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On Christian Doctrine In Four Books - St. Augustine

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Chapter 1. There are two things on which all interpretation of Scripture dependsà

Chapter 2. All instruction is either about things or about signsà

Chapter 3. There are some things, then, which are to be enjoyedà

Chapter 4. For to enjoy a thing is to rest with satisfaction in it for itsà

Chapter 5. The TRUE objects of enjoyment, then, are the Father and the Son and theà

Chapter 6. Have I spoken of God, or uttered His praiseà

Chapter 7. For when the one supreme God of gods is thought ofà

Chapter 8. And since all who think about God think of Him as livingà

Chapter 9. Now, no one is so egregiously silly as to askà

Chapter 10. Wherefore, since it is our duty fully to enjoy the truth which lives unchangeablyà

Chapter 11. But of this we should have been wholly incapableà

Chapter 12. Not then in the sense of traversing spaceà

Chapter 13. Moreover, as the use of remedies is the way to healthà

Chapter 14. The belief of the resurrection of our Lord from the deadà

Chapter 15. For the Church is His body, as the apostle's teaching shows usà

Chapter 16. Further, when we are on the way, and that not a way that liesà

Chapter 17. He has given, therefore, the keys to His Churchà

Chapter 18. Furthermore, as there is a kind of death of the soulà

Chapter 19. Now he whose soul does not die to this world and begin here toà

Chapter 20. Among all these things, then, those only are the TRUE objects of enjoyment whichà

Chapter 21. Neither ought any one to have joy in himselfà

Chapter 22. Those things which are objects of use are not allà

Chapter 23. Moreover, it thinks it has attained something very great if it is able toà

Chapter 24. No man, then, hates himself. On this pointà

Chapter 25. Those, on the other hand, who do this in a perverse spirità

Chapter 26. Man, therefore, ought to be taught the due measure of lovingà

Chapter 27. Seeing, then, that there is no need of a command that every man shouldà

Chapter 28. Now he is a man of just and holy life who forms an unprejudicedà

Chapter 29. Further, all men are to be loved equally.à

Chapter 30. Now of all who can with us enjoy Godà

Chapter 31. There arises further in this connection a question about angels.à

Chapter 32. And so also the Apostle Paul teaches when he saysà

Chapter 33. But now, if every one to whom we ought to showà

Chapter 34. And on this ground, when we say that we enjoy only that which weà

Chapter 35. But neither does He use after our fashion of using.à

Chapter 36. For if we find our happiness complete in one anotherà

Chapter 37. But when you have joy of a man in Godà

Chapter 38. And mark that even when He who is Himself the Truth and the Wordà

Chapter 39. Of all, then, that has been said since we entered upon the discussion aboutà

Chapter 40. Whoever, then, thinks that he understands the Holy Scripturesà

Chapter 41. Whoever takes another meaning out of Scripture than the writer intendedà

Chapter 42. But sight shall displace faith; and hope shall be swallowed up in that perfectà

Chapter 43. And thus a man who is resting upon faithà

Chapter 44. And, therefore, if a man fully understands that |the end of the commandment isà

Book 2

Chapter 1. As when I was writing about things, I introduced the subject with a warningà

Chapter 2. Now some signs are natural, others conventional. Natural signs are those whichà

Chapter 3. Conventional signs, on the other hand, are those which living beings mutually exchange forà

Chapter 4. Of the signs, then, by which men communicate their thoughts to one anotherà

Chapter 5. But because words pass away as soon as they strike upon the airà

Chapter 6. And hence it happened that even Holy Scriptureà

Chapter 7. But hasty and careless readers are led astray by many and manifold obscurities andà

Chapter 8. But why I view them with greater delight under that aspect than if noà

Chapter 9. First of all, then, it is necessary that we should be led by theà

Chapter 10. After these two steps of fear and pietyà

Chapter 11. And when, to the extent of his powerà

Chapter 12. But let us now go back to consider the third step here mentionedà

Chapter 13. Now the whole canon of Scripture on which we say this judgment is toà

Chapter 14. In all these books those who fear God and are of a meek andà

Chapter 15. Now there are two causes which prevent what is written from being understoodà

Chapter 16. The great remedy for ignorance of proper signs is knowledge of languages.à

Chapter 17. And this circumstance would assist rather than hinder the understanding of Scriptureà

Chapter 18. And very often a translator, to whom the meaning is not well knownà

Chapter 19. But since we do not clearly see what the actual thought is which theà

Chapter 20. And men are easily offended in a matter of this kindà

Chapter 21. About ambiguous signs, however, I shall speak afterwards.à

Chapter 22. Now among translations themselves the Italian Itala is to be preferred to the othersà

Chapter 23. In the case of figurative signs, again, if ignorance of any of them shouldà

Chapter 24. Ignorance of things, too, renders figurative expressions obscureà

Chapter 25. Ignorance of numbers, too, prevents us from understanding things that are set down inà

Chapter 26. Not a few things, too, are closed against us and obscured by ignorance ofà

Chapter 27. For we must not listen to the falsities of heathen superstitionà

Chapter 28. But whether the fact is as Varro has relatedà

Chapter 29. But to explain more fully this whole topic for it is one that cannotà

Chapter 30. All the arrangements made by men to the making and worshipping of idols areà

Chapter 31. To these we may add thousands of the most frivolous practicesà

Chapter 32. Nor can we exclude from this kind of superstition those who were called genethliacià

Chapter 33. But to desire to predict the characters, the actsà

Chapter 34. Nor is it to the point to say that the very smallest and briefestà

Chapter 35. For in this way it comes to pass that men who lust after evilà

Chapter 36. All arts of this sort, therefore, are either nullitiesà

Chapter 37. And all these omens are of force just so far as has been arrangedà

Chapter 38. But when all these have been cut away and rooted out of the mindà

Chapter 39. But in regard to pictures and statues, and other works of this kindà

Chapter 40. This whole class of human arrangements, which are of convenience for the necessary intercourseà

Chapter 41. But, coming to the next point, we are not to reckon among human institutionsà

Chapter 42. Anything, then, that we learn from history about the chronology of past times assistsà

Chapter 43. As to the utility of history, moreover, passing over the Greeksà

Chapter 44. And even when in the course of an historical narrative former institutions of menà

Chapter 45. There is also a species of narrative resembling descriptionà

Chapter 46. The knowledge of the stars, again, is not a matter of narrationà

Chapter 47. Further, as to the remaining arts, whether those by which something is made whichà

Chapter 48. There remain those branches of knowledge which pertain not to the bodily sensesà

Chapter 49. There are also valid processes of reasoning which lead to FALSE conclusionsà

Chapter 50. And yet the validity of logical sequences is not a thing devised by menà

Chapter 51. In this passage, however, where the argument is about the resurrectionà

Chapter 52. Therefore it is one thing to know the laws of inferenceà

Chapter 53. Again, the science of definition, of division, and of partitionà

Chapter 54. There are also certain rules for a more copious kind of argumentà

Chapter 55. This art, however, when it is learnt, is not to be used so muchà

Chapter 56. Coming now to the science of number, it is clear to the dullest apprehensionà

Chapter 57. The man, however, who puts so high a value on these things as toà

Chapter 58. Accordingly, I think that it is well to warn studious and able young menà

Chapter 59. What, then, some men have done in regard to all words and names foundà

Chapter 60. Moreover, if those who are called philosophers, and especially the Platonistsà

Chapter 61. And what else have many good and faithful men among our brethren done? Doà

Chapter 62. But when the student of the Holy Scripturesà

Chapter 63. But just as poor as the store of gold and silver and garments whichà

Book 3

Chapter 1. The man who fears God seeks diligently in Holy Scripture for a knowledge ofà

Chapter 2. But when proper words make Scripture ambiguous, we must see in the first placeà

Chapter 3. Now look at some examples. The heretical pointingà

Chapter 4. But the following ambiguity of punctuation does not go against the faith in eitherà

Chapter 5. Where, however, the ambiguity cannot be cleared upà

Chapter 6. And all the directions that I have given about ambiguous punctuations are to beà

Chapter 7. There is, again, an ambiguity arising out of the doubtful sound of syllablesà

Chapter 8. And not only these, but also those ambiguities that do not relate either toà

Chapter 9. But the ambiguities of metaphorical words, about which I am next to speakà

Chapter 10. This bondage, however, in the case of the Jewish peopleà

Chapter 11. Now it is not recorded that any of the Gentile churches did thisà

Chapter 12. Accordingly the liberty that comes by Christ took those whom it found under bondageà

Chapter 13. Now he is in bondage to a sign who usesà

Chapter 14. But in addition to the foregoing rule, which guards us against taking a metaphoricalà

Chapter 15. But as men are prone to estimate sinsà

Chapter 16. I mean by charity that affection of the mind which aims at the enjoymentà

Chapter 17. Every severity, therefore, and apparent cruelty, either in word or deedà

Chapter 18. Those things, again, whether only sayings or whether actual deedsà

Chapter 19. We must, therefore, consider carefully what is suitable to times and places and personsà

Chapter 20. Now the saints of ancient times were, under the form of an earthly kingdomà

Chapter 21. Whatever, then, is in accordance with the habits of those with whom we areà

Chapter 22. But when men unacquainted with other modes of life than their own meet withà

Chapter 23. The tyranny of lust being thus overthrown, charity reigns through its supremely just lawsà

Chapter 24. If the sentence is one of command, either forbidding a crime or viceà

Chapter 25. Again, it often happens that a man who has attainedà

Chapter 26. We must also be on our guard against supposing that what in the Oldà

Chapter 27. For, if it was possible for one man to use many wives with chastityà

Chapter 28. But those who, giving the rein to lustà

Chapter 29. But these same men might say that it is not right even to honourà

Chapter 30. For if they had been under the influence of any such passionà

Chapter 31. And with what moderation and self-restraint those men used their wives appears chiefly inà

Chapter 32. Therefore, although all, or nearly all, the transactions recorded in the Old Testament areà

Chapter 33. And when he reads of the sins of great menà

Chapter 34. The chief thing to be inquired into, thereforeà

Chapter 35. But as there are many ways in which things show a likeness to eachà

Chapter 36. Now the rule in regard to this variation has two forms.à

Chapter 37. And in the same way other objects are not single in their significationà

Chapter 38. When, again, not some one interpretation, but two or more interpretations are put uponà

Chapter 39. When, however, a meaning is evolved of such a kind that what is doubtfulà

Chapter 40. Moreover, I would have learned men to know that the authors of our Scripturesà

Chapter 41. It would be tedious to go over all the rest in this wayà

Chapter 42. One Tichonius, who, although a Donatist himself, has written most triumphantly against the Donatistsà

Chapter 43. The author himself, however, when commending these rulesà

Chapter 44. The first is about the Lord and His bodyà

Chapter 45. The second rule is about the twofold division of the body of the Lordà

Chapter 46. The third rule relates to the promises and the lawà

Chapter 47. The fourth rule of Tichonius is about species and genus.à

Chapter 48. Now the species is not always overstepped, for things are often said of suchà

Chapter 49. This spiritual Israel, therefore, is distinguished from the carnal Israel which is of oneà

Chapter 50. The fifth rule Tichonius lays down is one he designates of timesà

Chapter 51. In the next place, our author calls those numbers legitimate which Holy Scripture moreà

Chapter 52. The sixth rule Tichonius calls the recapitulation, whichà

Chapter 53. In the same book, again, when the generations of the sons of Noah areà

Chapter 54. This recapitulation is found in a still more obscure formà

Chapter 55. The seventh rule of Tichonius and the lastà

Chapter 56. Now all these rules, except the one about the promises and the lawà

Book 4

Chapter 1. This work of mine, which is entitled On Christian Doctrineà

Chapter 2. In the first place, then, I wish by this preamble to put a stopà

Chapter 3. Now, the art of rhetoric being available for the enforcing either of truth orà

Chapter 4. But the theories and rules on this subject to whichà

Chapter 5. And, therefore, as infants cannot learn to speak except by learning words and phrasesà

Chapter 6. It is the duty, then, of the interpreter and teacher of Holy Scriptureà

Chapter 7. And all the methods I have mentioned are constantly used by nearly every oneà

Chapter 8. Now it is especially necessary for the man who is bound to speak wiselyà

Chapter 9. Here, perhaps, some one inquires whether the authors whose divinely-inspired writings constitute the canonà

Chapter 10. I could, however, if I had time, show those men who cry up theirà

Chapter 11. For who would not see what the apostle meant to sayà

Chapter 12. In the Second Epistle to the Corinthians, againà

Chapter 13. Further still, the educated man observes that those sections which the Greeks call |kommata|à

Chapter 14. It would be tedious to pursue the matter furtherà

Chapter 15. But perhaps some one is thinking that I have selected the Apostle Paul becauseà

Chapter 16. When, then, this rustic, or quondam rustic prophetà

Chapter 17. For what is there that sober ears could wish changed in this speech? Inà

Chapter 18. And then the future captivity under an oppressive king is announced as approachingà

Chapter 19. Next he reproaches them with their luxury in seeking pleasure for the sense ofà

Chapter 20. But now as to the sentence which follows all theseà

Chapter 21. And a number of other points bearing on the laws of eloquence could beà

Chapter 22. But although I take some examples of eloquence from those writings of theirs whichà

Chapter 23. For there are some passages which are not understood in their proper forceà

Chapter 24. Now a strong desire for clearness sometimes leads to neglect of the more polishedà

Chapter 25. And this must be insisted on as necessary to our being understoodà

Chapter 26. For teaching, of course, TRUE eloquence consists, not in making people like what theyà

Chapter 27. Accordingly a great orator has truly said that |an eloquent man must speak soà

Chapter 28. If however, they do not yet know thisà

Chapter 29. But for the sake at those who are so fastidious that they do notà

Chapter 30. And so much labour has been spent by men on the beauty of expressionà

Chapter 31. In a serious assembly, moreover, such as is spoken of when it is saidà

Chapter 32. And so our Christian orator, while he says what is justà

Chapter 33. Now if any one says that we need not direct men how or whatà

Chapter 34. He then who, in speaking, aims at enforcing what is goodà

Chapter 35. Now the author I have quoted could have exemplified these three directionsà

Chapter 36. And when the apostle spoke about trials in regard to secular affairs and whatà

Chapter 37. Of course, if we were giving men advice as to how they ought toà

Chapter 38. And yet, while our teacher ought to speak of great mattersà

Chapter 39. But now to come to something more definite.à

Chapter 40. In the following words of the apostle we have the temperate styleà

Chapter 41. And, indeed, I must confess that our authors are very defective in that graceà

Chapter 42. The majestic style of speech differs from the temperate style just spoken ofà

Chapter 43. And in the same way, writing to the Romansà

Chapter 44. Again, in writing to the Galatians, although the whole epistle is written in theà

Chapter 45. But these writings of the apostles, though clearà

Chapter 46. St. Ambrose also, though dealing with a question of very great importanceà

Chapter 47. An example of the temperate style is the celebrated encomium on virginity from Cyprianà

Chapter 48. Ambrose also uses the temperate and ornamented style when he is holding up beforeà

Chapter 49. But I shall select examples of the majestic style from their treatment of aà

Chapter 50. Ambrose again, inveighing against such practices, says: |Hence arise these incentives to viceà

Chapter 51. But we are not to suppose that it is against rule to mingle theseà

Chapter 52. Now it is a matter of importance to determine what style should be alternatedà

Chapter 53. If frequent and vehement applause follows a speakerà

Chapter 54. The quiet style, too, has made a change in manyà

Chapter 55. From all this we may conclude, that the end arrived at by the twoà

Chapter 56. Now in regard to the three conditions I laid down a little while agoà

Chapter 57. Eloquence of the temperate style, also, must, in the case of the Christian oratorà

Chapter 58. Again, when it becomes necessary to stir and sway the hearer's mind by theà

Chapter 59. But whatever may be the majesty of the styleà

Chapter 60. Now these men do good to many by preaching what they themselves do notà

Chapter 61. Such a teacher as is here described mayà

Chapter 62. There are, indeed, some men who have a good deliveryà

Chapter 63. But whether a man is going to address the people or to dictate whatà

Chapter 64. This book has extended to a greater length than I expected or desired.à

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