1. And the LORD spake unto Moses and to Aaron, saying unto them,
1. Et loquutus est Jehova ad Mosen et Aharon, dicendo ad eos:
2. Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, These are the beasts which ye shall eat among all the beasts that are on the earth.
2. Loquimini ad filios Israel, dicendo, Haec sunt animalia quae comedetis ex omnibus animalibus quae sunt super terram:
3. Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is clovenfooted, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that shall ye eat.
3. Omne dividens ungulam et findens fissuram ungularum, et ruminans inter animalia, illud come-detis.
4. Nevertheless these shall ye not eat of them that chew the cud, or of them that divide the hoof: as the camel, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you.
4. Veruntamen hoc non comedetis ex his quae ruminant, et ex his quae dividunt ungulam, camelum, quia ruminat, et ungulam ipse non divi-dit: immundus erit vobis.
5. And the coney, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you.
5. Et cuniculum: quia ruminat, et ungulam non dividit, immundus erit vobis.
6. And the hare, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you.
6. Et leporem: quia ruminat, et ungulam non dividit, imnmndus erit vobis.
7. And the swine, though he divide the hoof, and be clovenfooted, yet he cheweth not the cud; he is unclean to you.
7. Suem quoque: quia dividit ungulam, et findit fissuram ungulae, ipse vero non ruminat, immundus erit vobis.
8. Of their flesh shall ye not eat, and their carcase shall ye not touch; they are unclean to you.
8. De carne eorum non comedetis, neque cadaver eorum tangetis: immunda erunt vobis.
9. These shall ye eat of all that are in the waters: Whatsoever hath fins and scales in the waters, in the seas, and in the rivers, them shall ye eat.
9. Hoe autem comedetis ex omnibus quae sunt in aquis: onmia quibus sunt pinnae et squamae in aquis maris, et in fluminibus, illa comedetis.
10. And all that have not fins and scales in the seas, and in the rivers, of all that move in the waters, and of any living thing which is in the waters, they shall be an abomination unto you:
10. Omnia vero quibus non sunt pinnae et squamae in mari, et in fluminibus, tam de omni reptili aquatili, quam de omni anima vivente quae est in aquis: abominatio erunt vobis.
11. They shall be even an abomination unto you; ye shall not eat of their flesh, but ye shall have their carcases in abomination.
11. Abominatio, inquam, erunt vobis: de carne eorum non comedetis, et cadaver eorum abomina-bimini.
12. Whatsoever hath no fins nor scales in the waters, that shall be an abomination unto you.
12. Quicquid non habet pinnas et squamas in aquis, abominatio erit vobis.
13. And these are they which ye shall have in abomination among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray,
13. Haec autem abominabimini ex volatilibus, (non comedetur: quia abominatio sunt:) aquilam, et gry-phum, et haliaeetum,
14. And the vulture, and the kite after his kind;
14. Et vulturem, et milvum secundum speciem suam.
15. Every raven after his kind;
15. Et omnem corvum secundum speciem suam.
16. And the owl, and the night hawk, and the cuckow, and the hawk after his kind,
16. Et filiam struthionis, et noctuam, et larum: et accipitrem secundum speciem suam.
17. And the little owl, and the cormorant, and the great owl,
17. Et nycticoracem, et mergulum, et ibin,
18. And the swan, and the pelican, and the gier-eagle,
18. Et porphyrionem, et pellicanum, et cygnum,
19. And the stork, the heron after her kind, and the lapwing, and the bat.
19. Et ciconiam, charadrium secundum speciem suam, et upupam, et vespertilionem.
20. All fowls that creep, going upon all four, shall be an abomination unto you.
20. Omne reptile alatum ambulans super quatuor pedes, abominatio erit vobis.
21. Yet these may ye eat of every flying creeping thing that goeth upon all four, which have legs above their feet, to leap withal upon the earth;
21. Veruntamen hoc comedetis ex omni reptili alato quod gradietur super quatuor pedes, cui sunt crura super pedes suos, quibus saliant super terram.
22. Even these of them ye may eat; the locust after his kind, and the bald locust after his kind, and the beetle after his kind, and the grasshopper after his kind.
22. Haec ex illis comedetis, locustam juxta speciem suam, et attacum juxta speciem suam, et ophiomacum secundum speciem suam, et bruchum secundum speciem suam.
23. But all other flying creeping things, which have four feet, shall be an abomination unto you.
23. Omne autem reliquum reptile alatum cui sunt quatuor pedes, abominatio erit vobis.
24. And for these ye shall be unclean: whosoever toucheth the carcase of them shall be unclean until the even.
24. Et his polluetis vos: quicunque tetigerit cadaver eorum, immundus erit usque ad vesperam
25. And whosoever beareth ought of the carcase of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even.
25. Et quicunque portaverit cadavera, lavabit vestimenta sua, et immundus erit usque advesperam.
26. The carcases of every beast which divideth the hoof, and is not clovenfooted, nor cheweth the cud, are unclean unto you: every one that toucheth them shall be unclean.
26. Omne animal quod dividit ungulam, et fissuram non findit., et non ruminat, immunda erunt vobis: quicunque tetigerit ea, immundus erit.
27. And whatsoever goeth upon his paws, among all manner of beasts that go on all four, those are unclean unto you: whoso toucheth their carcase shall be unclean until the even.
27. Et quicquid graditur super volas suas inter omnes feras quae gradiuntur super quatuor pedes, immunda erunt vobis: quicunque tetigerit cadavera eorum, immundus erit usque ad vesperam.
28. And he that beareth the carcase of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even: they are unclean unto you.
28. Et qui portaverit cadavera eorum, lavabit vestimenta, immundusque erit usque ad vesperam: immunda erunt vobis.
29. These also shall be unclean unto you among the creeping things that creep upon the earth; the weasel, and the mouse, and the tortoise after his kind,
29. Et haec vobis immunda erunt inter reptilia quae reptant super terram, mustella, et mus, et rubeta secundum speciem suam.
30. And the ferret, and the chameleon, and the lizard, and the snail, and the mole.
30. Et mygale, et chameleon, et stellio, et lacerta, et talpa.
31. These are unclean to you among all that creep: whosoever doth touch them, when they be dead, shall be unclean until the even.
31. Ista immunda sunt vobis inter omnia reptilia: quicunque tetigerit illa postquam mortua fuerit, im-mundus erit usqne ad vesperam.
32. And upon whatsoever any of them, when they are dead, doth fall, it shall be unclean; whether it be any vessel of wood, or raiment, or skin, or sack, whatsoever vessel it be, wherein any work is done, it must be put into water, and it shall be unclean until the even; so it shall be cleansed.
32. Et omne super quod tetigerit aliquid ex eis postquam mortua fuerint, immudum erit, tam vas lineum quam vestis, aut pellis, aut saccus: omne vas in quo fieri solet opus, in aquam mittetur, et immundum erit usque ad vesperam, et mundabitur.
33. And every earthen vessel, whereinto an.y of them falleth, whatsoever is in it shall be unclean; and ye shall break it.
33. Omne praeterea vas testaceum intra quod occiderit aliquid ex eis, quicquid erit in illo immundum erit, et ipsum confringetis.
34. Of all meat which may be eaten, that on which such water cometh shall be unclean: and all drink that may be drunk in every such vessel shall be unclean.
34. Omnis cibus qui comeditur, super quem venerit aqua, immundus erit, et omnis potus qui potatur in omni vase impuro, imnmndus erit.
35. And every thing whereupon any part of their carcase falleth shall be unclean; whether it be oven, or ranges for pots, they shall be broken down: for they are unclean, and shall be unclean unto you.
35. Et omne super quo ceciderit quicquam de cadavere eorum, imundum erit: clibanus et chytro-podes diruentur, immunda sunt, et immunda erunt vobis.
36. Nevertheless a fountain or pit, wherein there is plenty of water, shall be clean: but that which toucheth their carcase shall be unclean.
36. Veruntamen fons et cisterna congregationis aquarum erit munda: at quod tetigerit cadaver eorum, immundum erit.
37. And if any part of their carcase fall upon any sowing-seed which is to be sown, it shall be clean.
37. Praeterea si ceciderit quicquam de cadavere eorum super aliquod semen satum, quod seminabi-tur, mundum erit.
38. But if any water be put upon the seed, and any part of their carcase fall thereon, it shall be unclean unto you.
38. At quum fusa fuerit aqua super semen, et ceciderit quicquam de cadavere eorum super illud, immundum erit vobis.
39. And if any beast of which ye may eat, die; he that toucheth the carcase thereof shall be unclean until the even.
39. Quum autem mortuum fuerit aliquod animal quod sit vobis in cibum, qui tetigerit cadaver ejus, immundus erit usque ad vesperam.
40. And he that eateth of the carcase of it shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even: he also that beareth the carcase of it shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even.
40. Et qui comederit de cadavere ejus, lavabit vestimenta sua, immundusque erit usque ad vesperam: is quoque qui extulerit cadaver, lavabit vestimenta sua, atque immundus erit usque ad vesperam.
41. And every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth shall be an abomination; it shall not be eaten.
41. Et omne reptile reptans super terram, abominatio est, non comedetur.
42. Whatsoever goeth upon the belly, and whatsoever goeth upon all four, or whatsoever hath more feet among all creeping things that creep upon the earth, them ye shall not eat; for they are an abomination.
42. Quicquid item graditur super pectus, et quicquid incedit super quatuor aut plures pedes inter omnia reptilia quae reptant super terram, non comedetis: quia abominatio sunt.
43. Ye shall not make yourselves abominable with any creeping thing that creepeth, neither shall ye make yourselves unclean with them, that ye should be defiled thereby.
43. Ne impuras reddatis animas vestras in omni reptili quod reptat, nec polluatis vos in eis, neque coinquinetis vos per ea.
44. For I am the LORD your God: ye shall therefore sanctify yourselves, and ye shall be holy; for I am holy: neither shall ye defile yourselves with any manner of creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.
44. Quia ego Jehova Deus vester, sanctificate ergo vos, et estote sancti, quia sanctus sum: et ne polluatis animas vestras per aliqua reptilia quae reptant super terram.
45. For I am the LORD that bringeth you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: ye shall therefore be holy, for I am holy.
45. Ego enim sum Jehova, qui eduxi vos e terra AEgypti, ut essem vobis in Deum, et essetis sancti, quia sanctus sum.
46. This is the law of the beasts, and of the fowl, and of every living creature that moveth in the waters, and of every creature that creepeth upon the earth:
46. Haec est lex animalium terrestrium, et volatilium, atque omnium animalium viventium qae reptant, et omnium animantium reptantium super terram.
47. To make a difference between the unclean and the clean, and between the beast that may be eaten and the beast that may not be eaten.
47. Ad distinguendum inter im-mundum et mundum, et inter bes-tias qum comedi possunt, et bestias qum comedi non possunt.
2. These are the beasts which ye shall eat. The holy fathers, before the birth of Moses, knew what animals were unclean; of which fact Noah afforded a manifest proof, when, by God's command, he took into the ark seven pairs of the clean animals, and offered of them his sacrifice of thanksgiving to God. Certainly he could not have obeyed the command of God, unless he had either been taught by secret inspiration, or unless this tradition had descended to him from his forefathers. But there is nothing absurd in the notion that God, desiring to confirm the traditional distinction, appointed certain marks of difference whereby its observation might be more scrupulously attended to, and lest any transgression of it should creep in through ignorance. For God also consecrated the Sabbath to Himself from the creation of the world, and desired it to be observed by the people before the promulgation of the Law; and yet afterwards the peculiar holiness of the day was more distinctly expressed. Besides, the clean animals are here distinguished from the unclean, by name as well as by signs. The proper names, which are recited, are of little service to us now-a-days; because many species which are common in the East, are unknown elsewhere; and it was therefore easy for Jews who were born and had lived in distant countries, to fall into error about them; whilst, on the other hand, the more bold they are in their conjectures, the less are they to be trusted. As to many of them, I acknowledge that there is no ambiguity, especially as to the tame animals, or those that are to be found everywhere, or that have plain descriptions of them given in the Bible. A positive knowledge then is only to be sought from the signs which are here laid down; viz., that the animals which have cloven hoofs, and which ruminate, are clean: and that those are unclean in which either of these two things is wanting; that either sea or river fish, which have fins and scales, are clean. No such distinction as to birds is given, but only the unclean are named, which it was sinful to eat. Lastly, mention is made of reptiles. As to details, if there be anything worthy of observation, the place to consider them will be further on; let us now remember, in general, what I have before touched upon, viz., that whilst the Gentiles might eat every kind of food, many were forbidden to the Jews, in order that they might learn in their very food to cultivate purity; and this was the object of their separation from ordinary customs. Hence it arose that they use the word chll, chalal both for |to make common,| and to |contaminate;| and the word, chvl, chol, signifies |polluted,| because it is opposed to anything holy or set apart. It is true, indeed, that the Gentiles, by natural instinct, have regarded with the utmost horror the eating of some of the animals which are here forbidden; still, God would surround His people with barriers, which must separate them from their neighbors.
Those who imagine that God here had regard to their health, as if discharging the office of a Physician, pervert by their vain speculation the whole force and utility of this law. I allow, indeed, that the meats which God permits to be eaten are wholesome, and best adapted for food; but, both from the preface, -- in which God admonished them that holiness was to be cultivated by the people whom He had chosen, -- as also from the (subsequent) abolition of this law, it is sufficiently plain that this distinction of meats was a part of that elementary instruction under which God kept His ancient people.
|Let no man therefore judge you (says Paul) in meat or in drink, which are a shadow of things to come; but the body is of Christ.| (Colossians 2:16-17.)
By which expressions he means, that what was spiritual had been shadowed forth in the external rite of abstaining from meats. To the same effect he elsewhere says, (Romans 14:14) that he knows and is persuaded, that in the Lord Jesus Christ there is nothing unclean; viz., because Christ by his death has redeemed His people from slavish subjection. Hence it follows, that the prohibition of meats must be counted among the ceremonies, which were exercises in the worship of God. But here a question arises, how it is reconcilable that, even from the days of Noah, certain animals were unclean, and yet that all without exception were allowed to be eaten? I cannot agree with some in thinking that the distinction originally made by God grew obsolete by degrees; for God, in excepting the eating of blood only, makes a grant of whatsoever moves upon the earth as the food of the posterity of Noah. I therefore restrict to the sacrifices that uncleanness, with the knowledge of which the hearts of the Patriarchs were then inspired, nor do I doubt but that it was as lawful for Abraham, as well as for them, to eat swine's flesh as the flesh of oxen. Afterwards, when God imposed the yoke of the Law to repress the licentiousness of the people, He somewhat curtailed this general permission, not because He repented of His liberality; but because it was useful to compel in this way to obedience these almost rude and uncivilized people. But, since before the Law the condition of the saints was the same as our own, it must be remembered, as I said before, that, agreeably to the dictates of nature, they spontaneously avoided certain foods, just as at present no one will hunt wolves or lions for food, nor desire to eat serpents and other venomous animals. But the object of this ordinance was different, viz., lest they who were God's sacred and peculiar people, should freely and promiscuously communicate with the Gentiles.
3 Whatsoever parteth the hoof. Whilst I fear that but little confidence can be placed in the allegories, in which many have taken delight; so I do not find any fault with, nor even refuse that which has been handed down from the ancients, viz., that by the cleaving of the hoof is signified prudence in distinguishing the mysteries of Scripture, and by the chewing of the cud serious meditation on its heavenly doctrines; although I cannot approve of the subtlety which they add, viz., that those |rightly divide the word| who have known how to elicit mystical senses from its letter; because hence it has come to pass that they have allowed themselves in all sorts of imaginations. I therefore embrace the more simple notion, that they who only have a taste for the carnal sense, do not divide the hoof; for, as Paul says, only |he that is spiritual discerneth all things.| (1 Corinthians 2:15, margin.) The chewing of the cud ought to follow, duly to prepare and digest the spiritual food; for many gulp down Scripture without profit, because they neither sincerely desire to profit by it, nor seek to refresh their souls by it, as their nourishment; but satisfied with the empty delights of knowledge, make no efforts to conform their life to it. In the first clause, then, brutal stupidity is condemned; in the other, the ambition and levity of curious men. God, indeed, set before Peter, in the vision, unclean animals as images and figures of the Gentiles, (Acts 10:12;) and therefore it is lawful, by probable analogy, to transfer to men what is said about the animals. But why God should have appointed the cloven hoof and rumination as signs, is no more clear to me than why He should have forbidden their eating swine's flesh; unless, perchance, because the solid hoof is a sign of wildness; whilst the animals which do not ruminate feed for the most part on filth and excrement. We know that on this point there was much contention immediately after the promulgation of the Gospel, because some of the Jews, in their excessive devotion to the Law, and considering that the distinction of meats was not to be reckoned among the, ceremonial enactments, desired that the new Church should be bound by the same trammels as had been imposed upon the ancient people. At length, by the decree of the Apostles, permission was given to the Gentiles to eat all kinds of meat, except only blood and things strangled, and that only for a time, for the sake of avoiding offense, since the Jews would not otherwise have been propitiated. Now, after what God Himself had ordained respecting the distinction of meats had been abrogated, it was an act of diabolical audacity to oblige men's consciences by human laws, and to prevent them from enjoying the liberty obtained by Christ.
Another question remains, how God should pronounce anything which He has created to be unclean; for, if an animal be rejected on account of its uncleanness, part of the reproach redounds to the Author Himself. Besides, this rejection seems also to be opposed to the first declaration of God, when, considering all things which He had made, He acknowledged them to be |very good.| The solution is, that no animal was ever unclean in itself; but that this merely refers to its use. Thus in the tree of the knowledge of good and evil there was naturally neither fault nor harm, so that it should infect man by its pollution, yet he contracted death from it on account of God's prohibition. Wherefore, also, in this passage, God does not condemn His work in the animals, but, as to their being eaten, He would have them accounted unclean, that the people may abominate that which is forbidden them. In a word, it is only transgression which defiles: for the animals have never changed their nature; but it was in God's power to determine what He would have to be lawful or unlawful. Thus another objection is removed. Christ declares that
|not that which goeth into the mouth defileth a man | (Matthew 10:11.)
If any one should thence infer that harmless animals are improperly condemned, we must reply that they are not accounted unclean in themselves, but that the prohibition had a different object. For that doctrine was always true, that
|the kingdom of God is not meat and drink,| (Romans 14:17;)
but, when God forbade the Israelites to eat this or that kind of food, they were admonished by this ceremonial precept how abominable is the inward corruption of the heart. But by such elementary teaching they were prepared and led onwards to spiritual doctrine, that they might know that nothing defiles a man except what comes out of his mouth. Now-a-days the condition of believers is different. for liberty is obtained for them, since Christ, having abrogated the Law, has nailed
|the handwriting of ordinances to his cross.| (Colossians 2:14.)
4 Nevertheless these shall ye not eat of. He more clearly expresses what he had previously glanced at, viz., that an animal, although it may ruminate, shall not be clean unless it also cleaves the hoof; and, on the other hand, that the cloven hoof will not be sufficient unless combined with rumination. In these words Moses taught that partial and imperfect purity must not be obtruded upon God. If any choose to think that rumination is the symbol of internal purity, and the cloven hoof of external, his opinion will be a probable one. Since this distinction has occurred to my mind, although I have no taste for subtle speculations, I have thought it well to mention it, yet leaving it free for any one to accept it or not. Meanwhile we must hold it as certain, as I have lately said, that God demands perfect cleanliness, undefiled by any admixture. But the prohibition was most onerous to the Jews with respect to swine's flesh, because it is very well adapted for food, not only as being a pleasant accompaniment of other meats, but because the working-classes are fed upon it at a smaller cost. In this point, therefore, the religion of the Jewish people was especially proved. For, when the soldiers of Antiochus desired to force the people to an entire renunciation of the Law, they only urged them to eat swine's flesh And hence the famous witticism of Augustus, |I would rather be Herod's pig than his son;| because, whilst he abstained from pork, he was the murderer of his children. But, in order that the Jews might observe this prohibition more strictly, the very touch was also forbidden them; so that it was not only wicked to taste swine's flesh, but even to touch it with their hands after the animal was killed. The same rule did not apply to beef or mutton; for it is necessary to handle the meat which is appointed for our food.
9 These shall ye eat of all that are in the waters. Here, also, some who know little of religion, plausibly contend that God is acting the physician's part, and distinguishing wholesome from unwholesome food. But although their opinion is sufficiently refuted by medical men themselves, yet, even if I should admit what they desire, they reason badly. For the purpose of God was other than to provide for the people's health; and, because He had to do with a rude people, He chose common marks, being admonished by which they might gradually ascend to higher things. It would be useless to follow the allegories which Isychius has invented and I would willingly bury in oblivion these triflings, except that many have such a leaning to subtleties, that sober views would scarcely please them, until the folly of these allegories shall have been convicted. I will say nothing of the scales and fins. If at first sight any should approve of what he says as to the names of the fish being omitted, because the Church seeks not. a name upon earth, and that the Church is signified by the fish, -- let them consider whether it is consistent that the Church should only exist in the water; and, again, that the birds, which are nearer heaven, should be excluded from this honor; thirdly, that the clean animals should be rejected, as if they did not belong to the Church; lastly, that those who by their contagion pollute the Church should be counted amongst the elect, whose names are written in heaven; for certainly many of the fish are unclean. Those who will not acquiesce in these perspicuous reasons, I will allow to wander in their labyrinth. This simple view will satisfy the moderate and teachable, that the fish are not named, because the greater part of them were unknown to the Jews, whose country did not produce many of the river-fish, since it scarcely had any river besides the Jordan, whilst the sea-fish only visited the neighboring shores.
13. And these are they which ye shall have in abomination. The species of birds and reptiles which are forbidden, are such as common feeling almost naturally repudiates. And assuredly God dealt with great indulgence towards His people, so as not to weigh them down with too heavy burdens. But because man's greediness sometimes delights in monstrous food, He desired even in minor matters to put the rein upon them, lest they should rush with heathen nations into intemperance, whereby they would be polluted. For there was danger lest, by devouring filthy animals, they should harden themselves to join in various other corruptions. Another law is added, that they should not only abstain from eating these unclean animals, but, if any such should be killed, that they should not defile themselves by touching its carcase; nay, that if any vessels should have come in contact with them, those made of earth should be broken, and others should be washed. It seems to be a trifling matter to enjoin, that if a mouse should have been drowned in a vessel of water, the vessel itself should be unclean; and the strictness appears excessive, that the Jews should be commanded, if any such animal had fallen into a vessel of wine, and had died there, not only to pour away the wine, but also to destroy the vessel; and if it had been smothered in an oven, or had lain in the hearth, to break down both of them; as if spiritual infection reached even to things without life. But we must always consider the intention of God: from whence we shall learn that He was not so severe and exacting in unimportant things as to tie His people to the observation of (superfluous) matters; but that these were acts of discipline whereby He might accustom them to study purity, which is so generally neglected and omitted among men. Now-a-days, also, we are commanded by the mouth of Paul,
|whether we eat, or drink, or whatsoever we do, to do all to the glory of God,| (1 Corinthians 10:31;)
but in this respect we differ from the ancient people, that, being delivered from childish rudiments, we are directed only to what is spiritual, viz., that meat and drink are supplied to us by God, that we may serve in purity the Author of our life. But it was necessary to stimulate the Jews in various ways that they might be more attentive to this object; whilst God commanded them to keep their houses free from all uncleanness, and to be diligent in watching over the purity of their water, and all their vessels; that He might constantly set before their eyes how diligently He would have them to labor after true cleanliness; as follows in the end of the chapter.
43 Ye shall not make yourselves abominable. He does not invite them to take care of their health, nor warn them of the danger of contracting' diseases, but bids them beware of defiling themselves. And a clearer explanation is subjoined, |For I am the Lord your God: ye shall therefore sanctify yourselves; for I am holy.| Lest they should imagine that the main part of religion was contained in external ceremonies, they were to consider the nature of God; for, inasmuch as He is a Spirit, He would be worshipped only spiritually. Thus holiness is only connected instrumentally with the distinction of meats; since their abstinence had no other object than that they should consecrate themselves to God. Therefore the superstition of the Jews was inexcusable, when they satisfied themselves with trifling observances; as if one should learn the letters of the alphabet without applying them to their use, and reading what is written. From their example we perceive how eagerly men lay hold of everything they can to sustain them in their hypocrisy, for they not only wrested to their earthly notions the things which were profitable in the pursuit of true integrity of heart; but, not content, with this, they heaped to themselves many supererogatory rites; hence the water of expiation, or lustration always in use, even when they were unconscious of any pollution: hence their anxious labor in washing cups and platters, that it might readily appear how constantly the perversity of man abuses what God has appointed for the best of reasons.