In the month of September, 1843, a young man of twenty climbed the mountain of the Great St. Bernard. His eyes shone with a holy enthusiasm as the splendour of the Alps stirred to the depths his responsive nature. Presently, accustomed as they were to discern God's beauty in the beauty of His handiwork, they glistened with tears. He paused for a space, then, continuing his journey, soon reached the celebrated monastery that like a beacon on those heights darts afar its beams of faith and magnificent charity.
The Prior, struck by the frank and open countenance of his guest, welcomed him with more than wonted hospitality. Louis Joseph Stanislaus Martin was the pilgrim's name. He was born on August 22, 1823, at Bordeaux, while his father, a brave and devout soldier, was captain in the garrison there. |God has predestined this little one for Himself,| said the saintly Bishop of Bordeaux on the occasion of his baptism, and events have proved the truth of his words. From this town, by the banks of the Garonne, his parents went to AlenĂ§on in lower Normandy, and there in their new home, as in their old one, Louis was the cherished Benjamin.
It was not the loveliness of Swiss lakes and mountains and skies that had drawn the traveller from distant AlenĂ§on. He came to the monastery -- and his journey was chiefly on foot -- to consecrate his days to God. On learning his purpose the Prior questioned him upon his knowledge of Latin, only to discover that the young aspirant had not completed his course of studies in that language. |I am indeed sorry, my child,| said the venerable monk, |since this is an essential condition, but you must not be disheartened. Go back to your own country, apply yourself diligently, and when you have ended your studies we shall receive you with open arms.|
Louis was disappointed. He set out for home -- for exile he would have said -- but ere long he saw clearly that his life was to be dedicated to God in another and equally fruitful way, and that the Alpine monastery was to be nothing more to him than a sweet memory.
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A few years after the vain quest of Louis Martin, a similar scene was enacted in AlenĂ§on itself. Accompanied by her mother, ZĂ©lie GuĂ©rin -- an attractive and pious girl -- presented herself at the Convent of the Sisters of Charity in the hope of gaining admission. For years it had been her desire to share the Sisters' work, but this was not to be. In the interview that followed, the Superioress -- guided by the Holy Ghost -- decided unhesitatingly that ZĂ©lie's vocation was not for the religious life. God wanted her in the world, and so she returned to her parents, and to the companionship of her elder sister and her younger brother. Shortly afterwards the gates of the Visitation Convent at Le Mans closed upon her beloved sister, and ZĂ©lie's thoughts turned to the Sacrament of Holy Matrimony. |O my God| -- she repeated constantly -- |since I am unworthy to be Thy Spouse, like my dear sister, I shall enter the married state to fulfill Thy Holy Will, and I beseech Thee to make me the mother of many children, and to grant that all of them may be dedicated to Thee.|
God gave ear to her prayer, and His Finger was visible in the circumstances which led to her becoming the wife of Louis Martin, on July 12, 1858, in AlenĂ§on's lovely Church of Notre Dame. Like the chaste Tobias, they were joined together in matrimony -- |solely for the love of children, in whom God's Name might be blessed for ever and ever.| Nine white flowers bloomed in this sacred garden. Of the nine, four were transplanted to Paradise ere their buds had quite unfolded, while five were gathered in God's walled gardens upon earth, one entering the Visitation Convent at Caen, the others the Carmel of Lisieux.
From the cradle all were dedicated to Mary Immaculate, and all received her name: Marie Louise, Marie Pauline, Marie LĂ©onie, Marie HĂ©lĂ¨ne, who died at the age of four and a half, Marie Joseph Louis, Marie Joseph Jean Baptiste, Marie CĂ©line, Marie MĂ©lanie ThĂ©rĂ¨se, who died when three months old, and lastly, Marie FranĂ§oise ThĂ©rĂ¨se.
The two boys were the fruit of prayers and tears. After the birth of the four elder girls, their parents entreated St. Joseph to obtain for them the favour of a son who should become a priest and a missionary. Marie Joseph soon was given them, and his pretty ways appealed to all hearts, but only five months had run their course when Heaven demanded what it had lent. Then followed more urgent novenas.
The grandeur of the Priesthood, glorious upon earth, ineffable in eternity, was so well understood by those Christian parents, that their hearts coveted it most dearly. At all costs the family must have a Priest of the Lord, one who would be an apostle, peradventure a martyr. But, |the thoughts of the Lord are not our thoughts, His ways are not our ways.| Another little Joseph was born, and with him hope once again grew strong. Alas! Nine months had scarcely passed when he, too, fled from this world and joined his angel brother.
They did not ask again. Yet, could the veil of the future have been lifted, their heavy hearts would, of a surety, have been comforted. A child was to be vouchsafed them who would be a herald of Divine love, not to China alone, but to all the ends of the earth.
Nay, they themselves were destined to shine as apostles, and we read on one of the first pages of the Portuguese edition of the Autobiography, these significant words of an eminent Jesuit:
|To the Sacred Memory of Louis Joseph Stanislaus Martin and of ZĂ©lie GuĂ©rin, the blessed parents of Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus, for an example to all Christian parents.|
They little dreamed of this future apostolate, nevertheless they made ready their souls day by day to be God's own instruments in God's good time. With most loving resignation they greeted the many crosses which the Lord laid upon them -- the Lord whose tender name of Father is truest in the dark hour of trial.
Every morning saw them at Mass; together they knelt at the Holy Table. They strictly observed the fasts and abstinences of the Church, kept Sunday as a day of complete rest from work in spite of the remonstrance of friends, and found in pious reading their most delightful recreation. They prayed in common -- after the touching example of Captain Martin, whose devout way of repeating the Our Father brought tears to all eyes. Thus the great Christian virtues flourished in their home. Wealth did not bring luxury in its train, and a strict simplicity was invariably observed.
|How mistaken are the great majority of men!| Madame Martin used often to say. |If they are rich, they at once desire honours; and if these are obtained, they are still unhappy; for never can that heart be satisfied which seeks anything but God.|
Her whole ambition as a mother was directed to Heaven. |Four of my children are already well settled in life,| she once wrote; |and the others will go likewise to that Heavenly Kingdom -- enriched with greater merit because the combat will have been more prolonged.|
Charity in all its forms was a natural outlet to the piety of these simple hearts. Husband and wife set aside each year a considerable portion of their earnings for the Propagation of the Faith; they relieved poor persons in distress, and ministered to them with their own hands. On one occasion Monsieur Martin, like a good Samaritan, was seen to raise a drunken man from the ground in a busy thoroughfare, take his bag of tools, support him on his arm, and lead him home. Another time when he saw, in a railway station, a poor and starving epileptic without the means to return to his distant home, he was so touched with pity that he took off his hat and, placing in it an alms, proceeded to beg from the passengers on behalf of the sufferer. Money poured in, and it was with a heart brimming over with gratitude that the sick man blessed his benefactor.
Never did he allow the meannesses of human respect to degrade his Christian dignity. In whatever company he might be, he always saluted the Blessed Sacrament when passing a Church; and he never met a priest without paying him a mark of respect. A word from his lips sufficed to silence whosoever dared blaspheme in his presence.
In reward for his virtues, God showered even temporal blessings on His faithful servant. In 1871 he was able to give up his business as a jeweller, and retire to a house in the Rue St. Blaise. The making of point-lace, however, begun by Madame Martin, was still carried on.
In that house the |Little Flower of Jesus| first saw the sunshine. Again and again, in the pages of her Autobiography, she calls herself by this modest name of the Little Flower, emblematic of her humility, her purity, her simplicity, and it may be added, of the poetry of her soul. The reader will learn in the Epilogue how it was also used by one of her favourite martyr-saints -- the now Blessed ThĂ©ophane VĂ©nard. On the manuscript of her Autobiography she set the title: |The Story of the Springtime of a little white Flower,| and in truth such it was, for long ere the rigours of life's winter came round, the Flower was blossoming in Paradise.
It was, however, in mid-winter, January 2, 1873, that this ninth child of Louis Martin and ZĂ©lie GuĂ©rin was born. Marie and Pauline were at home for the Christmas holidays from the Visitation Convent at Le Mans, and though there was, it is true, a slight disappointment that the future priest was still denied them, it quickly passed, and the little one was regarded as a special gift from Heaven. Later on, her beloved Father delighted in calling her his |Little Queen,| adding at times the high-sounding titles -- |Of France and Navarre.|
The Little Queen was indeed well received that winter's morning, and in the course of the day a poor waif rang timidly at the door of the happy home, and presented a paper bearing the following simple stanza:
|Smile and swiftly grow; All beckons thee to joy, Sweet love, and tenderest care. Smile gladly at the dawn, Bud of an hour! -- for thou Shalt be a stately rose.|
It was a charming prophecy, for the bud unfolded its petals and became a rose -- a rose of love -- but not for long, |for the space of a morn!|
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On January 4, she was carried to the Church of Notre Dame to receive the Sacrament of Baptism; her eldest sister, Marie, was her godmother, and she was given the name of Marie FranĂ§oise ThĂ©rĂ¨se.
All was joy at first, but soon the tender bud drooped on its delicate stem: little hope was held out -- it must wither and die. |You must pray to St. Francis de Sales,| wrote her aunt from the convent at Le Mans, |and you must promise, if the child recovers, to call her by her second name, Frances.| This was a sword-thrust for the Mother. Leaning over the cradle of her ThĂ©rĂ¨se, she awaited the coming of the end, saying: |Only when the last hope has gone, will I promise to call her Frances.|
The gentle St. Francis waived his claim in favour of the great Reformer of the Carmelite Order: the child recovered, and so retained her sweet name of ThĂ©rĂ¨se. Sorrow, however, was mixed with the Mother's joy, when it became necessary to send the babe to a foster-mother in the country. There the |little rose-bud| grew in beauty, and after some months had gained strength sufficient to allow of her being brought back to AlenĂ§on. Her memory of this short but happy time spent with her sainted Mother in the Rue St. Blaise was extraordinarily vivid. To-day a tablet on the balcony of No.42 informs the passers-by that here was born a certain Carmelite, by name, Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus and the Holy Face. Fifteen years have gone since the meeting in Heaven of Madame Martin and her Carmelite child, and if the pilgrimage to where the Little Flower first saw the light of day, be not so large as that to the grave where her remains await their glorious resurrection, it may nevertheless be numbered in thousands. And to the English-speaking pilgrim there is an added pleasure in the fact that her most notable convert, the first minister of the United Free Church of Scotland to enter the True Fold, performs, with his convert wife, the courteous duties of host.
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It will not be amiss to say a brief word here on the brother and sister of Madame Martin. Her sister -- in religion, Sister Marie Dosithea -- led a life so holy at Le Mans that she was cited by Dom GuĂ©ranger, perhaps the most distinguished Benedictine of the nineteenth century, as the model of a perfect nun. By her own confession, she had never been guilty from earliest childhood of the smallest deliberate fault. She died on February 24, 1877. It was in the convent made fragrant by such holiness that her niece Pauline Martin, elder sister and |little mother| of ThĂ©rĂ¨se, and for five years her Prioress at the Carmel, received her education. And if the Little Flower may have imbibed the liturgical spirit from her teachers, the daughters of St. Benedict in Lisieux, so that she could say before her death: |I do not think it is possible for anyone to have desired more than I to assist properly at choir and to recite perfectly the Divine Office| -- may it not be to the influences from Le Mans that may be traced something of the honey-sweet spirit of St. Francis de Sales which pervades the pages of the Autobiography?
With the brother of ZĂ©lie GuĂ©rin the reader will make acquaintance in the narrative of ThĂ©rĂ¨se. He was a chemist in Lisieux, and it was there his daughter Jeanne GuĂ©rin married Dr. La NĂ©ele and his younger child Marie entered the Carmel. Our foreign missionaries had a warm friend in the uncle of ThĂ©rĂ¨se -- for his charities he was made godfather to an African King; and to the Catholic Press -- that home missionary -- he was ever most devoted. Founder, at Lisieux, of the Nocturnal Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament, and a zealous member of the Society of St. Vincent de Paul, he was called to his abundant reward on September 28, 1909. Verily the lamp of faith is not extinct in the land of the Norman.
The Father of ThĂ©rĂ¨se, after the death of his wife, likewise made his home in the delightful town which lies amid the beautiful apple orchards of the valley of the Touques. Lisieux is deeply interesting by reason of its fine old churches of St. Jacques and St. Pierre, and its wonderful specimens of quaint houses, some of which date from the twelfth century. In matters of faith it is neither fervent nor hostile, and in 1877 its inhabitants little thought that through their new citizen, Marie FranĂ§oise ThĂ©rĂ¨se Martin, their town would be rendered immortal.
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|The cell at Lisieux reminds us of the cell of the Blessed Gabriel at Isola. There is the same even tenor of way, the same magnificant fidelity in little things, the same flames of divine charity, consuming but concealed. Nazareth, with the simplicity of its Child, and the calm abysmal love of Mary and Joseph -- Nazareth, adorable but imitable, gives the key to her spirit, and her Autobiography does but repeat the lessons of the thirty hidden years.|
And it repeats them with an unrivalled charm. |This master of asceticism,| writes a biographer of St. Ignatius Loyola, |loved the garden and loved the flowers. In the balcony of his study he sat gazing on the stars: it was then Lainez heard him say: 'Oh, how earth grows base to me when I look on Heaven!' . . . The like imaginative strain, so scorned of our petty day, inhered in all the lofty souls of that age. Even the Saints of our day speak a less radiant language: and sanctity shows 'shorn of its rays' through the black fog of universal utilitarianism, the materiality which men have drawn into the very lungs of their souls.|
This is not true of the sainted authoress of the chapters that follow -- |less radiant,| in the medium of a translation. In her own inimitable pages, as in those of a Campion or an Ignatius, a Teresa of Avila, or a John of the Cross -- the Spirit of Poetry is the handmaiden of Holiness. This new lover of flowers and student of the stars, this |strewer of roses,| has uplifted a million hearts from the |base earth| and |black fog| to the very throne of God, and her mission is as yet but begun.
The pen of Soeur ThĂ©rĂ¨se herself must now take up the narrative. It will do so in words that do not merely tell of love but set the heart on fire, and at the same time lay bare the workings of God in a soul that |since the age of three never refused the Good God anything.| The writing of this Autobiography was an act of obedience, and the Prioress who imposed the task sought, in all simplicity, her own personal edification. But the fragrance of its pages was such that she was advised to publish them to the world. She did so in 1899 under the title of L'Histoire d'une Ă‚me. An English version by M. H. Dziewicki appeared in 1901.
This new translation relates more fully the story of the childhood, girlhood, and brief convent days of Soeur ThĂ©rĂ¨se. It tells of her |Roses,| and sets forth again, in our world-wide tongue, her world-wide embassy -- the ever ancient message of God's Merciful Love, the ever new way to Him of |confidence and self-surrender.|