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Anti-pelagian Writings - St. Augustine

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preface to the american edition

Preface to the American Edition.

introductory essay on augustin and the pelagian controversy.

A Select Bibliography of the Pelagian Controversy.

Introductory Essay on Augustin and the Pelagian Controversy.

I. The Origin and Nature of Pelagianism.

II. The External History of the Pelagian Controversy.

III. Augustin's Part in the Controversy.

IV. The Theology of Grace.

Dedication of Volume I. Of the Edinburgh Edition.

Dedication of Volume II. Of the Edinburgh Edition.

Preface to Volume I. Of the Edinburgh Edition.

Preface to Volume II. Of the Edinburgh Edition.

a treatise on the merits and forgiveness of sins, and on the baptism of infants.

A Treatise on the Merits and Forgiveness of Sins, and on the Baptism of Infants

Chapter 1 [I.]--Introductory, in the Shape of an Inscription to His Friend Marcellinus.

Chapter 2 [II.]--If Adam Had Not Sinned, He Would Never Have Died.

Chapter 3 [III.]--It is One Thing to Be Mortal, Another Thing to Be Subject to Death.

Chapter 4 [IV.]--Even Bodily Death is from Sin.

Chapter 5 [V.] --The Words, Mortale (Capable of Dying), Mortuum (Dead), and Moriturus (Destined to Die).

Chapter 6 [VI.]--How It is that the Body Dead Because of Sin.

Chapter 7 [VII.]--The Life of the Body the Object of Hope, the Life of the Spirit Being a Prelude to It.

Chapter 8 [VIII.]--Bodily Death from Adam's Sin.

Chapter 9 [IX.]--Sin Passes on to All Men by Natural Descent, and Not Merely by Imitation.

Chapter 10.--The Analogy of Grace.

Chapter 11 [X.]--Distinction Between Actual and Original Sin.

Chapter 12.--The Law Could Not Take Away Sin.

Chapter 13 [XI.]--Meaning of the Apostle's Phrase |The Reign of Death.|

Chapter 14.--Superabundance of Grace.

Chapter 15 [XII.]--The One Sin Common to All Men.

Chapter 16 [XIII.]--How Death is by One and Life by One.

Chapter 17.--Whom Sinners Imitate.

Chapter 18.--Only Christ Justifies.

Chapter 19 [XV.]--Sin is from Natural Descent, as Righteousness is from Regeneration; How |All| Are Sinners Through Adam, and |All| Are Just Through Christ.

Chapter 20.--Original Sin Alone is Contracted by Natural Birth.

Chapter 21 [XVI.]--Unbaptized Infants Damned, But Most Lightly; The Penalty of Adam's Sin, the Grace of His Body Lost.

Chapter 22 [XVII.]--To Infants Personal Sin is Not to Be Attributed.

Chapter 23 [XVIII.]--He Refutes Those Who Allege that Infants are Baptized Not for the Remission of Sins, But for the Obtaining of the Kingdom of Heaven.

Chapter 24 [XIX.]--Infants Saved as Sinners.

Chapter 25.--Infants are Described as Believers and as Penitents. Sins Alone Separate Between God and Men.

Chapter 26 [XX.]--No One, Except He Be Baptized, Rightly Comes to the Table of the Lord.

Chapter 27.--Infants Must Feed on Christ.

Chapter 28.--Baptized Infants, of the Faithful; Unbaptized, of the Lost.

Chapter 29 [XXI.]--It is an Inscrutable Mystery Why Some are Saved, and Others Not.

Chapter 30.--Why One is Baptized and Another Not, Not Otherwise Inscrutable.

Chapter 31 [XXII.]--He Refutes Those Who Suppose that Souls, on Account of Sins Committed in Another State, are Thrust into Bodies Suited to Their Merits, in Which They are More or Less Tormented.

Chapter 32.--The Case of Certain Idiots and Simpletons.

Chapter 33.--Christ is the Saviour and Redeemer Even of Infants.

Chapter 34 [XXIV.]--Baptism is Called Salvation, and the Eucharist, Life, by the Christians of Carthage.

Chapter 35.--Unless Infants are Baptized, They Remain in Darkness.

Chapter 36.--Infants Not Enlightened as Soon as They are Born.

Chapter 37.--How God Enlightens Every Person.

Chapter 38.--What |Lighteth| Means.

Chapter 39 [XXVI.]--The Conclusion Drawn, that All are Involved in Original Sin.

Chapter 40 [XXVII.]--A Collection of Scripture Testimonies. From the Gospels.

Chapter 41.--From the First Epistle of Peter.

Chapter 42.--From the First Epistle of John.

Chapter 43.--From the Epistle to the Romans.

Chapter 44.--From the Epistles to the Corinthians.

Chapter 45.--From the Epistle to the Galatians.

Chapter 46.--From the Epistle to the Ephesians.

Chapter 47.--From the Epistle to the Colossians.

Chapter 48.--From the Epistles to Timothy.

Chapter 49.--From the Epistle to Titus.

Chapter 50.--From the Epistle to the Hebrews.

Chapter 51.--From the Apocalypse.

Chapter 52.--From the Acts of the Apostles.

Chapter 53.--The Utility of the Books of the Old Testament.

Chapter 54.--By the Sacrifices of the Old Testament, Men Were Convinced of Sins and Led to the Saviour.

Chapter 55 [XXVIII.]--He Concludes that All Men Need the Death of Christ, that They May Be Saved. Unbaptized Infants Will Be Involved in the Condemnation of the Devil. How All Men Through Adam are Unto Condemnation; And Through Christ Unto Justification.

Chapter 56.--No One is Reconciled to God Except Through Christ.

Chapter 57 [XXIX.]--The Good of Marriage; Four Different Cases of the Good and the Evil Use of Matrimony.

Chapter 58 [XXX.]--In What Respect the Pelagians Regarded Baptism as Necessary for Infants.

Chapter 59.--The Context of Their Chief Text.

Chapter 60 [XXXI.]--Christ, the Head and the Body; Owing to the Union of the Natures in the Person of Christ, He Both Remained in Heaven, and Walked About on Earth; How the One Christ Could Ascend to Heaven; The Head, and the Body, the One Christ.

Chapter 61 [XXXII.]--The Serpent Lifted Up in the Wilderness Prefigured Christ Suspended on the Cross; Even Infants Themselves Poisoned by the Serpent's Bite.

Chapter 62 [XXXIII.]--No One Can Be Reconciled to God, Except by Christ.

Chapter 63 [XXXIV.]--The Form, or Rite, of Baptism. Exorcism.

Chapter 64.--A Twofold Mistake Respecting Infants.

Chapter 65 [XXXV.]--In Infants There is No Sin of Their Own Commission.

Chapter 66.--Infants' Faults Spring from Their Sheer Ignorance.

Chapter 67 [XXXVI.]--On the Ignorance of Infants, and Whence It Arises.

Chapter 68 [XXXVII.]--If Adam Was Not Created of Such a Character as that in Which We are Born, How is It that Christ, Although Free from Sin, Was Born an Infant and in Weakness?

Chapter 69 [XXXVIII.]--The Ignorance and the Infirmity of an Infant.

Chapter 70 [XXXIX.]--How Far Sin is Done Away in Infants by Baptism, Also in Adults, and What Advantage Results Therefrom.

Book II.

Chapter 1 [I.]--What Has Thus Far Been Dwelt On; And What is to Be Treated in This Book.

Chapter 2 [II.]--Some Persons Attribute Too Much to the Freedom of Man's Will; Ignorance and Infirmity.

Chapter 3 [III.]--In What Way God Commands Nothing Impossible. Works of Mercy, Means of Wiping Out Sins.

Chapter 4 [IV.]--Concupiscence, How Far in Us; The Baptized are Not Injured by Concupiscence, But Only by Consent Therewith.

Chapter 5 [V.]--The Will of Man Requires the Help of God.

Chapter 6.--Wherein the Pharisee Sinned When He Thanked God; To God's Grace Must Be Added the Exertion of Our Own Will.

Chapter 7 [VI.]--Four Questions on the Perfection of Righteousness: (1.) Whether a Man Can Be Without Sin in This Life.

Chapter 8 [VII.]--(2) Whether There is in This World a Man Without Sin.

Chapter 9.--The Beginning of Renewal; Resurrection Called Regeneration; They are the Sons of God Who Lead Lives Suitable to Newness of Life.

Chapter 10 [VIII.]--Perfection, When to Be Realized.

Chapter 11 [IX.]--An Objection of the Pelagians: Why Does Not a Righteous Man Beget a Righteous Man?

Chapter 12 [X.]--He Reconciles Some Passages of Scripture.

Chapter 13.--A Subterfuge of the Pelagians.

Chapter 14. --Job Was Not Without Sin.

Chapter 15.--Carnal Generation Condemned on Account of Original Sin.

Chapter 16--Job Foresaw that Christ Would Come to Suffer; The Way of Humility in Those that are Perfect.

Chapter 17 [XII.]--No One Righteous in All Things.

Chapter 18 [XIII.]--Perfect Human Righteousness is Imperfect.

Chapter 19.--Zacharias and Elisabeth, Sinners.

Chapter 20.--Paul Worthy to Be the Prince of the Apostles, and Yet a Sinner.

Chapter 21 [XIV.]--All Righteous Men Sinners.

Chapter 22 [XV.]--An Objection of the Pelagians; Perfection is Relative; He is Rightly Said to Be Perfect in Righteousness Who Has Made Much Progress Therein.

Chapter 23 [XXI.]--Why God Prescribes What He Knows Cannot Be Observed.

Chapter 24.--An Objection of the Pelagians. The Apostle Paul Was Not Free From Sin So Long as He Lived.

Chapter 25.--God Punishes Both in Wrath and in Mercy.

Chapter 26 [XVII.] -- (3) Why No One in This Life is Without Sin.

Chapter 27. --The Divine Remedy for Pride.

Chapter 28 [XVIII.]--A Good Will Comes from God.

Chapter 29.--A Subterfuge of the Pelagians.

Chapter 30.--All Will is Either Good, and Then It Loves Righteousness, or Evil, When It Does Not Love Righteousness.

Chapter 31.--Grace is Given to Some Men in Mercy; Is Withheld from Others in Justice and Truth.

Chapter 32.--God's Sovereignity in His Grace.

Chapter 33.--Through Grace We Have Both the Knowledge of Good, and the Delight Which It Affords.

Chapter 34 [XX.]--(4) That No Man, with the Exception of Christ, Has Ever Lived, or Can Live Without Sin.

Chapter 35 [XXI.]--Adam and Eve; Obedience Most Strongly Enjoined by God on Man.

Chapter 36 [XXII.]--Man's State Before the Fall.

Chapter 37 [XXIII.]--The Corruption of Nature is by Sin, Its Renovation is by Christ.

Chapter 38 [XXIV.]--What Benefit Has Been Conferred on Us by the Incarnation of the Word; Christ's Birth in the Flesh, Wherein It is Like and Wherein Unlike Our Own Birth.

Chapter 39 [XXV.]--An Objection of Pelagians.

Chapter 40.--An Argument Anticipated.

Chapter 41.--Children of Believers are Called |Clean| By the Apostle.

Chapter 42.--Sanctification Manifold; Sacrament of Catechumens.

Chapter 43 [XXVII.]--Why the Children of the Baptized Should Be Baptized.

Chapter 44.--An Objection of the Pelagians.

Chapter 45 [XXVIII.]--The Law of Sin is Called Sin; How Concupiscence Still Remains After Its Evil Has Been Removed in the Baptized.

Chapter 46. --Guilt May Be Taken Away But Concupiscence Remain.

Chapter 47 [XXIX.]--All the Predestinated are Saved Through the One Mediator Christ, and by One and the Same Faith.

Chapter 48.--Christ the Saviour Even of Infants; Christ, When an Infant, Was Free from Ignorance and Mental Weakness.

Chapter 49 [XXX.]--An Objection of the Pelagians.

Chapter 50 [XXXI.]--Why It is that Death Itself is Not Abolished, Along with Sin, by Baptism.

Chapter 51.--Why the Devil is Said to Hold the Power and Dominion of Death.

Chapter 52 [XXXII.]--Why Christ, After His Resurrection, Withdrew His Presence from the World.

Chapter 53 [XXXIII.]--An Objection of the Pelagians.

Chapter 54 [XXXIV.]--Why Punishment is Still Inflicted, After Sin Has Been Forgiven.

Chapter 55.--To Recover the Righteousness Which Had Been Lost by Sin, Man Has to Struggle, with Abundant Labour and Sorrow.

Chapter 56.--The Case of David, in Illustration.

Chapter 57 [XXXV.]--Turn to Neither Hand.

Chapter 58 [XXXVI.]--|Likeness of Sinful Flesh| Implies the Reality.

Chapter 59.--Whether the Soul is Propagated; On Obscure Points, Concerning Which the Scriptures Give Us No Assistance, We Must Be on Our Guard Against Forming Hasty Judgments and Opinions; The Scriptures are Clear Enough on Those Subjects Which are Necess

Book III.

Chapter 1 [I.]--Pelagius Esteemed a Holy Man; His Expositions on Saint Paul.

Chapter 2 [II.]--Pelagius' Objection; Infants Reckoned Among the Number of Believers and the Faithful.

Chapter 3.--Pelagius Makes God Unjust.

Chapter 4.

Chapter 5 [III.]--Pelagius Praised by Some; Arguments Against Original Sin Proposed by Pelagius in His Commentary.

Chapter 6.--Why Pelagius Does Not Speak in His Own Person.

Chapter 7 [IV.]--Proof of Original Sin in Infants.

Chapter 8.--Jesus is the Saviour Even of Infants.

Chapter 9.--The Ambiguity of |Adam is the Figure of Him to Come.|

Chapter 10 [V.]--He Shows that Cyprian Had Not Doubted the Original Sin of Infants.

Chapter 11.--The Ancients Assumed Original Sin.

Chapter 12 [VI.]--The Universal Consensus Respecting Original Sin.

Chapter 13 [VII.]--The Error of Jovinianus Did Not Extend So Far.

Chapter 14.--The Opinions of All Controversialists Whatever are Not, However, Canonical Authority; Original Sin, How Another's; We Were All One Man in Adam.

Chapter 15 [VIII.]--We All Sinned Adam's Sin.

Chapter 16.--Origin of Errors; A Simile Sought from the Foreskin of the Circumcised, and from the Chaff of Wheat.

Chapter 17 [IX.]--Christians Do Not Always Beget Christian, Nor the Pure, Pure Children.

Chapter 18 [X.]--Is the Soul Derived by Natural Propagation?

Chapter 19 [XI.]--Sin and Death in Adam, Righteousness and Life in Christ.

Chapter 20.--The Sting of Death, What?

Chapter 21 [XII.]--The Precept About Touching the Menstruous Woman Not to Be Figuratively Understood; The Necessity of the Sacraments.

Chapter 22 [XIII.]--We Ought to Be Anxious to Secure the Baptism of Infants.

Chapter 23.--Epilogue.

a treatise on the spirit and the letter. Extract from Augustin's |Retractations,|

A Treatise on the spirit and the letter,

Chapter 1 [I.] --The Occasion of Writing This Work; A Thing May Be Capable of Being Done, and Yet May Never Be Done.

Chapter 2 [II.]--The Examples Apposite.

Chapter 3.--Theirs is Comparatively a Harmless Error, Who Say that a Man Lives Here Without Sin.

Chapter 4.--Theirs is a Much More Serious Error, Requiring a Very Vigorous Refutation, Who Deny God's Grace to Be Necessary.

Chapter 5 [III.]--True Grace is the Gift of the Holy Ghost, Which Kindles in the Soul the Joy and Love of Goodness.

Chapter 6 [IV.]--The Teaching of Law Without the Life-Giving Spirit is |The Letter that Killeth.|

Chapter 7 [V.]--What is Proposed to Be Here Treated.

Chapter 8.--Romans Interprets Corinthians.

Chapter 9 [VI].--Through the Law Sin Has Abounded.

Chapter 10.--Christ the True Healer.

Chapter 11 [VII.]--From What Fountain Good Works Flow.

Chapter 12.--Paul, Whence So Called; Bravely Contends for Grace.

Chapter 13 [VIII.]--Keeping the Law; The Jews' Glorying; The Fear of Punishment; The Circumcision of the Heart.

Chapter 14.--In What Respect the Pelagians Acknowledge God as the Author of Our Justification.

Chapter 15 [IX.]--The Righteousness of God Manifested by the Law and the Prophets.

Chapter 16 [X.]--How the Law Was Not Made for a Righteous Man.

Chapter 17.--The Exclusion of Boasting.

Chapter 18 [XI.]--Piety is Wisdom; That is Called the Righteousness of God, Which He Produces.

Chapter 19 [XII]--The Knowledge of God Through the Creation.

Chapter 20.--The Law Without Grace.

Chapter 21 [XIII.]--The Law of Works and the Law of Faith.

Chapter 22.--No Man Justified by Works.

Chapter 23 [XIV.]--How the Decalogue Kills, If Grace Be Not Present.

Chapter 24.--The Passage in Corinthians.

Chapter 25.--The Passage in Romans.

Chapter 26.--No Fruit Good Except It Grow from the Root of Love.

Chapter 27 [XV.]--Grace, Concealed in the Old Testament, is Revealed in the New.

Chapter 28 [XVI]--Why the Holy Ghost is Called the Finger of God.

Chapter 29 [XVII.]--A Comparison of the Law of Moses and of the New Law.

Chapter 30.--The New Law Written Within.

Chapter 31 [XVIII.]--The Old Law Ministers Death; The New, Righteousness.

Chapter 32 [XIX.]--The Christian Faith Touching the Assistance of Grace.

Chapter 33.--The Prophecy of Jeremiah Concerning the New Testament.

Chapter 34.--The Law; Grace.

Chapter 35 [XX.]--The Old Law; The New Law.

Chapter 36 [XXI.]--The Law Written in Our Hearts.

Chapter 37 [XXII.]--The Eternal Reward.

Chapter 38 [XXIII.]--The Re-Formation Which is Now Being Effected, Compared with the Perfection of the Life to Come.

Chapter 39 [XXIV]--The Eternal Reward Which is Specially Declared in the New Testament, Foretold by the Prophet.

Chapter 40.--How that is to Be the Reward of All; The Apostle Earnestly Defends Grace.

Chapter 41.--The Law Written in the Heart, and the Reward of the Eternal Contemplation of God, Belong to the New Covenant; Who Among the Saints are the Least and the Greatest.

Chapter 42 [XXV.]--Difference Between the Old and the New Testaments.

Chapter 43 [XXVI.]--A Question Touching the Passage in the Apostle About the Gentiles Who are Said to Do by Nature the Law's Commands, Which They are Also Said to Have Written on Their Hearts.

Chapter 44.--The Answer Is, that the Passage Must Be Understood of the Faithful of the New Covenant.

Chapter 45.--It is Not by Their Works, But by Grace, that the Doers of the Law are Justified; God's Saints and God's Name Hallowed in Different Senses.

Chapter 46.--How the Passage of the Law Agrees with that of the Prophet.

Chapter 47 [XXVII.]--The Law |Being Done by Nature| Means, Done by Nature as Restored by Grace.

Chapter 48.--The Image of God is Not Wholly Blotted Out in These Unbelievers; Venial Sins.

Chapter 49.--The Grace Promised by the Prophet for the New Covenant.

Chapter 50 [XXIX.]--Righteousness is the Gift of God.

Chapter 51.--Faith the Ground of All Righteousness.

Chapter 52 [XXX.]--Grace Establishes Free Will.

Chapter 53 [XXXI.]--Volition and Ability.

Chapter 54.--Whether Faith Be in a Man's Own Power.

Chapter 55 [XXXII.]--What Faith is Laudable.

Chapter 56.--The Faith of Those Who are Under the Law Different from the Faith of Others.

Chapter 57 [XXXIII.]--Whence Comes the Will to Believe?

Chapter 58.--The Free Will of Man is an Intermediate Power.

Chapter 59.--Mercy and Pity in the Judgment of God.

Chapter 60 [XXXIV.]--The Will to Believe is from God.

Chapter 61 [XXXV.]--Conclusion of the Work.

Chapter 62.--He Returns to the Question Which Marcellinus Had Proposed to Him.

Chapter 63.--An Objection.

Chapter 64 [XXXVI.]--When the Commandment to Love is Fulfilled.

Chapter 65.--In What Sense a Sinless Righteousness in This Life Can Be Asserted.

Chapter 66.--Although Perfect Righteousness Be Not Found Here on Earth, It is Still Not Impossible.

a treatise on nature and grace.

Note on the Following Work.

A Treatise on nature and grace, against pelagius;

Chapter 1 [I.]--The Occasion of Publishing This Work; What God's Righteousness is.

Chapter 2 [II.]--Faith in Christ Not Necessary to Salvation, If a Man Without It Can Lead a Righteous Life.

Chapter 3 [III.]--Nature Was Created Sound and Whole; It Was Afterwards Corrupted by Sin.

Chapter 4 [IV.]--Free Grace.

Chapter 5 [V.]--It Was a Matter of Justice that All Should Be Condemned.

Chapter 6 [VI.]--The Pelagians Have Very Strong and Active Minds.

Chapter 7 [VII.]--He Proceeds to Confute the Work of Pelagius; He Refrains as Yet from Mentioning Pelagius' Name.

Chapter 8.--A Distinction Drawn by Pelagius Between the Possible and Actual.

Chapter 9 [VIII.]--Even They Who Were Not Able to Be Justified are Condemned.

Chapter 10 [IX.]--He Could Not Be Justified, Who Had Not Heard of the Name of Christ; Rendering the Cross of Christ of None Effect.

Chapter 11 [X.]--Grace Subtly Acknowledged by Pelagius.

Chapter 12 [XI.]--In Our Discussions About Grace, We Do Not Speak of that Which Relates to the Constitution of Our Nature, But to Its Restoration.

Chapter 13 [XII.]--The Scope and Purpose of the Law's Threatenings; |Perfect Wayfarers.|

Chapter 14 [XIII.]--Refutation of Pelagius.

Chapter 15 [XIV.]--Not Everything [of Doctrinal Truth] is Written in Scripture in So Many Words.

Chapter 16 [XV.]--Pelagius Corrupts a Passage of the Apostle James by Adding a Note of Interrogation.

Chapter 17 [XVI.]--Explanation of This Text Continued.

Chapter 18 [XVII.]--Who May Be Said to Be in the Flesh.

Chapter 19.--Sins of Ignorance; To Whom Wisdom is Given by God on Their Requesting It.

Chapter 20 [XVIII.]--What Prayer Pelagius Would Admit to Be Necessary.

Chapter 21 [XIX.]--Pelagius Denies that Human Nature Has Been Depraved or Corrupted by Sin.

Chapter 22 [XX.]--How Our Nature Could Be Vitiated by Sin, Even Though It Be Not a Substance.

Chapter 23 [XXI.]--Adam Delivered by the Mercy of Christ.

Chapter 24 [XXII.]--Sin and the Penalty of Sin the Same.

Chapter 25 [XXIII.]--God Forsakes Only Those Who Deserve to Be Forsaken. We are Sufficient of Ourselves to Commit Sin; But Not to Return to the Way of Righteousness. Death is the Punishment, Not the Cause of Sin.

Chapter 26 [XXIV.]--Christ Died of His Own Power and Choice.

Chapter 27.--Even Evils, Through God's Mercy, are of Use.

Chapter 28 [XXV.]--The Disposition of Nearly All Who Go Astray. With Some Heretics Our Business Ought Not to Be Disputation, But Prayer.

Chapter 29 [XXVI.]--A Simile to Show that God's Grace is Necessary for Doing Any Good Work Whatever. God Never Forsakes the Justified Man If He Be Not Himself Forsaken.

Chapter 30 [XXVII.]--Sin is Removed by Sin.

Chapter 31.--The Order and Process of Healing Our Heavenly Physician Does Not Adopt from the Sick Patient, But Derives from Himself. What Cause the Righteous Have for Fearing.

Chapter 32 [XXVIII.]--God Forsakes Us to Some Extent that We May Not Grow Proud.

Chapter 33 [XXIX.]--Not Every Sin is Pride. How Pride is the Commencement of Every Sin.

Chapter 34 [XXX.]--A Man's Sin is His Own, But He Needs Grace for His Cure.

Chapter 35 [XXXI.]--Why God Does Not Immediately Cure Pride Itself. The Secret and Insidious Growth of Pride. Preventing and Subsequent Grace.

Chapter 36 [XXXII.]--Pride Even in Such Things as are Done Aright Must Be Avoided. Free Will is Not Taken Away When Grace is Preached.

Chapter 37 [XXXIII.]--Being Wholly Without Sin Does Not Put Man on an Equality with God.

Chapter 38 [XXXIV.]--We Must Not Lie, Even for the Sake of Moderation. The Praise of Humility Must Not Be Placed to the Account of Falsehood.

Chapter 39.--Pelagius Glorifies God as Creator at the Expense of God as Saviour.

Chapter 40 [XXXV.]--Why There is a Record in Scripture of Certain Men's Sins, Recklessness in Sin Accounts It to Be So Much Loss Whenever It Falls Short in Gratifying Lust.

Chapter 41.--Whether Holy Men Have Died Without Sin.

Chapter 42 [XXXVI.]--The Blessed Virgin Mary May Have Lived Without Sin. None of the Saints Besides Her Without Sin.

Chapter 43 [XXXVII.]--Why Scripture Has Not Mentioned the Sins of All.

Chapter 44.--Pelagius Argues that Abel Was Sinless.

Chapter 45 [XXXVIII.]--Why Cain Has Been by Some Thought to Have Had Children by His Mother Eve. The Sins of Righteous Men. Who Can Be Both Righteous, and Yet Not Without Sin.

Chapter 46 [XXXIX.]--Shall We Follow Scripture, or Add to Its Declarations?

Chapter 47 [XL.]--For What Pelagius Thought that Christ is Necessary to Us.

Chapter 48 [XLI.]--How the Term |All| Is to Be Understood.

Chapter 49 [XLII.]--A Man Can Be Sinless, But Only by the Help of Grace. In the Saints This Possibility Advances and Keeps Pace with the Realization.

Chapter 50 [XLIII.]--God Commands No Impossibilities.

Chapter 51 [XLIV.]--State of the Question Between the Pelagians and the Catholics. Holy Men of Old Saved by the Self-Same Faith in Christ Which We Exercise.

Chapter 52.--The Whole Discussion is About Grace.

Chapter 53 [XLV.]--Pelagius Distinguishes Between a Power and Its Use.

Chapter 54 [XLVI.]--There is No Incompatibility Between Necessity and Free Will.

Chapter 55 [XLVII.]--The Same Continued.

Chapter 56 [XLVIII.]--The Assistance of Grace in a Perfect Nature.

Chapter 57 [XLIX.]--It Does Not Detract from God's Almighty Power, that He is Incapable of Either Sinning, or Dying, or Destroying Himself.

Chapter 58 [L.]--Even Pious and God-Fearing Men Resist Grace.

Chapter 59 [LI.]--In What Sense Pelagius Attributed to God's Grace the Capacity of Not Sinning.

Chapter 60 [LII.]--Pelagius Admits |Contrary Flesh| In the Unbaptized.

Chapter 61 [LIII.]--Paul Asserts that the Flesh is Contrary Even in the Baptized.

Chapter 62.--Concerning What Grace of God is Here Under Discussion. The Ungodly Man, When Dying, is Not Delivered from Concupiscence.

Chapter 63 [LIV.]--Does God Create Contraries?

Chapter 64.--Pelagius' Admission as Regards the Unbaptized, Fatal.

Chapter 65 [LV.]--|This Body of Death,| So Called from Its Defect, Not from Its Substance.

Chapter 66.--The Works, Not the Substance, of the |Flesh| Opposed to the |Spirit.|

Chapter 67 [LVII.]--Who May Be Said to Be Under the Law.

Chapter 68 [LVIII.]--Despite the Devil, Man May, by God's Help, Be Perfected.

Chapter 69 [LIX.]--Pelagius Puts Nature in the Place of Grace.

Chapter 70 [LX.]--Whether Any Man is Without Sin in This Life.

Chapter 71 [LXI.]--Augustin Replies Against the Quotations Which Pelagius Had Advanced Out of the Catholic Writers. Lactantius.

Chapter 72 [LXI.]--Hilary. The Pure in Heart Blessed. The Doing and Perfecting of Righteousness.

Chapter 73.--He Meets Pelagius with Another Passage from Hilary.

Chapter 74 [LXIII.]--Ambrose.

Chapter 75.--Augustin Adduces in Reply Some Other Passages of Ambrose.

Chapter 76 [LXIV.]--John of Constantinople.

Chapter 77.--Xystus.

Chapter 78 [LXV.]--Jerome.

Chapter 79 [LXVI.]--A Certain Necessity of Sinning.

Chapter 80 [LXVII.]--Augustin Himself. Two Methods Whereby Sins, Like Diseases, are Guarded Against.

Chapter 81.--Augustin Quotes Himself on Free Will.

Chapter 82 [LXVIII.]--How to Exhort Men to Faith, Repentance, and Advancement.

Chapter 83 [LXIX.]--God Enjoins No Impossibility, Because All Things are Possible and Easy to Love.

Chapter 84 [LXX.]--The Degrees of Love are Also Degrees of Holiness.

preface to the treatise on man's perfection in righteousness.

A Treatise concerning man's perfection in righteousness,

Chapter I.

Chapter II.--(1.) The First Breviate of Coelestius.

(2.) The Second Breviate.

(3.) The Third Breviate.

(4.) The Fourth Breviate.

Chapter III.--(5.) The Fifth Breviate.

(6.) The Sixth Breviate.

(7.) The Seventh Breviate.

(8.) The Eighth Breviate.

Chapter IV.--(9.) The Ninth Breviate.

(10.) The Tenth Breviate.

Chapter V.--(11.) The Eleventh Breviate.

Chapter VI.--(12.) The Twelfth Breviate.

(13.) The Thirteenth Breviate.

(14.) The Fourteenth Breviate.

(15.) The Fifteenth Breviate.

Chapter VII.--(16.) The Sixteenth Breviate.

Chapter VIII.--(17.) It is One Thing to Depart from the Body, Another Thing to Be Liberated from the Body of This Death.

(18.) The Righteousness of This Life Comprehended in Three Parts,--Fasting, Almsgiving, and Prayer.

(19.) The Commandment of Love Shall Be Perfectly Fulfilled in the Life to Come.

Chapter IX.--(20.) Who May Be Said to Walk Without Spot; Damnable and Venial Sins.

Chapter X.--(21.) To Whom God's Commandments are Grievous; And to Whom, Not. Why Scripture Says that God's Commandments are Not Grievous; A Commandment is a Proof of the Freedom Of Man's Will; Prayer is a Proof of Grace.

(22.) Passages to Show that God's Commandments are Not Grievous.

Chapter XI.--(23.) Passages of Scripture Which, When Objected Against Him by the Catholics, Coelestius Endeavours to Elude by Other Passages: the First Passage.

(24.) To Be Without Sin, and to Be Without Blame--How Differing.

(25.) Hence the force of the statement: |There was no injustice in my hands, but my prayer was pure.| For the purity of his prayer arose from this circumstance, that it was not improper for him to ask forgiveness in prayer, when he really bestowed forgive

(27.) Who May Be Said to Keep the Ways of the Lord; What It is to Decline and Depart from the Ways of the Lord.

(28.) When Our Heart May Be Said Not to Reproach Us; When Good is to Be Perfected.

Chapter XII.--(29.) The Second Passage. Who May Be Said to Abstain from Every Evil Thing.

(30.) |Every Man is a Liar,| Owing to Himself Alone; But |Every Man is True,| By Help Only of the Grace of God.

Chapter XIII.--(31.) The Third Passage. It is One Thing to Depart, and Another Thing to Have Departed, from All Sin. |There is None that Doeth Good,|--Of Whom This is to Be Understood.

Chapter XIV.--(32.) The Fourth Passage. In What Sense God Only is Good. With God to Be Good and to Be Himself are the Same Thing.

(33.) The Fifth Passage.

Chapter XV.--(34.) The Opposing Passages.

(35.) The Church Will Be Without Spot and Wrinkle After the Resurrection.

(36.) The Difference Between the Upright in Heart and the Clean in Heart.

Chapter XVI.--(37.) The Sixth Passage.

Chapter XVII.--(38.) The Seventh Passage. Who May Be Called Immaculate. How It is that in God's Sight No Man is Justified.

Chapter XVIII.--(39.) The Eighth Passage. In What Sense He is Said Not to Sin Who is Born of God. In What Way He Who Sins Shall Not See Nor Know God.

Chapter XIX--(40.) The Ninth Passage.

(41.) Specimens of Pelagian Exegesis.

(42.) God's Promises Conditional. Saints of the Old Testament Were Saved by the Grace of Christ.

Chapter XX.--(43.) No Man is Assisted Unless He Does Himself Also Work. Our Course is a Constant Progress.

Chapter XXI.--(44.) Conclusion of the Work. In the Regenerate It is Not Concupiscence, But Consent, Which is Sin.

a work on the proceedings of pelagius. Extract from Augustin's |Retractations,|

preface to the book on the proceedings of pelagius.

A work on the proceedings of pelagius,

Chapter 1.--Introduction.

Chapter 2 [I.]--The First Item in the Accusation, and Pelagius' Answer.

Chapter 3.--Discussion of Pelagius' First Answer.

Chapter 4 [II.]--The Same Continued.

Chapter 5 [III.]--The Second Item in the Accusation; And Pelagius' Answer.

Chapter 6.--Pelagius' Answer Examined.

Chapter 7.--The Same Continued.

Chapter 8.--The Same Continued.

Chapter 9.--The Third Item in the Accusation; And Pelagius' Answer.

Chapter 10.--Pelagius' Answer Examined. On Origen's Error Concerning the Non-Eternity of the Punishment of the Devil and the Damned.

Chapter 11.--The Same Continued.

Chapter 12 [IV.]--The Fourth Item in the Accusation; And Pelagius' Answer.

Chapter 13 [V.]--The Fifth Item of the Accusation; And Pelagius' Answer.

Chapter 14.--Examination of This Point. The Phrase |Old Testament| Used in Two Senses. The Heir of the Old Testament. In the Old Testament There Were Heirs of the New Testament.

Chapter 15.--The Same Continued.

Chapter 16 [VI.]--The Sixth Item of the Accusation, and Pelagius' Reply.

Chapter 17.--Examination of the Sixth Charge and Answers.

Chapter 18.--The Same Continued.

Chapter 19.--The Same Continued.

Chapter 20.--The Same Continued. Pelagius Acknowledges the Doctrine of Grace in Deceptive Terms.

Chapter 21 [VIII.]--The Same Continued.

Chapter 22 [X.]--The Same Continued. The Synod Supposed that the Grace Acknowledged by Pelagius Was that Which Was So Thoroughly Known to the Church.

Chapter 23 [XI.]--The Seventh Item of the Accusation: the Breviates of Coelestius Objected to Pelagius.

Chapter 24.--Pelagius' Answer to the Charges Brought Together Under the Seventh Item.

Chapter 25.--The Pelagians Falsely Pretended that the Eastern Churches Were on Their Side.

Chapter 26.--The Accusations in the Seventh Item, Which Pelagius Confessed.

Chapter 27 [XII.]--The Eighth Item in the Accusation.

Chapter 28.--Pelagius' Reply to the Eighth Item of Accusation.

Chapter 29 [XIII.]--The Ninth Item of the Accusation; And Pelagius' Reply.

Chapter 30 [XIV.]--The Tenth Item in the Accusation. The More Prominent Points of Coelestius' Work Continued.

Chapter 31.--Remarks on the Tenth Item.

Chapter 32.--The Eleventh Item of the Accusation.

Chapter 33.--Discussion of the Eleventh Item Continued.

Chapter 34.--The Same Continued. On the Works of Unbelievers; Faith is the Initial Principle from Which Good Works Have Their Beginning; Faith is the Gift of God's Grace.

Chapter 35.--The Same Continued.

Chapter 36.--The Same Continued. The Monk Pelagius. Grace is Conferred on the Unworthy.

Chapter 37--The Same Continued. John, Bishop of Jerusalem, and His Examination.

Chapter 38 [XV.]--The Same Continued.

Chapter 39 [XVI.]--The Same Continued. Heros and Lazarus; Orosius.

Chapter 40 [XVII.]--The Same Continued.

Chapter 41.--Augustin Indulgently Shows that the Judges Acted Incautiously in Their Official Conduct of the Case of Pelagius.

Chapter 42 [XVIII.]--The Twelfth Item in the Accusation. Other Heads of Coelestius' Doctrine Abjured by Pelagius.

Chapter 43 [XIX.]--The Answer of the Monk Pelagius and His Profession of Faith.

Chapter 44 [XX.]--The Acquittal of Pelagius.

Chapter 45 [XXI.]--Pelagius' Acquittal Becomes Suspected.

Chapter 46 [XXII.]--How Pelagius Became Known to Augustin; Coelestius Condemned at Carthage.

Chapter 47 [XXIII.]--Pelagius' Book, Which Was Sent by Timasius and Jacobus to Augustin, Was Answered by the Latter in His Work |On Nature and Grace.|

Chapter 48 [XXIV.]--A Letter Written by Timasius and Jacobus to Augustin on Receiving His Treatise |On Nature and Grace.|

Chapter 49 [XXV.]--Pelagius' Behaviour Contrasted with that of the Writers of the Letter.

Chapter 50.--Pelagius Has No Good Reason to Be Annoyed If His Name Be at Last Used in the Controversy, and He Be Expressly Refuted.

Chapter 51 [XXVI.]--The Nature of Augustin's Letter to Pelagius.

Chapter 52 [XXVII. And XXVIII.]--The Text of the Letter.

Chapter 53 [XXIX.]--Pelagius' Use of Recommendations.

Chapter 54 [XXX.]--On the Letter of Pelagius, in Which He Boasts that His Errors Had Been Approved by Fourteen Bishops.

Chapter 55.--Pelagius' Letter Discussed.

Chapter 56 [XXXI.]--Is Pelagius Sincere?

Chapter 57 [XXXII.]--Fraudulent Practices Pursued by Pelagius in His Report of the Proceedings in Palestine, in the Paper Wherein He Defended Himself to Augustin.

Chapter 58.--The Same Continued.

Chapter 59 [XXXIV.]--Although Pelagius Was Acquitted, His Heresy Was Condemned.

Chapter 60 [XXXV.]--The Synod's Condemnation of His Doctrines.

Chapter 61.--History of the Pelagian Heresy. The Pelagian Heresy Was Raised by Sundry Persons Who Affected the Monastic State.

Chapter 62.--The History Continued. Coelestius Condemned at Carthage by Episcopal Judgment. Pelagius Acquitted by Bishops in Palestine, in Consequence of His Deceptive Answers; But Yet His Heresy Was Condemned by Them.

Chapter 63.--The Same Continued. The Dogmas of Coelestius Laid to the Charge of Pelagius, as His Master, and Condemned.

Chapter 64.--How the Bishops Cleared Pelagius of Those Charges.

Chapter 65.--Recapitulation of What Pelagius Condemned.

Chapter 66.--The Harsh Measures of the Pelagians Against the Holy Monks and Nuns Who Belonged to Jerome's Charge.

a treatise on the grace of christ, and on original sin. Extract from Augustin's |Retractations,|

A Treatise on the grace of christ, and on original sin,

Chapter 1 [I.]--Introductory.

Chapter 2 [II.]--Suspicious Character of Pelagius' Confession as to the Necessity of Grace for Every Single Act of Ours.

Chapter 3 [III.]--Grace According to the Pelagians.

Chapter 4.--Pelagius' System of Faculties.

Chapter 5 [IV.]--Pelagius' Own Account of the Faculties, Quoted.

Chapter 6 [V.]--Pelagius and Paul of Different Opinions.

Chapter 7 [VI.]--Pelagius Posits God's Aid Only for Our |Capacity.|

Chapter 8.--Grace, According to the Pelagians, Consists in the Internal and Manifold Illumination of the Mind.

Chapter 9 [VIII.]--The Law One Thing, Grace Another. The Utility of the Law.

Chapter 10 [IX.]--What Purpose the Law Subserves.

Chapter 11 [X.]--Pelagius' Definition of How God Helps Us: |He Promises Us Future Glory.|

Chapter 12 [XI.]--The Same Continued: |He Reveals Wisdom.|

Chapter 13 [XII.]--Grace Causes Us to Do.

Chapter 14 [XII.]--The Righteousness Which is of God, and the Righteousness Which is of the Law.

Chapter 15 [XIV.]--He Who Has Been Taught by Grace Actually Comes to Christ.

Chapter 16 [XV.]--We Need Divine Aid in the Use of Our Powers. Illustration from Sight.

Chapter 17 [XVI.]--Does Pelagius Designedly Refrain from Openly Saying that All Good Action is from God?

Chapter 18 [XVII.]--He Discovers the Reason of Pelagius' Hesitation So to Say.

Chapter 19 [XVIII.]--The Two Roots of Action, Love and Cupidity; And Each Brings Forth Its Own Fruit.

Chapter 20 [XIX.]--How a Man Makes a Good or a Bad Tree.

Chapter 21 [XX.]--Love the Root of All Good Things; Cupidity, of All Evil Ones.

Chapter 22 [XXI.]--Love is a Good Will.

Chapter 23 [XXII.]--Pelagius' Double Dealing Concerning the Ground of the Conferrence of Grace.

Chapter 24.--Pelagius Places Free Will at the Basis of All Turning to God for Grace.

Chapter 25 [XXIV.]--God by His Wonderful Power Works in Our Hearts Good Dispositions of Our Will.

Chapter 26 [XXV.]--The Pelagian Grace of |Capacity| Exploded. The Scripture Teaches the Need of God's Help in Doing, Speaking, and Thinking, Alike.

Chapter 27 [XXVI.]--What True Grace Is, and Wherefore Given. Merits Do Not Precede Grace.

Chapter 28 [XXVII.]--Pelagius Teaches that Satan May Be Resisted Without the Help of the Grace of God.

Chapter 29 [XXVIII.]--When He Speaks of God's Help, He Means It Only to Help Us Do What Without It We Still Could Do.

Chapter 30 [XXIX.]--What Pelagius Thinks is Needful for Ease of Performance is Really Necessary for the Performance.

Chapter 31 [XXX.]--Pelagius and Coelestius Nowhere Really Acknowledge Grace.

Chapter 32.--Why the Pelagians Deemed Prayers to Be Necessary. The Letter Which Pelagius Despatched to Pope Innocent with an Exposition of His Belief.

Chapter 33 [XXXI.]--Pelagius Professes Nothing on the Subject of Grace Which May Not Be Understood of the Law and Teaching.

Chapter 34.--Pelagius Says that Grace is Given According to Men's Merits. The Beginning, However, of Merit is Faith; And This is a Gratuitous Gift, Not a Recompense for Our Merits.

Chapter 35 [XXXII.]--Pelagius Believes that Infants Have No Sin to Be Remitted in Baptism.

Chapter 36 [XXXIII.]--Coelestius Openly Declares Infants to Have No Original Sin.

Chapter 37 [XXXIV.]--Pelagius Nowhere Admits the Need of Divine Help for Will and Action.

Chapter 38 [XXXV.]--A Definition of the Grace of Christ by Pelagius.

Chapter 39 [XXXVI]--A Letter of Pelagius Unknown to Augustin.

Chapter 40 [XXXVII]--The Help of Grace Placed by Pelagius in the Mere Revelation of Teaching.

Chapter 41.--Restoration of Nature Understood by Pelagius as Forgiveness of Sins.

Chapter 42 [XXXVIII.]--Grace Placed by Pelagius in the Remission of Sins and the Example of Christ.

Chapter 43 [XXXIX.]--The Forgiveness of Sins and Example of Christ Held by Pelagius Enough to Save the Most Hardened Sinner.

Chapter 44 [XL.]--Pelagius Once More Guards Himself Against the Necessity of Grace.

Chapter 45 [XLI.]--To What Purpose Pelagius Thought Prayers Ought to Be Offered.

Chapter 46 [XLII]--Pelagius Professes to Respect the Catholic Authors.

Chapter 47 [XLIII.]--Ambrose Most Highly Praised by Pelagius.

Chapter 48 [XLIV].--Ambrose is Not in Agreement with Pelagius.

Chapter 49 [XLV.]--Ambrose Teaches with What Eye Christ Turned and Looked Upon Peter.

Chapter 50.--Ambrose Teaches that All Men Need God's Help.

Chapter 51 [XLVI.]--Ambrose Teaches that It is God that Does for Man What Pelagius Attributes to Free Will.

Chapter 52 [XLVII.]--If Pelagius Agrees with Ambrose, Augustin Has No Controversy with Him.

Chapter 53 [XLVIII.]--In What Sense Some Men May Be Said to Live Without Sin in the Present Life.

Chapter 54 [XLIX.]--Ambrose Teaches that No One is Sinless in This World.

Chapter 55 [L.]--Ambrose Witnesses that Perfect Purity is Impossible to Human Nature.

Book II. On Original Sin.

Chapter 1 [I.]--Caution Needed in Attending to Pelagius' Deliverances on Infant Baptism.

Chapter 2 [II.]--Coelestius, on His Trial at Carthage, Refuses to Condemn His Error; The Written Statement Which He Gave to Zosimus.

Chapter 3 [III.]--Part of the Proceedings of the Council of Carthage Against Coelestius.

Chapter 4.--Coelestius Concedes Baptism for Infants, Without Affirming Original Sin.

Chapter 5 [V.]--Coelestius' Book Which Was Produced in the Proceedings at Rome.

Chapter 6 [VI.]--Coelestius the Disciple is In This Work Bolder Than His Master.

Chapter 7.--Pope Zosimus Kindly Excuses Him.

Chapter 8 [VII.]--Coelestius Condemned by Zosimus.

Chapter 9 [VIII.]--Pelagius Deceived the Council in Palestine, But Was Unable to Deceive the Church at Rome.

Chapter 10 [IX.]--The Judgment of Innocent Respecting the Proceedings in Palestine.

Chapter 11 [X.]--How that Pelagius Deceived the Synod of Palestine.

Chapter 12 [XI.]--A Portion of the Proceedings of the Synod of Palestine in the Cause of Pelagius.

Chapter 13 [XII.]--Coelestius the Bolder Heretic; Pelagius the More Subtle.

Chapter 14 [XIII.]--He Shows That, Even After the Synod of Palestine, Pelagius Held the Same Opinions as Coelestius on the Subject of Original Sin.

Chapter 15 [XIV.]--Pelagius by His Mendacity and Deception Stole His Acquittal from the Synod in Palestine.

Chapter 16 [XV.]--Pelagius' Fraudulent and Crafty Excuses.

Chapter 17.--How Pelagius Deceived His Judges.

Chapter 18 [XVII.]--The Condemnation of Pelagius.

Chapter 19.--Pelagius' Attempt to Deceive the Apostolic See; He Inverts the Bearings of the Controversy.

Chapter 20.--Pelagius Provides a Refuge for His Falsehood in Ambiguous Subterfuges.

Chapter 21 [XIX.]--Pelagius Avoids the Question as to Why Baptism is Necessary for Infants.

Chapter 22 [XX.]--Another Instance of Pelagius' Ambiguity.

Chapter 23 [XXI.]--What He Means by Our Birth to an |Uncertain| Life.

Chapter 24.--Pelagius' Long Residence at Rome.

Chapter 25 [XXII.]--The Condemnation of Pelagius and Coelestius.

Chapter 26 [XXIII.]--The Pelagians Maintain that Raising Questions About Original Sin Does Not Endanger the Faith.

Chapter 27 [XXIII.]--On Questions Outside the Faith--What They Are, and Instances of the Same.

Chapter 28 [XXIV.]--The Heresy of Pelagius and Coelestius Aims at the Very Foundations of Our Faith.

Chapter 29.--The Righteous Men Who Lived in the Time of the Law Were for All that Not Under the Law, But Under Grace. The Grace of the New Testament Hidden Under the Old.

Chapter 30 [XXVI]--Pelagius and Coelestius Deny that the Ancient Saints Were Saved by Christ.

Chapter 31.--Christ's Incarnation Was of Avail to the Fathers, Even Though It Had Not Yet Happened.

Chapter 32 [XXVII.]--He Shows by the Example of Abraham that the Ancient Saints Believed in the Incarnation of Christ.

Chapter 33 [XVIII.]--How Christ is Our Mediator.

Chapter 34 [XXIX.]--No Man Ever Saved Save by Christ.

Chapter 35 [XXX.]--Why the Circumcision of Infants Was Enjoined Under Pain of So Great a Punishment.

Chapter 36 [XXXI]--The Platonists' Opinion About the Existence of the Soul Previous to the Body Rejected.

Chapter 37 [XXXII.]--In What Sense Christ is Called |Sin.|

Chapter 38 [XXXIII.]--Original Sin Does Not Render Marriage Evil.

Chapter 39 [XXXIV.]--Three Things Good and Laudable in Matrimony.

Chapter 40 [XXXV.]--Marriage Existed Before Sin Was Committed. How God's Blessing Operated in Our First Parents.

Chapter 41 [XXXVI.]--Lust and Travail Come from Sin. Whence Our Members Became a Cause of Shame.

Chapter 42 [XXXVII.]--The Evil of Lust Ought Not to Be Ascribed to Marriage. The Three Good Results of the Nuptial Ordinance: Offspring, Chastity, and the Sacramental Union.

Chapter 43 [XXXVIII.]--Human Offspring, Even Previous to Birth, Under Condemnation at the Very Root. Uses of Matrimony Undertaken for Mere Pleasure Not Without Venial Fault.

Chapter 44 [XXXIX.]--Even the Children of the Regenerate Born in Sin. The Effect of Baptism.

Chapter 45.--Man's Deliverance Suited to the Character of His Captivity.

Chapter 46.--Difficulty of Believing Original Sin. Man's Vice is a Beast's Nature.

Chapter 47 [XLI.]--Sentences from Ambrose in Favour of Original Sin.

Chapter 48.--Pelagius Rightly Condemned and Really Opposed by Ambrose.

on marriage and concupiscence. Extract from Augustin's |Retractations,|

advertisement to the reader on the following treatise.

A Letter Addressed to the Count Valerius,

on marriage and concupiscence,

Book I.

Chapter 1.--Concerning the Argument of This Treatise.

Chapter 2. [II.]--Why This Treatise Was Addressed to Valerius.

Chapter 3 [III.]--Conjugal Chastity the Gift of God.

Chapter 4.--A Difficulty as Regards the Chastity of Unbelievers. None But a Believer is Truly a Chaste Man.

Chapter 5 [IV.]--The Natural Good of Marriage. All Society Naturally Repudiates a Fraudulent Companion. What is True Conjugal Purity? No True Virginity and Chastity Except in Devotion to True Faith.

Chapter 6 [V.]--The Censuring of Lust is Not a Condemnation of Marriage; Whence Comes Shame in the Human Body. Adam and Eve Were Not Created Blind; Meaning of Their |Eyes Being Opened.|

Chapter 7 [VI.]--Man's Disobedience Justly Requited in the Rebellion of His Own Flesh; The Blush of Shame for the Disobedient Members of the Body.

Chapter 8 [VII.]--The Evil of Lust Does Not Take Away the Good of Marriage.

Chapter 9 [VIII.]--This Disease of Concupiscence in Marriage is Not to Be a Matter of Will, But of Necessity; What Ought to Be the Will of Believers in the Use of Matrimony; Who is to Be Regarded as Using, and Not Succumbing To, the Evil of Concupiscence;

Chapter 10 [IX.]--Why It Was Sometimes Permitted that a Man Should Have Several Wives, Yet No Woman Was Ever Allowed to Have More Than One Husband. Nature Prefers Singleness in Her Dominations.

Chapter 11 [X.]--The Sacrament of Marriage; Marriage Indissoluble; The World's Law About Divorce Different from the Gospel's.

Chapter 12 [XI.]--Marriage Does Not Cancel a Mutual Vow of Continence; There Was True Wedlock Between Mary and Joseph; In What Way Joseph Was the Father of Christ.

Chapter 13.--In the Marriage of Mary and Joseph There Were All the Blessings of the Wedded State; All that is Born of Concubinage is Sinful Flesh.

Chapter 14 [XIII.]--Before Christ It Was a Time for Marrying; Since Christ It Has Been a Time for Continence.

Chapter 15.--The Teaching of the Apostle on This Subject.

Chapter 16 [XIV.]--A Certain Degree of Intemperance is to Be Tolerated in the Case of Married Persons; The Use of Matrimony for the Mere Pleasure of Lust is Not Without Sin, But Because of the Nuptial Relation the Sin is Venial.

Chapter 17 [XV.]--What is Sinless in the Use of Matrimony? What is Attended With Venial Sin, and What with Mortal?

Chapter 18 [XVI.]--Continence Better Than Marriage; But Marriage Better Than Fornication.

Chapter 19 [XVII.]--Blessing of Matrimony.

Chapter 20 [XVIII]--Why Children of Wrath are Born of Holy Matrimony.

Chapter 21 [XIX.]--Thus Sinners are Born of Righteous Parents, Even as Wild Olives Spring from the Olive.

Chapter 22 [XX.]--Even Infants, When Unbaptized, are in the Power of the Devil; Exorcism in the Case of Infants, and Renunciation of the Devil.

Chapter 23 [XXI.]--Sin Has Not Arisen Out of the Goodness of Marriage; The Sacrament of Matrimony a Great One in the Case of Christ and the Church--A Very Small One in the Case of a Man and His Wife.

Chapter 24.--Lust and Shame Come from Sin; The Law of Sin; The Shamelessness of the Cynics.

Chapter 25 [XXIII.]--Concupiscence in the Regenerate Without Consent is Not Sin; In What Sense Concupiscence is Called Sin.

Chapter 26.--Whatever is Born Through Concupiscence is Not Undeservedly in Subjection to the Devil by Reason of Sin; The Devil Deserves Heavier Punishment Than Men.

Chapter 27 [XXIV.]--Through Lust Original Sin is Transmitted; Venial Sins in Married Persons; Concupiscence of the Flesh, the Daughter and Mother of Sin.

Chapter 28 [XXV.]--Concupiscence Remains After Baptism, Just as Languor Does After Recovery from Disease; Concupiscence is Diminished in Persons of Advancing Years, and Increased in the Incontinent.

Chapter 29 [XXVI.]--How Concupiscence Remains in the Baptized in Act, When It Has Passed Away as to Its Guilt.

Chapter 30 [XXVII.]--The Evil Desires of Concupiscence; We Ought to Wish that They May Not Be.

Chapter 31 [XXVIII.]--Who is the Man that Can Say, |It is No More I that Do It|?

Chapter 32.--When Good Will Be Perfectly Done.

Chapter 33 [XXX.]--True Freedom Comes with Willing Delight in God's Law.

Chapter 34.--How Concupiscence Made a Captive of the Apostle; What the Law of Sin Was to the Apostle.

Chapter 35 [XXXI.]--The Flesh, Carnal Affection.

Chapter 36.--Even Now While We Still Have Concupiscence We May Be Safe in Christ.

Chapter 37 [XXXII.]--The Law of Sin with Its Guilt in Unbaptized Infants. By Adam's Sin the Human Race Has Become a |Wild Olive Tree.|

Chapter 38 [XXXIII.]--To Baptism Must Be Referred All Remission of Sins, and the Complete Healing of the Resurrection. Daily Cleansing.

Chapter 39 [XXXIV.]--By the Holiness of Baptism, Not Sins Only, But All Evils Whatsoever, Have to Be Removed. The Church is Not Yet Free from All Stain.

Chapter 40 [XXXV.]--Refutation of the Pelagians by the Authority of St. Ambrose, Whom They Quote to Show that the Desire of the Flesh is a Natural Good.

preliminary notes on the second book.

Book II.

Chapter 1 [I.]--Introductory Statement.

Chapter 2 [II.]--In This and the Four Next Chapters He Adduces the Garbled Extracts He Has to Consider.

Chapter 3.--The Same Continued.

Chapter 4.--The Same Continued.

Chapter 5.--The Same Continued.

Chapter 6.--The Same Continued.

Chapter 7 [III.]--Augustin Adduces a Passage Selected from the Preface of Julianus. (See |The Unfinished Work,| i. 73.)

Chapter 8.--Augustin Refutes the Passage Adduced Above.

Chapter 9.--The Catholics Maintain the Doctrine of Original Sin, and Thus are Far from Being Manicheans.

Chapter 10 [IV.]--In What Manner the Adversary's Cavils Must Be Refuted.

Chapter 11.--The Devil the Author, Not of Nature, But Only of Sin.

Chapter 12.--Eve's Name Means Life, and is a Great Sacrament of the Church.

Chapter 13.--The Pelagian Argument to Show that the Devil Has No Rights in the Fruits of Marriage.

Chapter 14 [V.]--Concupiscence Alone, in Marriage, is Not of God.

Chapter 15.--Man, by Birth, is Placed Under the Dominion of the Devil Through Sin; We Were All One in Adam When He Sinned.

Chapter 16 [VI.]--It is Not of Us, But Our Sins, that the Devil is the Author.

Chapter 17 [VII.]--The Pelagians are Not Ashamed to Eulogize Concupiscence, Although They are Ashamed to Mention Its Name.

Chapter 18.--The Same Continued.

Chapter 19 [VIII.]--The Pelagians Misunderstand |Seed| In Scripture.

Chapter 20.--Original Sin is Derived from the Faulty Condition of Human Seed.

Chapter 21 [IX.]--It is the Good God That Gives Fruitfulness, and the Devil That Corrupts the Fruit.

Chapter 22.--Shall We Be Ashamed of What We Do, or of What God Does?

Chapter 23 [X.]--The Pelagians Affirm that God in the Case of Abraham and Sarah Aroused Concupiscence as a Gift from Heaven.

Chapter 24 [XI.]--What Covenant of God the New-Born Babe Breaks. What Was the Value of Circumcision.

Chapter 25 [XII.]--Augustin Not the Deviser of Original Sin.

Chapter 26 [XIII.]--The Child in No Sense Formed by Concupiscence.

Chapter 27.--The Pelagians Argue that God Sometimes Closes the Womb in Anger, and Opens It When Appeased.

Chapter 28 [XIV.]--Augustin's Answer to This Argument. Its Dealing with Scripture.

Chapter 29.--The Same Continued. Augustin Also Asserts that God Forms Man at Birth.

Chapter 30 [XV.]--The Case of Abimelech and His House Examined.

Chapter 31 [XVI.]--Why God Proceeds to Create Human Beings, Who He Knows Will Be Born in Sin.

Chapter 32 [XVII.]--God Not the Author of the Evil in Those Whom He Creates.

Chapter 33 [XVIII.]--Though God Makes Us, We Perish Unless He Re-makes Us in Christ.

Chapter 34 [XIX.]--The Pelagians Argue that Cohabitation Rightly Used is a Good, and What is Born from It is Good.

Chapter 35 [XX.]--He Answers the Arguments of Julianus. What is the Natural Use of the Woman? What is the Unnatural Use?

Chapter 36 [XXI.]--God Made Nature Good: the Saviour Restores It When Corrupted.

Chapter 37 [XXII.]--If There is No Marriage Without Cohabitation, So There is No Cohabitation Without Shame.

Chapter 38 [XXIII.]--Jovinian Used Formerly to Call Catholics Manicheans; The Arians Also Used to Call Catholics Sabellians.

Chapter 39 [XXIV.]--Man Born of Whatever Parentage is Sinful and Capable of Redemption.

Chapter 40 [XXV.]--Augustin Declines the Dilemma Offered Him.

Chapter 41 [XXVI.]--The Pelagians Argue that Original Sin Cannot Come Through Marriage If Marriage is Good.

Chapter 42.--The Pelagians Try to Get Rid of Original Sin by Their Praise of God's Works; Marriage, in Its Nature and by Its Institution, is Not the Cause of Sin.

Chapter 43.--The Good Tree in the Gospel that Cannot Bring Forth Evil Fruit, Does Not Mean Marriage.

Chapter 44 [XXVII.]--The Pelagians Argue that If Sin Comes by Birth, All Married People Deserve Condemnation.

Chapter 45.--Answer to This Argument: The Apostle Says We All Sinned in One.

Chapter 46.--The Reign of Death, What It Is; The Figure of the Future Adam; How All Men are Justified Through Christ.

Chapter 47.--The Scriptures Repeatedly Teach Us that All Sin in One.

Chapter 48.--Original Sin Arose from Adam's Depraved Will. Whence the Corrupt Will Sprang.

Chapter 49 [XXIX.]--In Infants Nature is of God, and the Corruption of Nature of the Devil.

Chapter 50.--The Rise and Origin of Evil. The Exorcism and Exsufflation of Infants, a Primitive Christian Rite.

Chapter 51.--To Call Those that Teach Original Sin Manicheans is to Accuse Ambrose, Cyprian, and the Whole Church.

Chapter 52 [XXX.]--Sin Was the Origin of All Shameful Concupiscence.

Chapter 53 [XXXI.]--Concupiscence Need Not Have Been Necessary for Fruitfulness.

Chapter 54 [XXXII.]--How Marriage is Now Different Since the Existence of Sin.

Chapter 55 [XXXIII.]--Lust is a Disease; The Word |Passion| In the Ecclesiastical Sense.

Chapter 56.--The Pelagians Allow that Christ Died Even for Infants; Julianus Slays Himself with His Own Sword.

Chapter 57 [XXXIV.]--The Great Sin of the First Man.

Chapter 58.--Adam's Sin is Derived from Him to Every One Who is Born Even of Regenerate Parents; The Example of the Olive Tree and the Wild Olive.

Chapter 59 [XXXV.]--The Pelagians Can Hardly Venture to Place Concupiscence in Paradise Before the Commission of Sin.

Chapter 60.--Let Not the Pelagians Indulge Themselves in a Cruel Defence of Infants.

a treatise on the soul and its origin. Extract from Augustin's |Retractations,|

advertisement to the reader on the following treatise.

A Treatise on the soul and its origin,

Chapter 1 [I.]--Renatus Had Done Him a Kindness by Sending Him the Books Which Had Been Addressed to Him.

Chapter 2 [II.]--He Receives with a Kindly and Patient Feeling the Books of a Young and Inexperienced Man Who Wrote Against Him in a Tone of Arrogance. Vincentius Victor Converted from the Sect of the Rogatians.

Chapter 3 [III]--The Eloquence of Vincentius, Its Dangers and Its Tolerableness.

Chapter 4 [IV.]--The Errors Contained in the Books of Vincentius Victor. He Says that the Soul Comes from God, But Was Not Made Either Out of Nothing or Out of Any Created Thing.

Chapter 5 [V.]--Another of Victor's Errors, that the Soul is Corporeal.

Chapter 6 [VI.]--Another Error Out of His Second Book, to the Effect, that the Soul Deserved to Be Polluted by the Body.

Chapter 7 [VII.]--Victor Entangles Himself in an Exceedingly Difficult Question. God's Foreknowledge is No Cause of Sin.

Chapter 8 [VIII.]--Victor's Erroneous Opinion, that the Soul Deserved to Become Sinful.

Chapter 9.--Victor Utterly Unable to Explain How the Sinless Soul Deserved to Be Made Sinful.

Chapter 10 [IX.]--Another Error of Victor's, that Infants Dying Unbaptized May Attain to the Kingdom of Heaven. Another, that the Sacrifice of the Body of Christ Must Be Offered for Infants Who Die Before They are Baptized.

Chapter 11.--Martyrdom for Christ Supplies the Place of Baptism. The Faith of the Thief Who Was Crucified Along with Christ Taken as Martyrdom and Hence for Baptism.

Chapter 12 [X.]--Dinocrates, Brother of the Martyr St. Perpetua, is Said to Have Been Delivered from the State of Condemnation by the Prayers of the Saint.

Chapter 13 [XI.]--The Sacrifice of the Body and Blood of Christ Will Not Avail for Unbaptized Persons, and Can Not Be Offered for the Majority of Those Who Die Unbaptized.

Chapter 14.--Victor's Dilemma: He Must Either Say All Infants are Saved, or Else God Slays the Innocent.

Chapter 15 [XII.]--God Does Not Judge Any One for What He Might Have Done If His Life Had Been Prolonged, But Simply for the Deeds He Actually Commits.

Chapter 16 [XIII.]--Difficulty in the Opinion Which Maintains that Souls are Not by Propagation.

Chapter 17 [XIV.]--He Shows that the Passages of Scripture Adduced by Victor Do Not Prove that Souls are Made by God in Such a Way as Not to Be Derived by Propagation: First Passage.

Chapter 18.--By |Breath| Is Signified Sometimes the Holy Spirit.

Chapter 19.--The Meaning of |Breath| In Scripture.

Chapter 20.--Other Ways of Taking the Passage.

Chapter 21.--The Second Passage Quoted by Victor.

Chapter 22.--Victor's Third Quotation.

Chapter 23.--His Fourth Quotation.

Chapter 24 [XV.]--Whether or No the Soul is Derived by Natural Descent (Ex Traduce), His Cited Passages Fail to Show.

Chapter 25.--Just as the Mother Knows Not Whence Comes Her Child Within Her, So We Know Not Whence Comes the Soul.

Chapter 26 [XVI.]--The Fifth Passage of Scripture Quoted by Victor.

Chapter 27 [XVII.]--Augustin Did Not Venture to Define Anything About the Propagation of the Soul.

Chapter 28.--A Natural Figure of Speech Must Not Be Literally Pressed.

Chapter 29 [XVIII.]--The Sixth Passage of Scripture Quoted by Victor.

Chapter 30--The Danger of Arguing from Silence.

Chapter 31.--The Argument of the Apollinarians to Prove that Christ Was Without the Human Soul of This Same Sort.

Chapter 32 [XIX.]--The Self-Contradiction of Victor as to the Origin of the Soul.

Chapter 33.--Augustin Has No Objection to the Opinion About the Propagation of Souls Being Refuted, and that About Their Insufflation Being Maintained.

Chapter 34.--The Mistakes Which Must Be Avoided by Those Who Say that Men's Souls are Not Derived from Their Parents, But are Afresh Inbreathed by God in Every Instance.

Chapter 35 [XX.]--Conclusion.

Book II.

Chapter 1 [I.]--Depraved Eloquence an Injurious Accomplishment.

Chapter 2 [II.]--He Asks What the Great Knowledge is that Victor Imparts.

Chapter 3.--The Difference Between the Senses of the Body and Soul.

Chapter 4.--To Believe the Soul is a Part of God is Blasphemy.

Chapter 5 [III.]--In What Sense Created Beings are Out of God.

Chapter 6.--Shall God's Nature Be Mutable, Sinful, Impious, Even Eternally Damned.

Chapter 7.--To Think the Soul Corporeal an Error.

Chapter 8.--The Thirst of the Rich Man in Hell Does Not Prove the Soul to Be Corporeal.

Chapter 9 [V.]--How Could the Incorporeal God Breathe Out of Himself a Corporeal Substance?

Chapter 10 [VI.]--Children May Be Found of Like or of Unlike Dispositions with Their Parents.

Chapter 11 [VII.]--Victor Implies that the Soul Had a |State| And |Merit| Before Incarnation.

Chapter 12 [VIII.]--How Did the Soul Deserve to Be Incarnated?

Chapter 13 [IX.]--Victor Teaches that God Thwarts His Own Predestination.

Chapter 14 [X.]--Victor Sends Those Infants Who Die Unbaptized to Paradise and the Heavenly Mansions, But Not to the Kingdom of Heaven.

Chapter 15 [XI.]--Victor |Decides| That Oblations Should Be Offered Up for Those Who Die Unbaptized.

Chapter 16 [XII.]--Victor Promises to the Unbaptized Paradise After Their Death, and the Kingdom of Heaven After Their Resurrection, Although He Admits that This Opposes Christ's Statement.

Chapter 17.--Disobedient Compassion and Compassionate Disobedience Reprobated. Martyrdom in Lieu of Baptism.

Chapter 18 [XIII.]--Victor's Dilemma and Fall.

Chapter 19 [XIV.]--Victor Relies on Ambiguous Scriptures.

Chapter 20.--Victor Quotes Scriptures for Their Silence, and Neglects the Biblical Usage.

Chapter 21 [XV.]--Victor's Perplexity and Failure.

Chapter 22 [XVI.]--Peter's Responsibility in the Case of Victor.

Chapter 23 [XVII.]--Who They are that are Not Injured by Reading Injurious Books.

Book III.

Chapter 1 [I.]--Augustin's Purpose in Writing.

Chapter 2 [II.]--Why Victor Assumed the Name of Vincentius. The Names of Evil Men Ought Never to Be Assumed by Other Persons.

Chapter 3 [III.]--He Enumerates the Errors Which He Desires to Have Amended in the Books of Vincentius Victor. The First Error.

Chapter 4 [IV.]--Victor's Simile to Show that God Can Create by Breathing Without Impartation of His Substance.

Chapter 5.--Examination of Victor's Simile: Does Man Give Out Nothing by Breathing?

Chapter 6.--The Simile Reformed in Accordance with Truth.

Chapter 7 [V.]--Victor Apparently Gives the Creative Breath to Man Also.

Chapter 8 [VI.]--Victor's Second Error. (See Above in Book I. 26 [XVI.].)

Chapter 9 [VII.]--His Third Error. (See Above in Book II. 11 [VII.].)

Chapter 10.--His Fourth Error. (See Above in Book I. 6 [VI.] and Book II. 11 [VII.].)

Chapter 11 [VIII.]--His Fifth Error. (See Above in Book I. 8 [VIII.] and Book II. 12 [VIII.].)

Chapter 12 [IX.]--His Sixth Error. (See Above in Book I. 10-12 [IX., X.], and in Book II. 13, 14 [IX., X.].)

Chapter 13 [X]--His Seventh Error. (See Above in Book II. 13 [IX.].)

Chapter 14.--His Eighth Error. (See Above in Book II. 13 [IX.].)

Chapter 15 [XI.]--His Ninth Error. (See Above in Book II. 14 [X.].)

Chapter 16.--God Rules Everywhere: and Yet the |Kingdom of Heaven| May Not Be Everywhere.

Chapter 17.--Where the Kingdom of God May Be Understood to Be.

Chapter 18 [XII.]--His Tenth Error. (See Above in Book I. 13 [XI.] and Book II. 15 [XI.]).

Chapter 19 [XIII.]--His Eleventh Error. (See Above in Book I. 15 [XII.] and Book II. 16.)

Chapter 20 [XIV.]--Augustin Calls on Victor to Correct His Errors. (See Above in Book II. 22 [XVI.].)

Chapter 21.--Augustin Compliments Victor's Talents and Diligence.

Chapter 22 [XV.]--A Summary Recapitulation of the Errors of Victor.

Chapter 23.--Obstinacy Makes the Heretic.

Book IV.

Chapter 1 [I.]--The Personal Character of This Book.

Chapter 2 [II.]--The Points Which Victor Thought Blameworthy in Augustin.

Chapter 3.--How Much Do We Know of the Nature of the Body?

Chapter 4 [III.]--Is the Question of Breath One that Concerns the Soul, or Body, or What?

Chapter 5 [IV.]--God Alone Can Teach Whence Souls Come.

Chapter 6 [V.]--Questions About the Nature of the Body are Sufficiently Mysterious, and Yet Not Higher Than Those of the Soul.

Chapter 7 [VI.]--We Often Need More Teaching as to What is Most Intimately Ours Than as to What is Further from Us.

Chapter 8.--We Have No Memory of Our Creation.

Chapter 9 [VII.]--Our Ignorance of Ourselves Illustrated by the Remarkable Memory of One Simplicius.

Chapter 10.--The Fidelity of Memory; The Unsearchable Treasure of Memory; The Powers of a Man's Understanding Sufficiently Understood by None.

Chapter 11.--The Apostle Peter Told No Lie, When He Said He Was Ready to Lay Down His Life for the Lord, But Only Was Ignorant of His Will.

Chapter 12 [VIII.]--The Apostle Paul Could Know the Third Heaven and Paradise, But Not Whether He Was in the Body or Not.

Chapter 13 [IX.]--In What Sense the Holy Ghost is Said to Make Intercession for Us.

Chapter 14 [X.]--It is More Excellent to Know That the Flesh Will Rise Again and Live for Evermore, Than to Learn Whatever Scientific Men Have Been Able to Teach Us Concerning Its Nature.

Chapter 15 [XI.]--We Must Not Be Wise Above What is Written.

Chapter 16.--Ignorance is Better Than Error. Predestination to Eternal Life, and Predestination to Eternal Death.

Chapter 17 [XII.]--A Twofold Question to Be Treated Concerning the Soul; Is It |Body|? and is It |Spirit|? What Body is.

Chapter 18.--The First Question, Whether the Soul is Corporeal; Breath and Wind, Nothing Else Than Air in Motion.

Chapter 19 [XIII.]--Whether the Soul is a Spirit.

Chapter 20 [XIV.]--The Body Does Not Receive God's Image.

Chapter 21 [XV.]--Recognition and Form Belong to Souls as Well as Bodies.

Chapter 22.--Names Do Not Imply Corporeity.

Chapter 23 [XVI.]--Figurative Speech Must Not Be Taken Literally.

Chapter 24.--Abraham's Bosom--What It Means.

Chapter 25 [XVII.]--The Disembodied Soul May Think of Itself Under a Bodily Form.

Chapter 26 [XVIII.]--St. Perpetua Seemed to Herself, in Some Dreams, to Have Been Turned into a Man, and Then Have Wrestled with a Certain Egyptian.

Chapter 27.--Is the Soul Wounded When the Body is Wounded?

Chapter 28.--Is the Soul Deformed by the Body's Imperfections?

Chapter 29 [XIX.]--Does the Soul Take the Body's Clothes Also Away with It?

Chapter 30.--Is Corporeity Necessary for Recognition?

Chapter 31 [XX.]--Modes of Knowledge in the Soul Distinguished.

Chapter 32.--Inconsistency of Giving the Soul All the Parts of Sex and Yet No Sex.

Chapter 33.--The Phenix After Death Coming to Life Again.

Chapter 34 [XXI.]--Prophetic Visions.

Chapter 35.--Do Angels Appear to Men in Real Bodies?

Chapter 36 [XXII.]--He Passes on to the Second Question About the Soul, Whether It is Called Spirit.

Chapter 37 [XXIII.]--Wide and Narrow Sense of the Word |Spirit.|

Chapter 38 [XXIV.]--Victor's Chief Errors Again Pointed Out.

Chapter 39.--Concluding Admonition.

a treatise against two letters of the pelagians. Extract from Augustin's |Retractations,|

A Treatise against two letters of the pelagians,

Chapter 1.--Introduction: Address to Boniface.

Chapter 2.--Why Heretical Writings Must Be Answered.

Chapter 3.--Why He Addresses His Book to Boniface.

Chapter 4 [II.]--The Calumny of Julian,--That the Catholics Teach that Free Will is Taken Away by Adam's Sin.

Chapter 5.--Free Choice Did Not Perish With Adam 's Sin. What Freedom Did Perish.

Chapter 6 [III.]--Grace is Not Given According to Merits.

Chapter 7.--He Concludes that He Does Not Deprive the Wicked of Free Will.

Chapter 8 [IV.]--The Pelagians Demolish Free Will.

Chapter 9 [V.]--Another Calumny of Julian,--That |It is Said that Marriage is Not Appointed by God.|

Chapter 10--The Third Calumny,--The Assertion that Conjugal Intercourse is Condemned.

Chapter 11 [VI.]--The Purpose of the Pelagians in Praising the Innocence of Conjugal Intercourse.

Chapter 12.--The Fourth Calumny,--That the Saints of the Old Testament are Said to Be Not Free from Sins.

Chapter 13 [VIII.]--The Fifth Calumny,--That It is Said that Paul and the Rest of the Apostles Were Polluted by Lust.

Chapter 14.--That the Apostle is Speaking in His Own Person and that of Others Who Are Under Grace, Not Still Under Law.

Chapter 15 [IX.]--He Sins in Will Who is Only Deterred from Sinning by Fear.

Chapter 16.--How Sin Died, and How It Revived.

Chapter 17 [X.]--|The Law is Spiritual, But I Am Carnal,| To Be Understood of Paul.

Chapter 18.--How the Apostle Said that He Did the Evil that He Would Not.

Chapter 19.--What It is to Accomplish What is Good.

Chapter 20.--In Me, that Is, in My Flesh.

Chapter 21.--No Condemnation in Christ Jesus.

Chapter 22.--Why the Passage Referred to Must Be Understood of a Man Established Under Grace.

Chapter 23 [XI.]--What It is to Be Delivered from the Body of This Death.

Chapter 24.--He Concludes that the Apostle Spoke in His Own Person, and that of Those Who are Under Grace.

Chapter 25 [XII.]--The Sixth Calumny,--That Augustin Asserts that Even Christ Was Not Free from Sins.

Chapter 26 [XIII.]--The Seventh Calumny,--That Augustin Asserts that in Baptism All Sins are Not Remitted.

Chapter 27.--In What Sense Lust is Called Sin in the Regenerate.

Chapter 28 [XIV.]--Many Without Crime, None Without Sin.

Chapter 29 [XV.]--Julian Opposes the Faith of His Friends to the Opinions of Catholic Believers. First of All, of Free Will.

Chapter 30.--Secondly, of Marriage.

Chapter 31.--Thirdly, of Conjugal Intercourse.

Chapter 32 [XVI.]--The Aprons Which Adam and Eve Wore.

Chapter 33.--The Shame of Nakedness.

Chapter 34 [XVII.]--Whether There Could Be Sensual Appetite in Paradise Before the Fall.

Chapter 35.--Desire in Paradise Was Either None at All, or It Was Obedient to the Impulse of the Will.

Chapter 36 [XVIII.]--Julian's Fourth Objection, that Man is God's Work, and is Not Constrained to Evil or Good by His Power.

Chapter 37 [XIX.]--The Beginning of a Good Will is the Gift of Grace.

Chapter 38 [XX.]--The Power of God's Grace is Proved.

Chapter 39 [XXI.]--Julian's Fifth Objection Concerning the Saints of the Old Testament.

Chapter 40 [XXII.]--The Sixth Objection, Concerning the Necessity of Grace for All, and Concerning the Baptism of Infants.

Chapter 41 [XXIII.]--The Seventh Objection, of the Effect of Baptism.

Chapter 42 [XXIV.]--He Rebuts the Conclusion of Julian's Letter.

Book II.

Chapter 1.--Introduction; The Pelagians Impeach Catholics as Manicheans.

Chapter 2 [II.]--The Heresies of the Manicheans and Pelagians are Mutually Opposed, and are Alike Reprobated by the Catholic Church.

Chapter 3.--How Far the Manicheans and Pelagians are Joined in Error; How Far They are Separated.

Chapter 4.--The Two Contrary Errors.

Chapter 5 [III.]--The Calumny of the Pelagians Against the Clergy of the Roman Church.

Chapter 6 [IV.]--What Was Done in the Case of Coelestius and Zosimus.

Chapter 7.--He Suggests a Dilemma to Coelestius.

Chapter 8.--The Catholic Faith Concerning Infants.

Chapter 9 [V.]--He Replies to the Calumnies of the Pelagians.

Chapter 10.--Why the Pelagians Falsely Accuse Catholics of Maintaining Fate Under the Name of Grace.

Chapter 11 [VI.]--The Accusation of Fate is Thrown Back Upon the Adversaries.

Chapter 12.--What is Meant Under the Name of Fate.

Chapter 13 [VII.]--He Repels the Calumny Concerning the Acceptance of Persons.

Chapter 14.--He Illustrates His Argument by an Example.

Chapter 15.--The Apostle Meets the Question by Leaving It Unsolved.

Chapter 16.--The Pelagians are Refuted by the Case of the Twin Infants Dying, the One After, and the Other Without, the Grace of Baptism.

Chapter 17 [VIII.]--Even the Desire of an Imperfect Good is a Gift of Grace, Otherwise Grace Would Be Given According to Merits.

Chapter 18.--The Desire of Good is God's Gift.

Chapter 19 [IX.]--He Interprets the Scriptures Which the Pelagians Make Ill Use of.

Chapter 20.--God's Agency is Needful Even in Man's Doings.

Chapter 21.--Man Does No Good Thing Which God Does Not Cause Him to Do.

Chapter 22 [X.]--According to Whose Purpose the Elect are Called.

Chapter 23.--Nothing is Commanded to Man Which is Not Given by God.

Book III.

Chapter 1 [I.]--Statement.

Chapter 2 [II.]--The Misrepresentation of the Pelagians Concerning the Use of the Old Law.

Chapter 3.--Scriptural Confirmation of the Catholic Doctrine.

Chapter 4 [III.]--Misrepresentation Concerning the Effect of Baptism.

Chapter 5.--Baptism Puts Away All Sins, But It Does Not at Once Heal All Infirmities.

Chapter 6 [IV.]--The Calumny Concerning the Old Testament and the Righteous Men of Old.

Chapter 7.--The New Testament is More Ancient Than the Old; But It Was Subsequently Revealed.

Chapter 8.--All Righteous Men Before and After Abraham are Children of the Promise and of Grace.

Chapter 9.--Who are the Children of the Old Covenant.

Chapter 10.--The Old Law Also Given by God.

Chapter 11.--Distinction Between the Children of the Old and of the New Testaments.

Chapter 12.--The Old Testament is Properly One Thing--The Old Instrument Another.

Chapter 13.--Why One of the Covenants is Called Old, the Other New.

Chapter 14 [V.]--Calumny Concerning the Righteousness of the Prophets and Apostles.

Chapter 15.--The Perfection of Apostles and Prophets.

Chapter 16 [VI.]--Misrepresentation Concerning Sin in Christ.

Chapter 17 [VII.]--Their Calumny About the Fulfilment of Precepts in the Life to Come.

Chapter 18.--Perfection of Righteousness and Full Security Was Not Even in Paul in This Life.

Chapter 19.--In What Sense the Righteousness of Man in This Life is Said to Be Perfect.

Chapter 20.--Why the Righteousness Which is of the Law is Valued Slightly by Paul.

Chapter 21.--That Righteousness is Never Perfected in This Life.

Chapter 22.--Nature of Human Righteousness and Perfection.

Chapter 23.--There is No True Righteousness Without the Faith of the Grace of Christ.

Chapter 24 [VIII.]--There are Three Principal Heads in the Pelagian Heresy.

Chapter 25 [IX.]--He Shows that the Opinion of the Catholics is the Mean Between that of the Manicheans and Pelagians, and Refutes Both.

Chapter 26 [X.]--The Pelagians Still Strive After a Hiding-Place, by Introducing the Needless Question of the Origin of the Soul.

Book IV.

Chapter 1 [I.]--The Subterfuges of the Pelagians are Five.

Chapter 2 [II.]--The Praise of the Creature.

Chapter 3 [III.]--The Catholics Praise Nature, Marriage, Law, Free Will, and the Saints, in Such Wise as to Condemn as Well Pelagians as Manicheans.

Chapter 4 [IV.]--Pelagians and Manicheans on the Praise of the Creature.

Chapter 5.--What is the Special Advantage in the Pelagian Opinions?

Chapter 6.--Not Death Alone, But Sin Also Has Passed into Us by Means of Adam.

Chapter 7.--What is the Meaning of |In Whom All Have Sinned|?

Chapter 8.--Death Passed Upon All by Sin.

Chapter 9 [V.]--Of the Praise of Marriage.

Chapter 10.--Of the Praise of the Law.

Chapter 11.--The Pelagians Understand that the Law Itself is God's Grace.

Chapter 12 [VI.]--Of the Praise of Free Will.

Chapter 13.--God's Purposes are Effects of Grace.

Chapter 14.--The Testimonies of Scripture in Favour of Grace.

Chapter 15.--From Such Scriptures Grace is Proved to Be Gratuitous and Effectual.

Chapter 16.--Why God Makes of Some Sheep, Others Not.

Chapter 17 [VII.]--Of the Praise of the Saints.

Chapter 18.--The Opinion of the Saints Themselves About Themselves.

Chapter 19.--The Craft of the Pelagians.

Chapter 20 [VIII.]--The Testimonies of the Ancients Against the Pelagians.

Chapter 21.--Pelagius, in Imitation of Cyprian, Wrote a Book of Testimonies.

Chapter 22.--Further References to Cyprian.

Chapter 23.--Further References to Cyprian.

Chapter 24.--The Dilemma Proposed to the Pelagians.

Chapter 25 [IX.]--Cyprian's Testimonies Concerning God's Grace.

Chapter 26.--Further Appeals to Cyprian's Teaching.

Chapter 27 [X.]--Cyprian's Testimonies Concerning the Imperfection of Our Own Righteousness.

Chapter 28.--Cyprian's Orthodoxy Undoubted.

Chapter 29 [XI.]--The Testimonies of Ambrose Against the Pelagians and First of All Concerning Original Sin.

Chapter 30.--The Testimonies of Ambrose Concerning God's Grace.

Chapter 31.--The Testimonies of Ambrose on the Imperfection of Present Righteousness.

Chapter 32 [XII.]--The Pelagian's Heresy Arose Long After Ambrose.

Chapter 33.--Opposition of the Manichean and Catholic Dogmas.

Chapter 34.--The Calling Together of a Synod Not Always Necessary to the Condemnation of Heresies.

a treatise on grace and free will. Extract from Augustin's |Retractations,|

two letters written by augustin to valentinus and the monks of adrumetum,

Letter I.

Letter II.

A Treatise on grace and free will,

Chapter 1 [I.]--The Occasion and Argument of This Work.

Chapter 2 [II.]--He Proves the Existence of Free Will in Man from the Precepts Addressed to Him by God.

Chapter 3.--Sinners are Convicted When Attempting to Excuse Themselves by Blaming God, Because They Have Free Will.

Chapter 4.--The Divine Commands Which are Most Suited to the Will Itself Illustrate Its Freedom.

Chapter 5.--He Shows that Ignorance Affords No Such Excuse as Shall Free the Offender from Punishment; But that to Sin with Knowledge is a Graver Thing Than to Sin in Ignorance.

Chapter 6 [IV.]--God's Grace to Be Maintained Against the Pelagians; The Pelagian Heresy Not an Old One.

Chapter 7.--Grace is Necessary Along with Free Will to Lead a Good Life.

Chapter 8.--Conjugal Chastity is Itself the Gift of God.

Chapter 9.--Entering into Temptation. Prayer is a Proof of Grace.

Chapter 10 [V.]--Free Will and God's Grace are Simultaneously Commended.

Chapter 11.--Other Passages of Scripture Which the Pelagians Abuse.

Chapter 12.--He Proves Out of St. Paul that Grace is Not Given According to Men's Merits.

Chapter 13 [VI.]--The Grace of God is Not Given According to Merit, But Itself Makes All Good Desert.

Chapter 14.--Paul First Received Grace that He Might Win the Crown.

Chapter 15.--The Pelagians Profess that the Only Grace Which is Not Given According to Our Merits is that of the Forgiveness of Sins.

Chapter 16 [VII.]--Paul Fought, But God Gave the Victory: He Ran, But God Showed Mercy.

Chapter 17.--The Faith that He Kept Was the Free Gift of God.

Chapter 18.--Faith Without Good Works is Not Sufficient for Salvation.

Chapter 19 [VIII.]--How is Eternal Life Both a Reward for Service and a Free Gift of Grace?

Chapter 20.--The Question Answered. Justification is Grace Simply and Entirely, Eternal Life is Reward and Grace.

Chapter 21 [IX.]--Eternal Life is |Grace for Grace.|

Chapter 22 [X.]--Who is the Transgressor of the Law? The Oldness of Its Letter. The Newness of Its Spirit.

Chapter 23 [XI.]--The Pelagians Maintain that the Law is the Grace of God Which Helps Us Not to Sin.

Chapter 24 [XII.]--Who May Be Said to Wish to Establish Their Own Righteousness. |God's Righteousness,| So Called, Which Man Has from God.

Chapter 25 [XIII.]--As The Law is Not, So Neither is Our Nature Itself that Grace by Which We are Christians.

Chapter 26.--The Pelagians Contend that the Grace, Which is Neither the Law Nor Nature, Avails Only to the Remission of Past Sins, But Not to the Avoidance of Future Ones.

Chapter 27 [XIV.]--Grace Effects the Fulfilment of the Law, the Deliverance of Nature, and the Suppression of Sin's Dominion.

Chapter 28.--Faith is the Gift of God.

Chapter 29.--God is Able to Convert Opposing Wills, and to Take Away from the Heart Its Hardness.

Chapter 30.--The Grace by Which the Stony Heart is Removed is Not Preceded by Good Deserts, But by Evil Ones.

Chapter 31 [XV.]--Free Will Has Its Function in the Heart's Conversion; But Grace Too Has Its.

Chapter 32 [XVI.]--In What Sense It is Rightly Said That, If We Like, We May Keep God's Commandments.

Chapter 33 [XVII.]--A Good Will May Be Small and Weak; An Ample Will, Great Love. Operating and Co-operating Grace.

Chapter 34.--The Apostle's Eulogy of Love. Correction to Be Administered with Love.

Chapter 35.--Commendations of Love.

Chapter 36.--Love Commended by Our Lord Himself.

Chapter 37 [XVIII.]--The Love Which Fulfils the Commandments is Not of Ourselves, But of God.

Chapter 38.--We Would Not Love God Unless He First Loved Us. The Apostles Chose Christ Because They Were Chosen; They Were Not Chosen Because They Chose Christ.

Chapter 39.--The Spirit of Fear a Great Gift of God.

Chapter 40 [XIX.]--The Ignorance of the Pelagians in Maintaining that the Knowledge of the Law Comes from God, But that Love Comes from Ourselves.

Chapter 41 [XX.]--The Wills of Men are So Much in the Power of God, that He Can Turn Them Whithersoever It Pleases Him.

Chapter 42 [XXI]--God Does Whatsoever He Wills in the Hearts of Even Wicked Men.

Chapter 43.--God Operates on Men's Hearts to Incline Their Wills Whithersoever He Pleases.

Chapter 44 [XXII.]--Gratuitous Grace Exemplified in Infants.

Chapter 45 [XXIII]--The Reason Why One Person is Assisted by Grace, and Another is Not Helped, Must Be Referred to the Secret Judgments of God.

Chapter 46 [XXIV.]--Understanding and Wisdom Must Be Sought from God.

a treatise on rebuke and grace. Extract from Augustin's |Retractations,|

A Treatise on rebuke and grace,

Chapter 1 [I.]--Introductory.

Chapter 2.--The Catholic Faith Concerning Law, Grace, and Free Will.

Chapter 3 [II.]--What the Grace of God Through Jesus Christ is.

Chapter 4--The Children of God are Led by the Spirit of God.

Chapter 5 [III.]--Rebuke Must Not Be Neglected.

Chapter 6 [IV.]--Objections to the Use of Rebuke.

Chapter 7 [V.]--The Necessity and Advantage of Rebuke.

Chapter 8.--Further Replies to Those Who Object to Rebuke.

Chapter 9 [VI]--Why They May Justly Be Rebuked Who Do Not Obey God, Although They Have Not Yet Received the Grace of Obedience.

Chapter 10--All Perseverance is God's Gift.

Chapter 11 [VII.]--They Who Have Not Received the Gift of Perseverance, and Have Relapsed into Mortal Sin and Have Died Therein, Must Righteously Be Condemned.

Chapter 12.--They Who Have Not Received Perseverance are Not Distinguished from the Mass of Those that are Lost.

Chapter 13.--Election is of Grace, Not of Merit.

Chapter 14.--None of the Elect and Predestinated Can Perish.

Chapter 15.--Perseverance is Given to the End.

Chapter 16.--Whosoever Do Not Persevere are Not Distinguished from the Mass of Perdition by Predestination.

Chapter 17 [VIII.]--Why Perseverance Should Be Given to One and Not Another is Inscrutable.

Chapter 18.--Some Instances of God's Amazing Judgments.

Chapter 19.--God's Ways Past Finding Out.

Chapter 20 [IX.]--Some are Children of God According to Grace Temporally Received, Some According to God's Eternal Foreknowledge.

Chapter 21.--Who May Be Understood as Given to Christ.

Chapter 22.--True Children of God are True Disciples of Christ.

Chapter 23.--Those Who are Called According to the Purpose Alone are Predestinated.

Chapter 24.--Even the Sins of the Elect are Turned by God to Their Advantage.

Chapter 25.--Therefore Rebuke is to Be Used.

Chapter 26 [X.]--Whether Adam Received the Gift of Perseverance.

Chapter 27.--The Answer.

Chapter 28.--The First Man Himself Also Might Have Stood by His Free Will.

Chapter 29 [XI.]--Distinction Between the Grace Given Before and After the Fall.

Chapter 30.--The Incarnation of the Word.

Chapter 31.--The First Man Had Received the Grace Necessary for His Perseverance, But Its Exercise Was Left in His Free Choice.

Chapter 32.--The Gifts of Grace Conferred on Adam in Creation.

Chapter 33 [XII.]--What is the Difference Between the Ability Not to Sin, to Die, and Forsake Good, and the Inability to Sin, to Die, and to Forsake Good?

Chapter 34.--The Aid Without Which a Thing Does Not Come to Pass, and the Aid with Which a Thing Comes to Pass.

Chapter 35.--There is a Greater Freedom Now in the Saints Than There Was Before in Adam.

Chapter 36.--God Not Only Foreknows that Men Will Be Good, But Himself Makes Them So.

Chapter 37.--To a Sound Will is Committed the Power of Persevering or of Not Persevering.

Chapter 38.--What is the Nature of the Gift of Perseverance that is Now Given to the Saints.

Chapter 39 [XIII.]--The Number of the Predestinated is Certain and Defined.

Chapter 40.--No One is Certain and Secure of His Own Predestination and Salvation.

Chapter 41.--Even in Judgment God's Mercy Will Be Necessary to Us.

Chapter 42.--The Reprobate are to Be Punished for Merits of a Different Kind.

Chapter 43 [XIV.]--Rebuke and Grace Do Not Set Aside One Another.

Chapter 44.--In What Way God Wills All Men to Be Saved.

Chapter 45.--Scriptural Instances Wherein It is Proved that God Has Men's Wills More in His Power Than They Themselves Have.

Chapter 46 [XV.]--Rebuke Must Be Varied According to the Variety of Faults. There is No Punishment in the Church Greater Than Excommunication.

Chapter 47.--Another Interpretation of the Apostolic Passage, |Who Will Have All Men to Be Saved.|

Chapter 48.--The Purpose of Rebuke.

Chapter 49.--Conclusion.

A Treatise on the predestination of the saints,

Chapter 1 [I.]--Introduction.

Chapter 2.--To What Extent the Massilians Withdraw from the Pelagians.

Chapter 3 [II.]--Even the Beginning of Faith is of God's Gift.

Chapter 4.--Continuation of the Preceding.

Chapter 5.--To Believe is to Think with Assent.

Chapter 6.--Presumption and Arrogance to Be Avoided.

Chapter 7 [III.]--Augustin Confesses that He Had Formerly Been in Error Concerning the Grace of God.

Chapter 8 [IV.]--What Augustin Wrote to Simplicianus, the Successor of Ambrose, Bishop of Milan.

Chapter 9 [V.]--The Purpose of the Apostle in These Words.

Chapter 10.--It is God's Grace Which Specially Distinguishes One Man from Another.

Chapter 11 [VI.]--That Some Men are Elected is of God's Mercy.

Chapter 12 [VII.]--Why the Apostle Said that We are Justified by Faith and Not by Works.

Chapter 13 [VIII.]--The Effect of Divine Grace.

Chapter 14.--Why the Father Does Not Teach All that They May Come to Christ.

Chapter 15.--It is Believers that are Taught of God.

Chapter 16.--Why the Gift of Faith is Not Given to All.

Chapter 17 [IX.]--His Argument in His Letter Against Porphyry, as to Why the Gospel Came So Late into the World.

Chapter 18.--The Preceding Argument Applied to the Present Time.

Chapter 19 [X]--In What Respects Predestination and Grace Differ.

Chapter 20.--Did God Promise the Good Works of the Nations and Not Their Faith, to Abraham?

Chapter 21.--It is to Be Wondered at that Men Should Rather Trust to Their Own Weakness Than to God's Strength.

Chapter 22.--God's Promise is Sure.

Chapter 23 [XII.]--Remarkable Illustrations of Grace and Predestination in Infants, and in Christ.

Chapter 24.--That No One is Judged According to What He Would Have Done If He Had Lived Longer.

Chapter 25 [XIII.]--Possibly the Baptized Infants Would Have Repented If They Had Lived, and the Unbaptized Not.

Chapter 26 [XIV]--Reference to Cyprian's Treatise |On the Mortality.|

Chapter 27.--The Book of Wisdom Obtains in the Church the Authority of Canonical Scripture.

Chapter 28.--Cyprian's Treatise |On the Mortality.|

Chapter 29.--God's Dealing Does Not Depend Upon Any Contingent Merits of Men.

Chapter 30 [XV.]--The Most Illustrious Instance of Predestination is Christ Jesus.

Chapter 31.--Christ Predestinated to Be the Son of God.

Chapter 32 [XVI.]--The Twofold Calling.

Chapter 33.--It is in the Power of Evil Men to Sin; But to Do This or That by Means of that Wickedness is in God's Power Alone.

Chapter 34 [XVII.]--The Special Calling of the Elect is Not Because They Have Believed, But in Order that They May Believe.

Chapter 35 [XVIII.]--Election is for the Purpose of Holiness.

Chapter 36.--God Chose the Righteous; Not Those Whom He Foresaw as Being of Themselves, But Those Whom He Predestinated for the Purpose of Making So.

Chapter 37.--We Were Elected and Predestinated, Not Because We Were Going to Be Holy, But in Order that We Might Be So.

Chapter 38 [XIX.]--What is the View of the Pelagians, and What of the Semi-Pelagians, Concerning Predestination.

Chapter 39--The Beginning of Faith is God's Gift.

Chapter 40 [XX.]--Apostolic Testimony to the Beginning of Faith Being God's Gift.

Chapter 41.--Further Apostolic Testimonies.

Chapter 42.--Old Testament Testimonies.

Chapter 43 [XXI.]--Conclusion.

A Treatise on the gift of perseverance,

Chapter 1 [I.]--Of the Nature of the Perseverance Here Discoursed of.

Chapter 2 [II.]--Faith is the Beginning of a Christian Man. Martyrdom for Christ's Sake is His Best Ending.

Chapter 3.--God is Besought for It, Because It is His Gift.

Chapter 4.--Three Leading Points of the Pelagian Doctrine.

Chapter 5.--The Second Petition in the Lord's Prayer.

Chapter 6 [III.]--The Third Petition. How Heaven and Earth are Understood in the Lord's Prayer.

Chapter 7 [IV.]--The Fourth Petition.

Chapter 8 [V.]--The Fifth Petition. It is an Error of the Pelagians that the Righteous are Free from Sin.

Chapter 9.--When Perseverance is Granted to a Person, He Cannot But Persevere.

Chapter 10 [VI.]--The Gift of Perseverance Can Be Obtained by Prayer.

Chapter 11.--Effect of Prayer for Perseverance.

Chapter 12.--Of His Own Will a Man Forsakes God, So that He is Deservedly Forsaken of Him.

Chapter 13 [VII.]--Temptation the Condition of Man.

Chapter 14.--It is God's Grace Both that Man Comes to Him, and that Man Does Not Depart from Him.

Chapter 15.--Why God Willed that He Should Be Asked for that Which He Might Give Without Prayer.

Chapter 16 [VIII.]--Why is Not Grace Given According to Merit?

Chapter 17.--The Difficulty of the Distinction Made in the Choice of One and the Rejection of Another.

Chapter 18.--But Why Should One Be Punished More Than Another?

Chapter 19.--Why Does God Mingle Those Who Will Persevere with Those Who Will Not?

Chapter 20.--Ambrose on God's Control Over Men's Thoughts.

Chapter 21 [IX.]--Instances of the Unsearchable Judgments of God.

Chapter 22.--It is an Absurdity to Say that the Dead Will Be Judged for Sins Which They Would Have Committed If They Had Lived.

Chapter 23.--Why for the People of Tyre and Sidon, Who Would Have Believed, the Miracles Were Not Done Which Were Done in Other Places Which Did Not Believe.

Chapter 24 [X.]--It May Be Objected that The People of Tyre and Sidon Might, If They Had Heard, Have Believed, and Have Subsequently Lapsed from Their Faith.

Chapter 25 [XI.]--God's Ways, Both in Mercy and Judgment, Past Finding Out.

Chapter 26.--The Manicheans Do Not Receive All the Books of the Old Testament, and of the New Only Those that They Choose.

Chapter 27.--Reference to the |Retractations.|

Chapter 28 [XII.]--God's Goodness and Righteousness Shown in All.

Chapter 29.--God's True Grace Could Be Defended Even If There Were No Original Sin, as Pelagius Maintains.

Chapter 30.--Augustin Claims the Right to Grow in Knowledge.

Chapter 31.--Infants are Not Judged According to that Which They are Foreknown as Likely to Do If They Should Live.

Chapter 32 [XIII.]--The Inscrutability of God's Free Purposes.

Chapter 33.--God Gives Both Initiatory and Persevering Grace According to His Own Will.

Chapter 34 [XIV.]--The Doctrine of Predestination Not Opposed to the Advantage of Preaching.

Chapter 35.--What Predestination is.

Chapter 36.--The Preaching of the Gospel and the Preaching of Predestination the Two Parts of One Message.

Chapter 37.--Ears to Hear are a Willingness to Obey.

Chapter 38 [XV.]--Against the Preaching of Predestination the Same Objections May Be Alleged as Against Predestination.

Chapter 39 [XVI]--Prayer and Exhortation.

Chapter 40.--When the Truth Must Be Spoken, When Kept Back.

Chapter 41.--Predestination Defined as Only God's Disposing of Events in His Foreknowledge.

Chapter 42.--The Adversaries Cannot Deny Predestination to Those Gifts of Grace Which They Themselves Acknowledge, and Their Exhortations are Not Hindered by This Predestination Nevertheless.

Chapter 43.--Further Development of the Foregoing Argument.

Chapter 44.--Exhortation to Wisdom, Though Wisdom is God's Gift.

Chapter 45.--Exhortation to Other Gifts of God in Like Manner.

Chapter 46.--A Man Who Does Not Persevere Fails by His Own Fault.

Chapter 47.--Predestination is Sometimes Signified Under the Name of Foreknowledge.

Chapter 48 [XIX.]--Practice of Cyprian and Ambrose.

Chapter 49.--Further References to Cyprian and Ambrose.

Chapter 50.--Obedience Not Discouraged by Preaching God's Gifts.

Chapter 51 [XX.]--Predestination Must Be Preached.

Chapter 52.--Previous Writings Anticipatively Refuted the Pelagian Heresy.

Chapter 53.--Augustin's |Confessions.|

Chapter 54 [XXI.]--Beginning and End of Faith is of God.

Chapter 55.--Testimony of His Previous Writings and Letters.

Chapter 56.--God Gives Means as Well as End.

Chapter 57 [XXII.]--How Predestination Must Be Preached So as Not to Give Offence.

Chapter 58.--The Doctrine to Be Applied with Discrimination.

Chapter 59.--Offence to Be Avoided.

Chapter 60.--The Application to the Church in General.

Chapter 61.--Use of the Third Person Rather Than the Second.

Chapter 62.--Prayer to Be Inculcated, Nevertheless.

Chapter 63 [XXIII.]--The Testimony of the Whole Church in Her Prayers.

Chapter 64.--In What Sense the Holy Spirit Solicits for Us, Crying, Abba, Father.

Chapter 65.--The Church's Prayers Imply the Church's Faith.

Chapter 66 [XXIV.]--Recapitulation and Exhortation.

Chapter 67.--The Most Eminent Instance of Predestination is Christ Jesus.

Chapter 68.--Conclusion.

INDEX OF SUBJECTS. Abel, 124, 136, 193, 414.


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