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Text Sermons : Greek Word Studies : Celebrate (rejoice, be merry, glad) (2165) euphraino

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Rejoice (2165) (euphraino from eu = well, good + phren = mind, intellect, disposition) means in active sense to make someone glad, to cheer someone up, to make them joyful in mind, to cause them to be glad (2Cor 2:2, Lxx = Ps 19:8, Pr 23:15). In the middle voice or passive voice euphraino means to be glad, to be joyful, to celebrate or be jubilant (used 4 times with this sense in story of Prodigal son = to feast in token of joy), to enjoy oneself, to be delighted, to keep a day of rejoicing.

NIDNTT adds that "such joy stems largely from those events and situations which give rise to communal rejoicing, such as a banquet. Nevertheless philosophers also us the word for introspective and spiritual joy....For the rest a wide diversity of usage can be found, a fact indicated by numerous Hebrew equivalents: joy as an emotion (e.g. Ps. 16:11); joy in someone or something (2Sa. 1:26; Eccl. 11:9); joy in God (Neh. 8:10; Ps. 33:21); joy in God’s word (Jer. 15:16; Ps. 119:14); joy in the keeping of the commandments (Ps. 119:162); joy in the time of salvation (Isa. 35:10; 52:12)."

To "enjoy the good life" in Luke 12:19 and Luke 16:19, a desire that proved to be a deception for the rich man (see Lk 12:20-21, Lk 16:22-31). In Rev 12:12-note euphraino is used metaphorically in an exhortation to the heavens to rejoice. There is also "deceptive" rejoicing by the children of Israel as they reveled in idolatry at Mt Sinai (Acts 7:41) and when the wicked of the world rejoiced over the martyrdom of God's two witnesses.

Generally speaking, euphraino indicates the subjective feeling of joy and the related term agalliao the outward demonstration of joy ("Jump for joy" is the idea). In the Septuagint, euphraino is used alongside agalliao to express eschatological joy in which even the heavens and earth participate (Ps 96:11, Ps 97:11) and even of God rejoicing with them (Isa 65:19). The festive joy of the Jews in their OT community feasts (eating, drinking, etc) is "a vivid picture of eschatological joy." (NIDNTT - e.g., see Rev 12:12, 18:20). In the NT, the verb chairo is preferred over euphraino (although in the Septuagint euphraino is almost as frequently as chairo).

Mounce - Euphraino conveys the basic idea of a created state of joy or euphoria.

Euphraino - 14x in 14v - Usage: celebrate(5), glad(1), joyously living(1), makes...glad(1), merry(1), rejoice(4), rejoicing(1).

Luke 12:19 'And I will say to my soul, "Soul, you have many goods laid up for many years to come; take your ease, eat, drink and be merry."'

Luke 15:23 and bring the fattened calf, kill it, and let us eat and celebrate; 24 for this son of mine was dead and has come to life again; he was lost and has been found.' And they began to celebrate.
29 "But he answered and said to his father, 'Look! For so many years I have been serving you and I have never neglected a command of yours; and yet you have never given me a young goat, so that I might celebrate with my friends;
32 'But we had to celebrate and rejoice, for this brother of yours was dead and has begun to live, and was lost and has been found.'"

Luke 16:19 "Now there was a rich man, and he habitually dressed in purple and fine linen, joyously living in splendor every day.


Comment: This passage in context speaks of Jesus "rejoicing" (celebrating) that He was resurrected.

Acts 7:41 "At that time they made a calf and brought a sacrifice to the idol, and were rejoicing in the works of their hands.

Comment: This type of rejoicing is transient, futile, vain, empty because of the source - vain, lifeless idols! How in contrast to the rejoicing given by the Spirit, focused on things that are righteous (see especially the passages in Revelation below).

Romans 15:10-note Again he says, "REJOICE, O GENTILES, WITH HIS PEOPLE."

2 Corinthians 2:2 For if I cause you sorrow, who then makes me glad but the one whom I made sorrowful?


Revelation 11:10-note And those who dwell on the earth will rejoice over them and celebrate; and they will send gifts to one another, because these two prophets tormented those who dwell on the earth.

Revelation 12:12-note "For this reason (Rev 12:11), rejoice (present imperative), O heavens and you who dwell in them. Woe to the earth and the sea, because the devil has come down to you, having great wrath, knowing that he has only a short time."

Revelation 18:20-note "Rejoice (present imperative) over her, O heaven, and you saints and apostles and prophets, because God has pronounced judgment for you against her (Babylon)."

Euphraino - 187v in the non-apocryphal Septuagint (Lxx) Note that the preponderance of uses of euphraino are found in the Psalms (57x in 57v) - Take a moment and meditate on these uses (interrogating with the 5W/H questions) and be sure to check the context if you see a phrase like "therefore" or "for this reason", "for" at the beginning of a verse [= term of explanation] or "but" [= term of contrast]) to see what is associated with rejoicing and celebration in the Psalms. It will bless your spirit! - Lev 23:40; Deut 12:7, 12, 18; 14:26; 16:11, 14f; 20:6; 24:5; 26:11; 27:7; 28:39, 63; 30:9; 32:43; 33:18; Jdg 9:13, 19; 16:23; 19:3; 1 Sam 2:1; 6:13; 11:9, 15; 16:5; 2Sa 1:20; 1Kgs 1:40, 45; 8:65; 1Chr 16:10, 31, 33; 29:9; 2Chr 6:41; 7:10; 15:15; 20:27; 23:13, 21; 29:36; 30:25; Ezra 6:22; Neh 12:43; Esther 4:17; 5:9, 14; Job 21:12; 31:25; (Note that the uses of euphraino in Psalms are often a translation of the phrase "be glad" or "glad" and other uses as "rejoice") Ps 5:11; Ps 9:2; 14:7; Ps 16:9; 19:8; 21:1, Ps 21:6; 30:1; 31:7; 32:11; Ps 33:21; 34:2; 35:15, 27; Ps 40:16; Ps 43:4; 45:8; 46:4; Ps 48:11; 53:6; Ps 58:10; Ps 63:11; 64:10; Ps 65:10; 66:6; 67:4; 68:3; 69:32; 70:4; Ps 77:3; 85:6; 86:4, 11 ("unite" in Lxx = "let my heart rejoice"); Ps 87:7; 89:42; 90:14f; 92:4; 96:11; 97:1, 8, 12; 104:15, 31, 34; 105:3, 38; 106:5; 107:30, 42; 109:28; 113:9; 118:24; 119:74; 122:1; 126:3; 149:2; Pr 2:14; 8:30f; 10:1; 12:20, 25; 14:10; 15:13, 20, 30; 17:21f; 22:18; 23:15, 24f; 27:11; 29:2f, 25; 31:25; Eccl 2:10; 3:12, 22; 4:16; 5:19; 8:15; 10:19; 11:8f; Song 1:4; Isa 9:3, 17; 12:6; 14:8, 29; 16:10; 24:7, 14; 25:9; 26:19; 28:22, 26; 30:29; 35:1; 41:16; 42:11; 44:23; 45:8; 49:13; 52:8; 54:1; 56:7; 61:10; 62:5; 65:13, 19; 66:10; Jer 7:34; 20:15; 31:7, 12f; 50:11; Lam 2:17; 4:21; Ezek 23:41; Dan 4:31; 9:24f; Hos 7:3; 9:1; Joel 2:21, 23; Amos 6:13; Hab 1:15; Zeph 3:14, 17; Zech 2:10; 8:19; 10:7.

Here are some representative uses of euphraino from the Septuagint (Lxx), noting that the first use is in the celebration of the Feast of Booths or Tabernacles, a feast that will be celebrated in the Millennial reign (See Zech 14:16-19)

Isaiah 62:5 For as a young man marries a virgin, So your sons will marry you; And as the bridegroom rejoices over the bride, So your God will rejoice over you.

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