts. Session I. (Continued).

Decree of the Council Against Nestorius.

Extracts from the Acts. Session II.

The Letter of Pope Coelestine to the Synod of Ephesus.

Extracts from the Acts. Session II. (Continued.)

Extracts from the Acts. Session III.

The Canons of the Two Hundred Holy and Blessed Fathers Who Met at Ephesus.

Canon I. Whereas it is needful that they who were detained from the holy Synod and remainedà

Excursus on the Conciliabulum of John of Antioch.

Canon II. If any provincial bishops were not present at the holy Synod and have joined orà

Canon III. If any of the city or country clergy have been inhibited by Nestorius or hisà

Canon IV. If any of the clergy should fall away, and publicly or privately presume to maintainà

Excursus on Pelagianism.

Canon V. If any have been condemned for evil practices by the holy Synodà

Canon VI. Likewise, if any should in any way attempt to set aside the orders in eachà

Canon VII. When these things had been read, the holy Synod decreed that it is unlawful forà

Excursus on the Words pistin heperan

Canon VIII. Our brother bishop Rheginus, the beloved of God, and his fellow beloved of God bishopsà

The Letter of the Same Holy Synod of Ephesus, to the Sacred Synod in Pamphylia Concerning Eustathius Who Had Been Their Metropolitan.

The Letter of the Synod to Pope Celestine.

The Definition of the Holy and Ecumenical Synod of Ephesus Against the Impious Messalians Who are Also Called Euchetæ and Enthusiasts.

Note on the Messalians or Massalians.

Decree of the Synod in the Matter of Euprepius and Cyril.

The Fourth Ecumenical Council. The Council of Chalcedon.

General Introduction.

Extracts from the Acts. Session I.

Extracts from the Acts. Session II.

The Letter of Cyril to John of Antioch.

Extracts from the Acts. Session II. (Continued).

The Tome of St. Leo.

Extracts from the Acts. Session II. (continued).

Session III.

The Condemnation Sent by the Holy and Ecumenical Synod to Dioscorus.

Extracts from the Acts. Session IV.

Session V.

The Definition of Faith of the Council of Chalcedon.

Extracts from the Acts. Session VI.

Decree on the Jurisdiction of Jerusalem and Antioch.

The Decree with Regard to the Bishop of Ephesus.

Decree with Regard to Nicomedia.

The XXX Canons of the Holy and Fourth Synods, of Chalcedon. Canon I.

Canon II. If any Bishop should ordain for money, and put to sale a grace which cannotà

Canon III. It has come to the knowledge of. the holy Synod that certain of those whoà

Canon IV. Let those who truly and sincerely lead the monastic life be counted worthy of becomingà

Canon V. Concerning bishops or clergymen who go about from city to cityà

Canon VI. Neither presbyter, deacon, nor any of the ecclesiastical order shall be ordained at largeà

Canon VII. We have decreed that those who have once been enrolled among the clergyà

Canon VIII. Let the clergy of the poor-houses, monasteries, and martyries remain under the authority of theà

Canon IX. If any Clergyman have a matter against another clergymanà

Canon X. It shall not be lawful for a clergyman to be at the same time enrolledà

Canon XI. We have decreed that the poor and those needing assistance shall travelà

Canon XII. It has come to our knowledge that certain personsà

Canon XIII. Strange and unknown clergymen without letters commendatory from their own Bishopà

Canon XIV. Since in certain provinces it is permitted to the readers and singers to marryà

Canon XV. A woman shall not receive the laying on of hands as a deaconess under fortyà

Canon XVI. It is not lawful for a virgin who has dedicated herself to the Lord Godà

Canon XVII. Outlying or rural parishes shall in every province remain subject to the bishops who nowà

Canon XVIII. The crime of conspiracy or banding together is utterly prohibited even by the secular lawà

Canon XIX. Whereas it has come to our ears that in the provinces the Canonical Synods ofà

Canon XX. It shall not be lawful, as we have already decreedà

Canon XXI. Clergymen and laymen bringing charges against bishops or clergymen are not to be received looselyà

Canon XXII. It is not lawful for clergymen, after the death of their bishopà

Canon XXIII. It has come to the hearing of the holy Synod that certain clergymen and monksà

Canon XXIV. Monasteries, which have once been consecrated with the consent of the bishopà

Canon XXV. Forasmuch as certain of the metropolitans, as we have heardà

Canon XXVI. Forasmuch as we have heard that in certain churches the bishops managed the church-business withoutà

Canon XXVII. The holy Synod has decreed that those who forcibly carry off women under pretence ofà

Canon XXVIII. Following in all things the decisions of the holy Fathersà

Excursus on the Later History of Canon XXVIII.

Canon XXIX. It is sacrilege to degrade a bishop to the rank of a presbyterà

Canon XXX. Since the most religious bishops of Egypt have postponed for the present their subscription toà

Extracts from the Acts. Session XVI.

The Fifth Ecumenical Council. The Second Council of Constantinople.

Historical Introduction.

Excursus on the Genuineness of the Acts of the Fifth Council.

Extracts from the Acts. Session I.

Extracts from the Acts. Session VII.

The Sentence of the Synod.

The Capitula of the Council.

Excursus on the XV. Anathemas Against Origen.

The Anathemas Against Origen.

The Anathematisms of the Emperor Justinian Against Origen.

The Decretal Epistle of Pope Vigilius in Confirmation of the Fifth Ecumenical Synod.

The Decretal Letter of Pope Vigilius.

Historical Excursus on the After History of the Council.

Third Council of Constantinople.

Historical Introduction.

Extracts from the Acts. Session I.

The Letter of Agatho, Pope of Old Rome, to the Emperor, and the Letter of Agatho and of 125 Bishops of the Roman Synod, Addressed to the Sixth Council.

The Letter of Pope Agatho.

The Letter of Agatho and of the Roman Synod of 125 Bishops which was to Serve as an Instruction to the Legates Sent to Attend the Sixth Synod.

Extracts from the Acts. Session VIII.

The Sentence Against the Monothelites.

Session XVI.

The Definition of Faith.

The Prosphoneticus to the Emperor.

Letter of the Council to St. Agatho.

Excursus on the Condemnation of Pope Honorius.

The Imperial Edict Posted in the Third Atrium of the Great Church Near What is Called Dicymbala.

The Canons of the Council in Trullo; Often Called The Quinisext Council.

Introductory Note.

The Canons of the Council in Trullo. (Labbe and Cossart, Concilia, Tom. VI., col. 1135 et seqq.) Canon I.

Canon II. It has also seemed good to this holy Councilà

Canon III. Since our pious and Christian Emperor has addressed this holy and ecumenical councilà

Canon IV. If any bishop, presbyter, deacon, sub-deacon, lector, cantor, or door-keeper has had intercourse with aà

Canon V. Let none of those who are on the priestly list possess any woman or maidà

Canon VI. Since it is declared in the apostolic canons that of those who are advanced toà

Excursus on the Marriage of the Clergy.

Canon VII. Since we have learned that in some churches deacons hold ecclesiastical officesà

Canon VIII. Since we desire that in every point the things which have been decreed by ourà

Canon IX. Let no cleric be permitted to keep a |public house.à

Canon X. A bishop, or presbyter, or deacon who receives usuryà

Canon XI. Let no one in the priestly order nor any layman eat the unleavened bread ofà

Canon XII. Moreover this also has come to our knowledge, that in Africa and Libya and inà

Canon XIII. Since we know it to be handed down as a rule of the Roman Churchà

Canon XIV. Let the canon of our holy God-bearing Fathers be confirmed in this particular alsoà

Canon XV. A subdeacon is not to be ordained under twenty years of age.à

Canon XVI. Since the book of the Acts tells us that seven deacons were appointed by theà

Canon XVII. Since clerics of different churches have left their own churches in which they were ordainedà

Canon XVIII. Those clerics who in consequence of a barbaric incursion or on account of any otherà

Canon XIX. It behoves those who preside over the churches, every day but especially on Lord's daysà

Canon XX. It shall not be lawful for a bishop to teach publicly in any city whichà

Canon XXI. Those who have become guilty of crimes against the canonsà

Canon XXII. Those who are ordained for money, whether bishops or of any rank whateverà

Canon XXIII. That no one, whether bishop, presbyter, or deacon, when giving the immaculate Communionà

Canon XXIV. No one who is on the priestly catalogue nor any monk is allowed to takeà

Canon XXV. Moreover we renew the canon which orders that country agroikikas parishes and those which areà

Canon XXVI. If a presbyter has through ignorance contracted an illegal marriageà

Canon XXVII. None of those who are in the catalogue of the clergy shall wear clothes unsuitedà

Canon XXVIII. Since we understand that in several churches grapes are brought to the altarà

Canon XXIX. A canon of the Synod of Carthage says that the holy mysteries of the altarà

Canon XXX. Willing to do all things for the edification of the Churchà

Canon XXXI. Clerics who in oratories which are in houses offer the Holy Mysteries or baptizeà

Canon XXXII. Since it has come to our knowledge that in the region of Armenia they offerà

Canon XXXIII. Since we know that, in the region of the Armeniansà

Canon XXXIV. But in future, since the priestly canon openly sets this forthà

Canon XXXV. It shall be lawful for no Metropolitan on the death of a bishop of hisà

Canon XXXVI. Renewing the enactments by the 150 Fathers assembled at the God-protected and imperial cityà

Canon XXXVII. Since at different times there have been invasions of barbariansà

Canon XXXVIII. The canon which was made by the Fathers we also observeà

Canon XXXIX. Since our brother and fellow-worker, John, bishop of the island of Cyprusà

Canon XL. Since to cleave to God by retiring from the noise and turmoil of life isà

Canon XLI. Those who in town or in villages wish to go away into cloistersà

Canon XLII. Those who are called Eremites and are clothed in black robesà

Canon XLIII. It is lawful for every Christian to choose the life of religious disciplineà

Canon XLIV. A monk convicted of fornication, or who takes a wife for the communion of matrimonyà

Canon XLV. Whereas we understand that in some monasteries of women those who are about to beà

Canon XLVI. Those women who choose the ascetic life and are settled in monasteries may by noà

Canon XLVII. No woman may sleep in a monastery of menà

Canon XLVIII. The wife of him who is advanced to the Episcopal dignityà

Canon XLIX. Renewing also the holy canon, we decree that the monasteries which have been once consecratedà

Canon L. No one at all, whether cleric or layman, is from this time forward to playà

Canon LI. This holy and ecumenical synod altogether forbids those who are called |playersà

Canon LII. On all days of the holy fast of Lentà

Canon LIII. Whereas the spiritual relationship is greater than fleshly affinityà

Canon LIV. The divine scriptures plainly teach us as follows, |Thou shalt not approach to any thatà

Canon LV. Since we understand that in the city of the Romansà

Canon LVI. We have likewise learned that in the regions of Armenia and in other places certainà

Canon LVII. It is not right to offer honey and milk on the altar.à

Canon LVIII. None of those who are in the order of laymen may distribute the Divine Mysteriesà

Canon LIX. Baptism is by no means to be administered in an oratory which is within aà

Canon LX. Since the Apostle exclaims that he who cleaves to the Lord is one spirità

Canon LXI. Those who give themselves up to soothsayers or to those who are called hecatontarchs orà

Canon LXII. The so-called Calends, and what are called Bota and Brumaliaà

Canon LXIII. We forbid to be publicly read in Church, histories of the martyrs which have beenà

Canon LXIV. It does not befit a layman to dispute or teach publiclyà

Canon LXV. The fires which are lighted on the new moons by some before their shops andà

Canon LXVI. From the holy day of the Resurrection of Christ our God until the next Lord'sà

Canon LXVII. The divine Scripture commands us to abstain from bloodà

Canon LXVIII. It is unlawful for anyone to corrupt or cut up a book of the Oldà

Canon LXIX. It is not permitted to a layman to enter the sanctuary Holy Altarà

Canon LXX. Women are not permitted to speak at the time of the Divine Liturgyà

Canon LXXI. Those who are taught the civil laws must not adopt the customs of the Gentilesà

Canon LXXII. An orthodox man is not permitted to marry an heretical womanà

Canon LXXIII. Since the life-giving cross has shewn to us Salvationà

Canon LXXIV. It is not permitted to hold what are called Agapæà

Canon LXXV. We will that those whose office it is to sing in the churches do notà

Canon LXXVI. It is not right that those who are responsible for reverence to churches should placeà

Canon LXXVII. It is not right that those who are dedicated to religionà

Canon LXXVIII. It behoves those who are illuminated to learn the Creed by heart and to reciteà

Canon LXXIX. As we confess the divine birth of the Virgin to be without any childbedà

Canon LXXX. If any bishop, or presbyter, or deacon, or any of those who are enumerated inà

Canon LXXXI. Whereas we have heard that in some places in the hymn Trisagion there is addedà

Canon LXXXII. In some pictures of the venerable icons, a lamb is painted to which the Precursorà

Canon LXXXIII. No one may give the Eucharist to the bodies of the deadà

Canon LXXXIV. Following the canonical laws of the Fathers, we decree concerning infantsà

Canon LXXXV. We have received from the Scriptures that in the mouth of two or three witnessesà

Canon LXXXVI. Those who to the destruction of their own souls procure and bring up harlotsà

Canon LXXXVII. She who has left her husband is an adulteress if she has come to anotherà

Canon LXXXVIII. No one may drive any beast into a church except perchance a travellerà

Canon LXXXIX. The faithful spending the days of the Salutatory Passion in fastingà

Canon XC. We have received from our divine Fathers the canon law that in honour of Christ'sà

Canon XCI. Those who give drugs for procuring abortion, and those who receive poisons to kill theà

Canon XCII. The holy synod decrees that those who in the name of marriage carry off womenà

Canon XCIII. If the wife of a man who has gone away and does not appearà

Canon XCIV. The canon subjects to penalties those who take heathen oathsà

Canon XCV. Those who from the heretics come over to orthodoxyà

Canon XCVI. Those who by baptism have put on Christ have professed that they will copy hisà

Canon XCVII. Those who have commerce with a wife or in any other manner without regard theretoà

Canon XCVIII. He who brings to the intercourse of marriage a woman who is betrothed to anotherà

Canon XCIX. We have further learned that, in the regions of the Armeniansà

Canon C. |Let thine eyes behold the thing which is rightà

Canon CI. The great and divine Apostle Paul with loud voice calls man created in the imageà

Canon CII. It behoves those who have received from God the power to loose and bindà

The Canons of the Synods of Sardica, Carthage, Constantinople, and Carthage

Introductory Note.

The Council of Sardica.

Introduction on the Date of the Council.

Note on the Text of the Canons.

The Canons of the Council of Sardica.

Canon I. Hosius, bishop of the city of Corduba, said: A prevalent evilà

Canon II. Bishop Hosius said: But if any such person should be found so mad or audaciousà

Canon III. Bishop Hosius said: This also it is necessary to addà

Canon IV. Bishop Gaudentius said: If it seems good to youà

Canon V. Bishop Hosius said: Decreed, that if any bishop is accusedà

Canon VI. Bishop Hosius said: If it happen that in a province in which there are veryà

Canon VII. Bishop Hosius said: Our importunity and great pertinacity and unjust petitions have brought it aboutà

Canon VIII. Bishop Hosius said: This also let your sagacity determineà

Canon IX. Bishop Hosius said: This also, I think, follows, thatà

Canon X. Bishop Hosius said: This also I think necessary.à

Canon XI. Bishop Hosius said: This also we ought to decreeà

Canon XII. Bishop Hosius said: Since no case should be left unprovided forà

Canon XIII. Bishop Hosius said: Be this also the pleasure of all.à

Canon XIV. Bishop Hosius said: I must not fail to speak of a matter which constantly urgethà

Canon XV. Bishop Hosius said: And let us all decree this alsoà

Canon XVI. Bishop Aëtius said: Ye are not ignorant how important and how large is the metropolitanà

Canon XVII. At the suggestion moreover of our brother Olympius, we are pleased to decree this alsoà

Canon XVIII. Bishop Gaudentius said: Thou knowest, brother Aëtius, that since thou wast made bishopà

Canon XIX. Bishop Hosius said: This is the sentence of my mediocrity i.à

Canon XX. Bishop Gaudentius said: These things wholesomely, duly, and fitly decreedà

Excursus on the Other Acts of the Council.

Excursus as to Whether the Sardican Council Was Ecumenical.

The Canons of the CCXVII Blessed Fathers who assembled at Carthage. Commonly Called The Code of Canons of the African Church.

Introductory Note.

An Ancient Introduction.

The Canons of the 217 Blessed Fathers who assembled at Carthage.

Canon I. That the statutes of the Nicene Council are to be scrupulously observed.à

Canon II. Of Preaching the Trinity.à

Canon III. Of Continence.à

Canon IV. Of the different orders that should abstain from their wives.à

Canon V. Of Avarice.à

Canon VI. That the chrism should not be made by presbyters.à

Canon VII. Concerning those who are reconciled in peril of death.à

Canon VIII. Of those who make accusation against an elder; and that no criminal is to beà

Canon IX. Of those who on account of their deeds are justly cast forth from the congregationà

Canon X. Of presbyters who are corrected by their own bishops.à

Canon XI. If any presbyter, inflated against his bishop, makes a schismà

Canon XII. If any bishop out of Synod time shall have fallen under accusationà

Canon XIII. That a bishop should not be ordained except by many bishopsà

Canon XIV. That one of the bishops of Tripoli should come as legateà

Canon XV. Of the divers orders who serve the Church, that if any one fall into aà

Canon XVI. That no bishop, presbyter or deacon should be a |conductorà

Canon XVII. That any province on account of its distance, may have its own Primate.à

Canon XVIII. (Gk. xviii. The Latin caption is the canon of the Greek.) If any cleric is ordained he ought to be admonished to observe the constitutions.

Canon XIX. (Greek xxii.) That if any bishop is accused the cause should be brought before the primate of his own province.

Canon XX. (Greek xxiii.) Of accused presbyters or clerks.

Canon XXI. (Greek xxiv.) That the sons of clergymen are not to be joined in marriage with heretics.

Canon XXII. (Greek xxv.) That bishops or other clergymen shall give nothing to those who are not Catholics.

Canon XXIII. (Greek xxvi.) That bishops shall not go across seas.

Canon XXIV. (Greek xxvii.) That nothing be read in church besides the Canonical Scripture.

Canon XXV. (Greek xxviii.) Concerning bishops and the lower orders who wait upon the most holy mysteries. It has seemed good that these abstain from their wives.

Canon XXVI. (Greek xxix.) That no one should take from the possessions of the Church.

Canon XXVII. (Greek xxx.) Presbyters and deacons convicted of the graver crimes shall not receive laying on of hands, like laymen.

Canon XXVIII. (Greek xxxi.) Presbyters, deacons, or clerics, who shall think good to carry appeals in their causes across the water shall not at all be admitted to communion.

Canon XXIX. (Greek xxxii.) If anyone who is excommunicated shall receive communion before his cause is heard he brings damnation on himself.

Canon XXX. (Greek xxxiii.) Concerning the accused or accuser.

Canon XXXI. (Greek xxxiv.) If certain clerics advanced by their own bishops are supercilious, let them not remain whence they are unwilling to come forth.

Canon XXXII. (Greek xxxv.) If any poor cleric, no matter what his rank may be, shall acquire any property, it shall be subject to the power of the bishop.

Canon XXXIII. (Greek xxxvi.) That presbyters should not sell the goods of the Church in which they are constituted; and that no bishop can rightly use anything the title to which vests in the ecclesiastical maternal centre (matrikos).

Canon XXXIV. (Greek xxxvii.) That nothing of those things enacted in the Synod of Hippo is to be corrected.

Canon XXXV. (Greek xxxviii.) That bishops or clergymen should not easily set free their sons.

Canon XXXVI. (Greek xxxix.) That bishops or clergymen are not to be ordained unless they have made all their family Christians.

Canon XXXVII. (Greek xl.) It is not lawful to offer anything in the Holy Mysteries except bread and wine mixed with water.

Canon XXXVIII. (Greek xli.) That clerics or those who are continent shall not visit virgins or widows.

Canon XXXIX. (Greek xlii.) That a bishop should not be called the chief of the priests.

Canon XL. (Greek xliii.) Concerning the non-frequenting of taverns by the clergy, except when travelling.

Canon XLI. (Greek xliv.) That by men who are fasting sacrifices are to be offered to God.

Canon XLII. (Greek xiv.) Concerning the not having feasts under any circumstances in churches.

Canon XLIII. (Greek xlvi.) Concerning penitents.

Canon XLIV. (Greek xlvii.) Concerning Virgins.

Canon XLV. (Greek xlviii.) Concerning those who are sick and cannot answer for themselves.

Canon XLVI. (Greek l.) Concerning the passions of the martyrs.

Canon XLVII. (Greek li.) Concerning [the Donatists and ] the children baptized by the Donatists.

Canon XLVIII. (Greek lii.) Of rebaptisms, reordinations, and translations of bishops.

Canon XLIX. (Greek liii.) How many bishops there should be to ordain a bishop.

Canon L. (Greek liv.) How many bishops should be added to the number of those ordaining, if any opposition had been made to the one to be ordained.

Canon LI. (Greek lv.) That the date of Easter is to be announced by the Church of Carthage.

Canon LII. (Greek lvi.) Of visiting provinces.

Canon LIII. (Greek lvii.) That dioceses should not receive a bishop except by the consent of its own bishop.

Canon LIV. (Greek lviii.) That a strange cleric is under no circumstances to be received by another.

Canon LV. (Greek lix.) That it be lawful for the bishop of Carthage to ordain a cleric whenever he wishes.

Canon LVI. (Greek lx.) That bishops who were ordained for dioceses shall not choose for themselves dioceses [in the Greek provinces].

Canon LVII. (Greek lxi.) That persons baptized when children by the Donatists may be ordained clergymen in the Catholic Church.

Canon LVIII. (Greek lxii.) Of the remaining idols or temples which should be done away by the Emperors.

Canon LIX. (Greek lxiii.) That clerics be not compelled to give testimony in public concerning the cognizance of their own judgment.

Canon LX. (Greek lxiii.) Of heathen feasts.

Canon LXI. (Greek lxiv.) Of spectacles, that they be not celebrated on Lord's days nor on the festivals of the Saints.

Canon LXII. (Greek lxv.) Of condemned clerics.

Canon LXIII. (Greek lxvi.) Of players who have become Christians.

Canon LXIV. (Greek lxvii.) Of celebrating manumissions in church, that permission be asked from the Emperor.

Canon LXV. (Greek lxviii.) Concerning the condemned bishop Equitius.

Canon LXVI. (Greek lxix.) That the Donatists are to be treated leniently.

Canon LXVII. (Greek lxx.) Of the letters to be sent to the judges, that they may take note of the things done between the Donatists and the Maximianists.

Canon LXVIII. (Greek lxxi.) That the Donatist clergy are to be received into the Catholic Church as clergymen.

Canon LXIX. (Greek lxxii.) That a legation be sent to the Donatists for the sake of making peace.

Canon LXX. (Greek lxxiii.) What clerics should abstain from their wives.

Canon LXXI. (Greek lxxiv.) Of those who leave in neglect their own people.

Canon LXXII. (Greek lxxv.) Of the baptism of infants when there is some doubt of their being already baptized.

Canon LXXIII. (Greek lxxvi.) The date of Easter and the date of the Council should be announced.

Canon LXXIV. (Greek lxxvii.) That no bishop who is an intercessor is to hold the see where he is intercessor.

Canon LXXV. (Greek lxxviii.) Of asking from the Emperors defenders of the Churches.

Canon LXXVI. (Greek lxxix.) Of bishops who do not put in an appearance at Council.

Canon LXXVII. (Greek lxxx.) Of Cresconius.

Canon LXXVIII. (Greek lxxxi.) Of the Church of Hippo-Diarrhytus.

Canon LXXIX. (Greek lxxxii.) Of clerics who do not take care to have their causes argued within a year.

Canon LXXX. (Greek lxxxiii.) That it is not permitted to make superiors of monasteries nor to ordain as clerics those who are received from a monastery not one's own.

Canon LXXXI. (Greek lxxxiv.) Of bishops who appoint heretics or heathens as their heirs.

Canon LXXXII. (Greek lxxxv.) Of manumissions.

Canon LXXXIII. (Greek lxxxvi.) Of false Memories of Martyrs.

Canon LXXXIV. (Greek lxxxvii.) Of extirpating the remains of the idols.

Canon LXXXV. (Greek lxxxviii.) That by the bishop of Carthage, when there shall be need, letters shall be written and subscribed in the name of all the bishops.

Canon LXXXVI. (Greek lxxxix.) Of the order of bishops, that those ordained more recently do not dare to take precedence of those ordained before them.

Canon LXXXVII. (Greek xc.) Concerning Quodvultdeus, the bishop.

Canon LXXXVIII. (Greek xci.) Of Maximian, the bishop.

Canon LXXXIX. (Greek xcii.) That bishops who are ordained shall receive letters from their ordainers bearing the date and the name of the consul.

Canon XC. (Greek xciii.) Of those who have once read in church, that they cannot be advanced by others.

Canon XCI. (Greek xciv.) Of holding meetings with the Donatists.

Canon XCII. (Greek xcv.) Form of convening the Donatists.

Canon XCIII. (Greek xcvi.) The character of the Commonitory which the legates received against the Donatists.

Canon XCIV. (Greek xcvii.) Summary of Chapters.

Canon XCV. (Greek xcviii.) An universal council to be held only when necessary.

Canon XCVI. (Greek xcix.) That from judges who have been chosen, no appeals may be taken.

Canon XCVII. (Greek c.) That there be sought from the Emperor the protection of Advocates in causes ecclesiastical.

Canon XCVIII. (Greek cii.) Of the peoples which never had bishops.

Canon XCIX. (Greek ciii.) Of people or dioceses returned from the Donatists.

Canon C. (Greek civ.) Of the suggestion of Bishop Maurentius.

Canon CI. (Greek civ. bis) Of making peace between the Churches of Rome and Alexandria.

Canon CII. (Greek cv.) Of those who put away their wives or husbands, that so they remain.

Canon CIII. (Greek cvi.) Of the prayers to be said at the Altar.

Canon CIV. (Greek cvii.) Of these who ask from the Emperor that secular judges may take cognizance of their causes.

Canon CV. (Greek cviii.) Of those who do not communicate in Africa and would go across seas.

Canon CVI. (Greek cix.) That those who are going to carry their case to court should be careful to inform either the bishop of Carthage or the bishop of Rome.

Canon CVII. (Greek cx. continued.) A Council concerning a bishop taking cognizance.

Canon CVIII. (Greek cxii.) Synod against the heresy of Pelagius and Celestius.

Canon CIX. (Greek cxij. continued.) That Adam was not created by God subject to death.

Canon CX. (Greek cxii. bis) That infants are baptized for the remission of sins.

Canon CXI. (Greek cxiij.) That the grace of God not only gives remission of sins, but also affords aid that we sin no more.

Canon CXII. (Greek cxiij. continued.) That the grace of Christ gives not only the knowledge of our duty, but also inspires us with a desire that we may be able to accomplish what we know.

Canon CXIII. (Greek cxiiii.) That without the grace of God we can do no good thing.

Canon CXIV. (Greek cxv.) That not only humble but also true is that voice of the Saints: |If we say that we have no sin we deceive ourselves.|

Canon CXV. (Greek cxvi.) That in the Lord's Prayer the Saints say for themselves: |Forgive us our trespasses.|

Canon CXVI. (Greek cxvii.) That the Saints say with accuracy, |Forgive us our trespasses.|

Canon CXVII. (Greek cxviii.) Of peoples converted from the Donatists.

Canon CXVIII. (Greek cxix.) How bishops as well Catholic as those who have been converted from the Donatists are to divide between themselves the dioceses.

Canon CXIX. (Greek cxx.) That if a bishop shall possess a diocese which he has snatched from heresy for three years, no one may take it from him.

Canon CXX. (Greek cxxi.) Of those who intrude upon peoples which they think belong to them, without the consent of those by whom they are held.

Canon CXXI. (Greek cxxii.) Of those who neglect the peoples belonging to them.

Canon CXXII. (Greek cxxiii.) The sentence of the elected judges ought not to be spurned.

Canon CXXIII. (Greek cxxiv.) That if a bishop neglects his diocese he is to be deprived of communion.

Canon CXXIV. (Greek cxxv.) Of bishops who shall lie with regard to Donatists' communions.

Canon CXXV. (Greek cxxvi.) That presbyters and clerics are not to appeal except to African Synods.

Canon CXXVI. (Greek cxxvii.) That Virgins, even when minors, should be given the veil.

Canon CXXVII. (Greek cxxviii.) That bishops be not detained too long in council, let them choose three judges from themselves of the singular provinces.

Canon CXXVIII. (Greek cxxix.) That those out of communion should not be allowed to bring accusation.

Canon CXXIX. (Greek cxxx.) That slaves and freedmen and all infamous persons ought not to bring accusation.

Canon CXXX. (Greek cxxxi.) That he who has failed to prove one charge shall not be allowed to give evidence to another.

Canon CXXXI. (Greek CXXXII.) Who should be allowed to give evidence.

Canon CXXXII. (Greek cxxxiii.) Concerning a bishop who removes a man from communion who says he has confessed to the bishop alone his crime.

Canon CXXXIII. (Greek cxxxiv.) That a bishop should not rashly deprive anyone of communion.

Canon CXXXIV. (Continuation of cxxxv. in the Greek.) Here beginneth the letter directed from the whole African Council to Boniface, bishop of the City of Rome, by Faustinus the bishop, and Philip and Asellus the presbyters, legates of the Roman Church.

Canon CXXXV. (Not numbered in the Greek.) Here begin the rescripts to the African Council from Cyril bishop of Alexandria in which he sends the authentic proceedings of the Nicene Council, translated from the Greek by Innocent the presbyter: these letters

Canon CXXXVI. (Not numbered in the Greek but with a new heading.) Here beginneth the letter of Atticus, bishop of Constantinople to the same.

Canon CXXXVII. (Continuation of the last in the Greek.) Here begin the examples of the Nicene Council, sent on the sixth day before the calends of December in the year 419, after the consulate of the most glorious emperor Honorius for the XII^th time, and

Canon CXXXVIII. (Not numbered in the Greek.) Here beginneth the epistle of the African synod to Pope Celestine, bishop of the City of Rome.

Council of Constantinople held under Nectarius.

Introductory Note.

Council of Constantinople Under Nectarius of Constantinople and Theophilus of Alexandria.

The Council of Carthage held under Cyprian.

Introductory Note.

The Synod held at Carthage over which presided the Great and Holy Martyr Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage.

Epistle LXX.

The Seventh Ecumenical Council. The Second Council of Nice.


The Divine Sacra Sent by the Emperors Constantine and Irene to the Most Holy and Most Blessed Hadrian, Pope of Old Rome.

The Imperial Sacra.

Extracts from the Acts. Session I.

Extracts from the Acts. Session II.

Extracts from the Acts. Session III.

Extracts from the Acts. Session IV.

Extracts from the Acts. Session VI.

Epitome of the Definition of the Iconoclastic Conciliabulum held in Constantinople, A.D. 754.

Excursus on the Conciliabulum Styling Itself the Seventh Ecumenical Council, But Commonly Called the Mock Synod of Constantinople.

The Decree of the Holy, Great, Ecumenical Synod, the Second of Nice.

Excursus on the Present Teaching of the Latin and Greek Churches on the Subject.

The Canons of the Holy and Ecumenical Seventh Council. Canon I.

Canon II. That he who is to be ordained a Bishop must be steadfastly resolved to observe the canons, otherwise he shall not be ordained.

Canon III. That it does not pertain to princes to choose a Bishop.

Canon IV. That Bishops are to abstain from all receiving of gifts.

Canon V. That they who cast contumely upon clerics because they have been ordained in the church without bringing a gift with them, are to be published with a fine.

Canon VI. Concerning the holding of a local Synod at the time appointed.

Canon VII. That to churches consecrated without any deposit of the reliques of the Saints, the defect should be made good.

Canon VIII. That Hebrews ought not to be received unless they have been converted in sincerity of heart.

Canon IX. That none of the books containing the heresy of the traducers of the Christians are to be hid.

Canon X. That no cleric ought to leave his diocese and go into another without the knowledge of the Bishop.

Canon XI. That OEconomi ought to be in the Episcopal palaces and in the Monasteries.

Canon XII. That a Bishop or Hegumenos ought not to alienate any part of the suburban estate of the church.

Canon XIII. That they are worthy of special condemnation who turn the monasteries into public houses.

Canon XIV. That no one without ordination ought to read in the ambo during the synaxis.

Canon XV. That a clerk ought not to be set over two churches.

Canon XVI. That it does not become one in holy orders to be clad in costly apparel.

Canon XVII. That he shall not be allowed to begin the building of an oratory, who has not the means wherewith to finish it.

Canon XVIII. That women ought not to live in bishops' houses, nor in monasteries of men.

Canon XIX. That the vows of those in holy orders and of monks, and of nuns are to be made without the exaction of gifts.

Canon XX. That from henceforth, no double monastery shall be erected; and concerning the double monasteries already in existence.

Canon XXI. That monks are not to leave their monasteries and go into others.

Canon XXII. That when it happens that monks have to eat with women they ought to observe giving of thanks, and abstemiousness, and discretion.

The Letter of the Synod to the Emperor and Empress.

Excursus on the Two Letters of Gregory II. To the Emperor Leo.

Excursus on the Reception of the Seventh Council.

Examination of the Caroline Books.

II. Authority of the Caroline Books.

III. Contents of the Caroline Books.

IV. The Chief Cause of Trouble a Logomachy.

Excursus on the Council of Frankfort, a.d. 794.

Excursus on the Convention said to have been held in Paris, a.d. 825.

Historical Note on the So-Called |Eighth General Council| and Subsequent Councils.

Appendix containing Canons and Rulings not having Conciliar Origin but Approved by Name in Canon II. of the Synod in Trullo.

Prefatory Note.

The Apostolical Canons.

The Canons of the Holy and Altogether August Apostles.

I. The Letter of the Blessed Dionysius, the Archbishop of Alexandria to Basilides the Bishop who made Enquiries on Various Subjects, to which Dionysius made Answer in this Epistle, which Answers have been received as Canons.

II. The Canons of the Blessed Peter, Archbishop of Alexandria, and Martyr, which are found in his Sermon on Penitence.

III. The Canonical Epistle of St. Gregory, Archbishop of Neocæsarea, who is called Thaumaturgus, concerning Them that, During the Incursion of the Barbarians, Ate of Things Offered to Idols and Committed Certain Other Sins.

IV. The Epistle of St. Athanasius to the Monk Ammus.

The Epistle of the Same Athanasius Taken from the XXXIX. Festal Epistle.

The Epistle of St. Athanasius to Ruffinian.

V. The First Canonical Epistle of Our Holy Father Basil, Archbishop of Cæsarea in Cappadocia to Amphilochius, Bishop of Iconium.

The Second Canonical Epistle of the Same.

The Third Epistle of the Same to the Same.

From an Epistle of the Same to the Blessed Amphilochius on the Difference of Meats.

Of the Same to Diodorus Bishop of Tarsus, concerning a Man who had taken Two Sisters to Wife.

Of the Same to Gregory a Presbyter, that He Should Separate from a Woman who Dwelt with Him.

Of the Same to the Chorepiscopi, that No Ordinations Should Be Made Contrary to the Canons.

Of the Same to His Suffragans that They Should Not Ordain for Money.

From Chapter XVII. of the Book St. Basil Wrote to Blessed Amphilochius on the Holy Ghost.

From the Letter of Basil the Great to the Nicopolitans.

VI. The Canonical Epistle of St. Gregory, Bishop of Nyssa, to St. Letoïus, Bishop of Melitene.

VII. From the Metre Poems of St. Gregory Theologus, Specifying which Books of the Old and New Testament Should Be Read.

VIII. From the Iambics of St. Amphilochius the Bishop to Seleucus, on the Same Subject.

IX. The Canonical Answers of Timothy the Most Holy Bishop of Alexandria, Who was One of the CL Fathers Gathered Together at Constantinople, to the Questions Proposed to Him concerning Bishops and Clerics.

X. The Prosphonesus of Theophilus, Archbishop of Alexandria, When the Holy Epiphanies Happened to Fall on a Sunday.

The Commonitory of the Same which Ammon Received on Account of Lycus.

Of the Same to Agatho the Bishop.

Of the Same to Menas the Bishop.

The Narrative of the Same concerning Those Called Cathari.


Of the Same to the Bishops of Libya and Pentapolis.


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