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The Development Of Religious Liberty In Connecticut by M. Louise Greene, Ph. D.

APPENDIX

NOTES

CHAPTER I. THE EVOLUTION OF EARLY CONGREGATIONALISM.

1, H. M. Dexter, Congregationalism as seen in Literature, p.49.

2, Robert Browne, A True and Short Declaration, p. l.

3, H. M. Dexter, Congregationalism as seen in Literature, p.70.

4, Report of Conference April 3, 1590, quoted in F. J. Powicke, Henry Barrowe, p.54.

5, W. Walker, Creeds and Platforms, p.12.

6, Ibid., pp.14, 15; also H. M. Dexter, Congregationalism as seen in Literature, pp.96-104.

7, Robert Browne, A Treatise on Reformation without Tarrying, pp.4, 7,12.

8, Robert Browne, A True and Short Declaration, p.7; Book which Sheweth, pp.117-148.

9, Robert Browne, Book which Sheweth, Questions 55-58.

10, Ibid., Def.35-40; Henry Barrowe, Discovery of False Churches, p.34, and The True Description in Appendix IV of F. J. Powicke's Henry Barrowe.

11, Robert Browne, Book which Sheweth, Def.53 and 54.

12, Henry Barrowe, Discovery of False Churches, p.48.

13, Henry Barrowe, Discovery of False Churches, pp.166, 275; Robert Browne, Book which Sheweth, Def.51; A True and Short Declaration, p.20; The True Confession of Faith, Article 38.

14, H. M. Dexter, Congregationalism as seen in Literature, pp.221, 232; also John Brown, Pilgrim Fathers of New England, pp.22-25.

15, The True Confession, Art.39.

16, |The Seven Articles,| of which the following is the text: --

(1) |To ye confession of fayth published in ye name of ye Church of England and to every artikell thereof wee do w'th ye reformed churches wheer wee live & also els where assent wholly.|.

(2) |And as wee do acknowlidg ye doctryne of fayth theer tawght so do wee ye fruites and effeckts of ye same docktryne to ye begetting of saving fayth in thousands in ye land (conformistes & reformistes) as ye ar called w'th whom also as w'th our brethren wee do desyer to keepe speirtuall communion in peace and will pracktis in our parts all lawful thinges.|

(3) |The King's Majesty wee acknowlidg for Supreme Governor in his dominion in all causes, and over all parsons [persons] and ye none maye decklyne or apeale his authority or judgment in any cause whatsoever, but ye in all thinges obedience is dewe unto him, either active, if ye thing commanded be not against God's woord, or passive yf itt bee, except pardon can bee obtayned.|

(4) |Wee judge itt lawfull for his Majesty to apoynt bishops, civill overseers, or officers in awthoryty onder hime in ye severall provinces, dioses, congregations or parishes, to oversee ye churches, and governe them civilly according to ye Lawes of ye Land, uutto whom ye ar in all thinges to geve an account and by them to bee ordered according to Godlyness.| (This is not an acknowledgment of spiritual -- superiority or authority, only the recognition that as church officers were also magistrates, the king could appoint them as his civil servants.)

(5) |The authority of ye present bishops in ye land wee do acknowlidg so far forth as ye same is indeed derived from his Majesty untto them and as ye proseed in his name, whom wee will also therein honor in all thinges and hime in them.|

(6) |Wee believe ye no sinod, classes, convocation or assembly of Ecclesiastical Officers hath any power or awthority att all but ye same by ye Majestraet given unto them.| (Intended to be a denial of Presbyterianism.)

(7) |Lastly wee desyer to geve untto all Superiors dew honour to preserve ye unity of ye spiritt w'th all ye feare God to have peace w'th all men what in us lyeth and wherein wee err to bee instructed by any.| (Text of Points of Difference and Seven Articles in W. Walker, Creeds and Platforms, pp.75-93.)

CHAPTER II. THE TRANSPLANTING OF CONGREGATIONALISM.

17, The Commons prayed, |that no man hereafter be compelled to make or yield any gift, loan, benevolence, tax, or such like charge, without common consent by Act of Parliament. And that none be called to make answer, or to take such oaths, or to be confined or otherwise molested or disputed concerning the same, or for refusal thereof. And that no freeman may in such manner as is before mentioned be imprisoned or detained.| -- Extract from the Petition of Right. See J. R. Green, Short History of the English People, pp 486, 487.

18, E. H. Byington, The Puritan in England and New England, pp.486, 487.

19, See Gott's Letter in Bradford's Letter-Book, Mass. Hist. Soc., iii, 67,68.

20, G. L. Walker, History of the First Church in Hartford, p.154.

CHAPTER III. CHURCH AND STATE IN NEW ENGLAND.

21, Thomas Hooker, Survey of Church Discipline, chap.3, p.75; also Mass. Col. Rec., iii, 424; J. Cotton, Way of the Churches, pp.6, 7.

22, J. Cotton, Way of the Churches, pp.6, 7; Plymouth Col. Rec., ii, 67; Mass. Col. Rec., i, 216, iii, 354; Hartford Town Voter, in Conn. Hist. Soc. Coll., vi, 32; Conn. Col. Rec., i, 311, 545.

23, Plymouth Col. Laws, ed.1836, p.258; Conn. Col. Rec., i, pp.96, 138, 290, 331, 389, 525.

24, J. Cotton, A Discourse about Civil Government in a New Plantation whose Design is Religion (written many years since), London, 1643, pp.12, 19. (This is a misprint in the title-page, for the author was John Davenport.)

25, Mass. Col. Rec., i, 87.

26, J. Cotton, Keys of the Kingdom of Heaven, pp. 50, 53.

27, Mass. Law of 1636; Conn. Col. Rec., i, 341.

28, Conn. Col. Rec., i, 525.

29, G. F. Ellis, Puritan Age in Massachusetts, p.34.

30, Winthrop, i, 81.

31, Mass. Col. Rec., i, 142.

32, Winthrop, i, 287; H. M. Dexter, Ecclesiastical Councils of New England, p.31.

33, J. A. Doyle, Puritan Colonies, ii, 70.

CHAPTER IV. THE CAMBRIDGE PLATFORM AND THE HALF-WAY COVENANT.

34, C. Mather, Magnalia, ii, 277.

35, Horace Bushnell, in Discourse on Christian Nurture, p.25.

36, Cotton Mather, Magnalia, ii, 179.

37, Results of Half-Way Covenant Convention, Prop.4. See W. Walker, Creeds and Platforms, p.296.

38, W. Walker, Creeds and Platforms, p.295. See Question 7, of Results.

39, Conn. Col. Rec., i, 386, 426.

40, Conn. State Papers (Ecclesiastical), vol. i, Doc. 106. Quoted in the Church Review and Ecclesiastical Register, x, p.116.

41, Beardsley, Hist, of the Church in Connecticut, i, 101; Perry, Hist, of Epis. Church in the United States, i, 283, 284.

42, Conn. Col. Rec., i, 437, 438.

43, G. L. Walker, Hist, of First Church in Hartford, p.200.

44, Record of the United Colonies, i, 506.

45, G. L. Walker, Hist, of First Church in Hartford, p.209.

46, L. Bacon, Coatr. to Eccl. Hist, of Connecticut, p.29.

47, E. Stiles, Christian Union, p.85; J. A. Doyle, Puritan Colonies, ii, 69; Conn. Col. Rec., i, 545; ii, 290 and 557.

48, Conn. Col. Rec., vii, 33; viii, 74.

CHAPTER V. A PERIOD OF TRANSITION.

49, Thomas Prince, Christian History, i, 94.

50, Preface to Work of the Reforming Synod.

51, C. Mather, Magnalia, Book v, p.40.

52, C. Mather, Ratio Discipline, p.17.

53, C. M. Andrews, Three River Towns, p.86. See also Bronson, Early Government, in New Haven Hist. Soc. Papers, iii, 315; Conn. Col. Rec., 290-293, 321, 354.

54, Conn. Col. Rec., v, 67.

55, L. Bacon, Contr. to Ecel. History, p.33.

56, Conn. Col. Rec., v, 87.

CHAPTER VI. THE SAYBROOK PLATFORM.

57, Saybrook Platform.

58, L. Bacon, Thirteen Historical Discourses, pp. 190, 191.

59, S. Stoddard, Instituted Churches, p.29.

60, Trumbull, Hist, of Connecticut, i, 406; T. Clap, Hist, of Yale College, p.30.

61, Trumbull, Hist, of Connecticut, i, 406.

62, L. Bacon, Thirteen Historical Discourses, p. 190.

63, H. M. Dexter, Congregationalism as seen in Literature, pp.489, 490.

64, Conn. Col. Rec., v, 87.

65, Ibid., v, 50.

66, A. Johnston, Connecticut, p.232.

CHAPTER VII. THE SAYBROOK PLATFORM AND THE TOLERATION ACT.

67, John Bolles, A Relation of the Opposition some Baptist People met at Norwich in 1761.

68, Ibid., p.7.

69, Quaker Laws. The New Haven Laws against Quakers deal thus fiercely: --

|Whereas there is a cursed sect of heretics lately risen up in the world, which are commonly called Quakers, who take upon them that they are immediately sent of God and infallibly assisted by his spirit, who yet write and speak blasphemous opinions, despise governments and the order of God, in church and commonwealth... we do hereby order and declare

|That whosoever shall hereafter bring, or cause to be brought, directly or indirectly, any known Quaker or Quakers, or other blasphemous heretics, into this jurisdiction, every such person shall forfeit the sum of 600 pounds to the jurisdiction, except it appear that he wanted true knowledge or information of their being such... and it is hereby ordered that what Quaker or Quakers soever come into this jurisdiction, from foreign parts or places adjacent, if it be about their civil, lawful occasions to be quickly despatched among us, which time of stay shall be limited by the civil authority in each plantation, and that they shall not use any means by words, writings, books, or any other way, to go about to seduce others, nor revile nor reproach, nor any other way make disturbance or offend. They shall upon their first arrival, or coming in, appear to be brought before the authorities of the place and from them have license to put about and issue their lawful occasions, and shall have one or more to attend upon them at their charge until such occasions of theirs be discharged, and they return out of the jurisdiction which if they refuse to do, they shall be denied such free passage and commerce and be caused to return back again, but if this first time they shall offend in any of the ways as before expressed, and contrary to the intent of this law, they shall be committed to prison, severely whipped, kept to work, and none suffered to converse with them during their imprisonment, which shall be no longer than necessity requires, and at their own charge sent out of the jurisdiction.|

For a second offense, they were to be branded, as well as to be committed to prison. For a fourth offense, they were to have their tongues bored through with hot irons. Their books, papers, etc., were to subject their possessors to a fine of 5 pounds, and entertaining or concealing a Quaker was to be punished by a fine of 20s.; while undertaking to defend any of their heretical opinions was doubly fined. -- New Haven Col. Kec., ii, 217, 238,363.

In 1656, the Connecticut Court, in conformity to a suggestion from the commissioners of the United Colonies, ordered that |no towne within this jurisdiction shall entertaine any Quakers, Kanters, Adamites, or such notorious heretiques, or suffer them to continue with them above the space of fourteen days,... and shall give notice to the two next towns to send them on their way under penalty of L5 per week for any town entertaining any such person, nor shall any master of a ship land such or any.| In August, 1657, the above fine was imposed on the individual who entertained the Quaker, etc., as well as on the town, and an officer was appointed to examine suspects. A little later, a penalty of 10s. was imposed for Quaker books and MSS. found in the possession of any but a teaching elder. Twice the Court saw fit to leave, notwithstanding all former orders, all such cases to the jurisdiction of the separate towns, to order fines, banishment, or corporal punishment, provided the fines |exceed not ten pounds.|

The tone is brief and businesslike, dealing with a matter that had already caused great trouble to the other United Colonies, and which might become a menace to Connecticut. There are almost no recorded cases of sentence being imposed. See Conn. Col. Kec., i, 283,303,308, 324.

70, J. Bowden, History of the Society of Friends, i, 104, quoting Norton's Ensign, p.52.

71, Ibid., i, 106.

72, Ibid., i, 440.

73, R. P. Hallowell, The Pioneer Quakers, p.47.

74, R. R. Hinman, Antiquities of the Charter Government of Connecticut, p.229.

75, E. E. Beardsley, History of the Episcopal Church in Connecticut, i, 19.

76, A. L. Cross, Anglican Episcopate in the American Colonies, pp.33 et seq.

77, Ibid., p.95, note.

78, C. F. Hawkins, Missions of the Church of England, 377, 378.

79, Church Documents, Conn., i, 14.

80, Ibid., i, 59.

81, Ibid., i, 136.

CHAPTER VIII. THE FIRST VICTORY FOR DISSENT.

82, Church Documents, Conn., i, 153.

83, Ibid., i, 56.

84, S. D. McConnell, History of the American Episcopal Church, p.132.

85, Conn. Col. Rec., viii, 106; and Church Documents, Conn., i, 280, 283.

86, Conn. Col. Rec., vii, 459, and viii, 123, 334.

87, Rogerine Laws. See Conn. Col. Rec., v.248, 249.

88, C. W. Bowen, The Boundary Disputes of Connecticut, especially pp.48, 58, and 74.

89, The Talcott Papers, published in vols. iv and v of the Conn. Hist. Soc. Collections.

90, Conn. Col. Rec., iv, 307.

91, Talcott Papers, i, 147, 189, and ii, 245, 246, in Conn. Hist. Soc. Collections, vols. iv and v.

92, C. M. Andrews, The Connecticut Intestacy Law, in Yale Review, iii, 261 et seq.

93, Conn. Col. Rec., vii, 237.

94, Ibid., vii, 257.

CHAPTER IX. THE GREAT AWAKENING.

95, Jonathan Edwards' Works, iv, 306-324.

96, Ibid., iv, 81.

97, Lauer, Church and State, p.77; also Conn. Col. Rec., vi, 33.

98, A. Johnston, Hist, of Conn., pp.255, 256; also H. Bronson, Historical Account of Conn. Currency, in New Haven Hist. Soc. Papers, i, 51 et seq.

99, Joseph Tracy, The Great Awakening, p.13.

100, Edwards' Works, iv, 34-37.

CHAPTER X. THE GREAT SCHISM.

101, Conn. Col. Rec., vii, 309.

102, Ibid., viii, 522.

103, Charles Chauncy, Seasonable Thoughts, p. 249.

104, Conn. Col. Rec., viii, 438, 468; also Joseph Tracy, The Great Awakening, p.303.

105, Conn. Col. Rec., viii, 454 et seq.; B. Trumbull, Hist, of Connecticut, ii, 165; C. Chauncy, Seasonable Thoughts, p.41.

106, Conn. Col. Rec., viii, 456.

107, Ibid., viii, 456.

108, Ibid., viii, 457.

109, Trumbull, Hist, of Conn., ii, 135.

110, S. W. S. Button, Hist, of the North Church in New Haven.

111, E. D. Lamed, Hist, of Windham County, vol. ii, book 5, chapter 3.

112, O. W. Means, Hist, of the Enfleld Separate Church.

113, Conn. Col. Rec., October, 1751.

114, E. D. Lamed, Hist, of Windham County, vol. ii, book 5, chapter 3.

115, Conn. Col. Rec., viii, 501.

116, Ibid., viii, 502.

117, E. D. Larned, Hist, of Windham County, ii, 417, 419, 425, 426; L. Bacon, Thirteen Historical Discourses, p.245.

118, Solomon Paine's View, pp.15, 16.

119, Thomas Clap, History of Yale, p.27.

120, G. P. Fisher, Church of Christ in Yale College, app.6.

121, E. D. Lamed, History of Windham County, i, 425, 426.

122, S. L. Blake, The Separatists, pp.183, 192. (This book gives the origin and end of every Separate church.) Also 0. W. Means, History of the Enfield Separate Church.

123, Conn. Col. Rec., xii, 269, 341.

124, Ibid., viii, 507.

125, Trumbull, History of Connecticut, i, 132, 133.

126, W. C. Reichel, Dedication of Monuments erected by the Moravian Historical Societies in New York and Connecticut.

G. H. Loskiel, Hist, of Missions of the United Brethren among the Indians of North America. J. Heckwelder, Missions of the United Brethren among the Delaware and Mohegan Indians, pp.51 et seq.

127, Conn. Col. Rec., ix, 218.

128, I. Backus, History of the Baptists, ii, 80.

129, H. M. Dexter, Congregationalism as seen in Literature, p.503.

CHAPTER XI. THE ABROGATION OF THE SAYBROOK PLATFORM.

130, Frederick Dennison, Notes of the Baptists and their Principles in Norwich, Conn., p.10.

131, Ibid., p.16.

132, Stiles, Ancient Windsor, p.439.

133, C. H. S. Davis, Hist, of Wallingford, pp.164-210.

134, |To the King's Most Excellent Majesty in Council.| (Quoted in Frederick Dennison, Notes of the Baptists.)

135, T. Clap, History of Yale, pp.41-60.

136, Quoted by E. H. Gillett, Civil Liberty in Connecticut, Historical Magazine, 2d series, vol. iv.

137, E. D. Lamed, History of Windham County, i, 468.

138, Thomas Darling, Some Remarks, p.6.

139, Ibid., p.41.

140, Ibid., pp.43, 46.

141, Robert Ross, Plain Address, p.54.

142, E. Frothingham, Key to Unlock, p.147.

143, Ibid., pp.56, 58.

144, Ibid., pp.51-53.

145, Ibid., p.42.

146, Ibid., p.156.

147, Ibid., p.181.

148, Loomis and Calhoun, Judicial and Civil History of Connecticut, p.55.

149, M. C. Tyler, Literary History of the American Revolution, i, 133.

150, Fulham, MSS. cited in A, L. Cross, Anglican Episcopate in the American Colonies, p.115. See also pp.122 et seq. and 332, 345.

151, A. L. Cross, Anglican Episcopate, pp.164 and 216. Perry, American Episcopal Church, i, 415.

152, Minutes of the Association, i, 3.

153, F. M. Caulkins, History of Norwich, p.363.

154, Conn. Col. Rec., xiii, 360.

155, I. Backus, History of the Baptists, ii, 340.

156, E. D. Lamed, History of Windham County, ii, 103.

157, I. Backus, An Appeal to the Public for Religious Liberty, Boston, 1773, p.28.

158, Ibid., p.13.

159, Ibid., pp.43-48.

160, John Wise, Vindication, Edition of 1717, p.84.

161, Public Records of the State of Connecticut, i, 232.

162, Quoted in E. H. Gillett, Civil Liberty in Connecticut, Hist. Magazine, 1868.

163, I. Backus, History of the Baptists, ii, 304.

164, Minutes of Hartford North Association.

165, I. Foster, Defense of Religious Liberty, pp. 30, 32; also 135 and 142.

166, Acts and Laws of the State of Connecticut, 1784, pp.21, 22, 213, 235.

CHAPTER XII. CONNECTICUT AT THE CLOSE OF THE REVOLUTION.

167, P. K. Kilbourne, History of Litchfield, pp. 166, 169.

168, James Morris, Statistical Account of the Towns of Litchfield County.

169, Judge Church, in his Litchfield County Centennial Address.

170, J. D. Champlin, Jr., |Litchfield Hill.|

171, Noah Webster, Collection of Essays (ed. of 1790), p.379.

172, Ibid., p.338.

173, Ibid., p.338.

174, Letter of Sept.11,1788, one of the series in answer to the quotations from Richard Price's |Observations on the Importance of the American Revolution.| See American Mercury, Feb.7, 1785. Connecticut Journal, Feb.16, and Connecticut Courant, Feb.22, 1785.

175, James Schouler, History of the United States, i, 53.

176, Isaac Backus, The Liberal Support of the Gospel Minister, p.35.

177, Report of Superintendent of Public Schools, 1853, pp.62, 63.

178, W. Walker, The Congregationalists, pp.311 et seq.

179, John Lewis, Christian Forbearance, p.31.

180, E. Stiles, Diary, i, 21.

181, H. M. Dexter, Congregationalism as seen in Literature, p.523.

CHAPTER XIII. CERTIFICATE LAWS AND WESTERN LAND BILLS.

182, Acts and Laws of the State of Connecticut (ed. of 1784), pp.403, 404.

183, Courant, May 28, 1791.

184, Ibid., May 28, 1791.

185, J. Leland, High Flying Churchman, pp.10, 11, 16, 17.

186, Acts and Laws (ed. of 1784), p.418.

187, Ibid., p.417.

188, Cited from Report of the Superintendent of Public Schools, 1853, p.65.

189, The American Mercury, Feb.24 and Apr. 17, 1794.

190, J. Leland, A Blow at the Boot, pp.7, 8.

191, See Rep. of Supt. of Public Schools, 1853, pp.74-95.

192, Ibid., pp.101, 102.

193, Published in Courant of March 16, 23 and 30, 1795.

194, See Hollister, Hist, of Connecticut, ii, 568-575; Report of Superintendent of Public Schools, 1853; Swift's System of Laws, i, 142 et seq.

CHAPTER XIV. THE DEVELOPMENT or POLITICAL PARTIES IN CONNECTICUT.

195, Wolcott Manuscript, in vol. iv, Library of Conn. Historical Society, Hartford, Conn.

196, Judge Church's Manuscript, deposited with New Haven Historical Society.

197, Swift, System of the Laws of Connecticut, i, 55-58.

198, Hollister, Hist, of Connecticut, ii, 510-514, quoting Judge Church.

199, D. G. Mitchell, American Lands and Letters, i, 142; F. B. Dexter, Hist, of Yale, p.87.

200, Minutes of the General Association, Report of the Session of 1797.

201, A. Bishop, Proofs of a Conspiracy, p.32.

202, Connecticut Journal, April 30, 1816, quotes the Petition and reply.

203, J. Leland, Van Tromp lowering his Peak, p, 33.

204, A. Bishop, Oration in Honor of the Election of Jefferson, pp.9, 10, 11-16.

205, Judge Church's Manuscript.

206, Lyman Beecher, Autobiography, i, 257, 259, 260, 342, 343.

207, Constitution of the United States, Article II, Sect, ii, 1; Art. I, Sect, viii, 15. For the correspondence between General Dearborn and Gov. J. C. Smith, see Mies' Register, viii, 209-212.

208, Hildreth, History of United States, vi, 319-325; Schouler, Hist, of United States, ii, 270.

209, Niles' Register, viii, 291; ix, 171; also American Mercury of April 19, 1815.

210, New Haven Register, and also the American Mercury of Feb.12, 1817.

211, Niles' Register, xi, 80.

212, Swift, System of Law, i, 74.

213, Swift, Vindication of the calling of the Special Superior Court, pp.40-42.

214, Report of the Committee. See also J. H. Trumbull, Historical Notes, pp.43-47.

215, Connecticut Courant of Aug.25, 1818.

216, J. H. Trumbull, Historical Notes, pp.55, 56.

217, Journal of the Convention, pp.49, 67. (The Connecticut Courant and the American Mercury published the debates of the Convention in full as they occurred.)

218, Trumbull, Historical Notes, p.60. See also the text, preceding this note, p.483.

The Constitution of 1818, admirable for the conditions of that time, leaves now large room for betterment. The century-old habit of legislative interference was not wholly uprooted in 1818, and soon began to grow apace. The Constitution stands to-day with its original eleven articles and with thirty-one amendments, some of which, at least in their working, are directly opposed to the spirit of the framers of the commonwealth. The old cry of excessive legislative power is heard again, for the legislature by a majority of one may override the governor's veto, and, through its powers of confirmation and appointment, it may measurably control the executive department and the judicial. Moreover, apart from these defects in the constitution, certain economic changes have resulted in a disproportionate representation in the House of Representatives. The Joint-Stock Act of 1837 gave birth to great corporations, and with railroads soon developed the formation of large manufacturing plants. As a result, there was a rush, at first, of the native born, and, later, of large numbers of immigrants, who swelled the population, to the cities. This, together with the development of the great grain-producing western states, changed Connecticut from an agricultural to a manufacturing state, and from a producer of her own foodstuffs to a consumer of those which she must import from other states.

Such shifting of the population has produced a condition where a bare majority of one in a House of two hundred and fifty-five members may pass a measure that really represents the sentiment of but one-fifteenth of the voters of the state. There results a system of rotten boroughs and the opportunity for a well-organized lobby and the moneyed control of votes. It is asserted that the first section of the bill of rights, namely, |That no man or set of men are entitled to exclusive public emoluments or privileges from the community,| is constantly violated by this misrepresentation, which especially affects the population in the cities, and is felt not only in all state measures, but in all local ones about which the legislature must be consulted. As an illustration of the inequality of representation, the following figures are given. In the Constitutional Convention of 1818, 81 towns sent two delegates each, and 39 towns sent one, from communities out of which 11 had a population of less than 1000, and 100 ranged between 1000 and 4000, while only 9 surpassed this last number. In the Constitutional Convention of 1902, 87 towns, with an aggregate population of 781,954, sent each two delegates, while 81, with a combined population of 126,411, sent each one delegate. Thus it happened that in 1902, New Haven, population 108,027, sent two delegates, and the town of Union, population 428, also sent two delegates, while ten other towns, with a population ranging from 593 to 885 each, sent two delegates.

The |Standing Order| of to-day is not a privileged church, but a dominant political party strong in the privilege and powers derived from long tenure of office and intrenched behind constitutional amendments which, in addition to this unequal representation in the House, provide for the election of Senators upon town and county lines rather than upon population. The Constitutional Reform Party of to-day propose radical measures to remedy these more glaring defects in the administration of government, and to consider these, called the Constitutional Convention of 1902. In it, the influence of the small towns on the drafting of the proposed constitution was so great that, when it was presented to the people for ratification, an adverse majority in every county refused to accept it. In fact, only fifteen per cent of the whole people thought it worth while to express any opinion at all.

References for the Constitutional Convention of 1902: Clarence Deming, Town Eule in Connecticut, Political Science Quarterly, September, 1889; and M. B. Carey, The Connecticut Constitution. (These will be found useful as summing up much of the newspaper discussion of the period, and also for the data upon which the argument for the desired changes is based.) There is also |The Constitutions of Connecticut, with Notes and Statistics regarding Town Representation in the General Assembly, and Documents relating to the Constitutional Convention of 1902,| printed by order of the Comptroller, Hartford, Conn.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A. HISTORIES

1. GENERAL

A few titles are given of those works found most useful in acquiring a general historic setting for the main topic.

Bancroft, George. History of the United States. New York, 1889.

Gardiner, S. R. History of England from Accession of James I. London, 1863.

-- -- History of England under the Duke of Buckingham and Charles I. London, 1875.

-- -- History of the Commonwealth and Protectorate. London and New York, 1894-1903.

Green, John Richard. Short History of the English People. London, 1884.

-- -- History of the English People. New York, 1880.4 vols., chiefly vol. iii.

Hildreth, Richard. History of the United States to 1824. New York, 1887.6 vols.

McMaster, John Bach. A History of the People of the United States from the Revolution to the Civil War. New York, 1884-1900.5 vols.

Schouler, James. History of the United States of America under the Constitution. Washington, Philadelphia, and New York, 1882-99.6 vols.

Tyler, Moses Coit. A History of American Literature, 1607-1765. New York, 1879.2 vols.

-- -- The Literary History of the American Revolution, 1763-1783. New York and London, 1897.2 vols.

Winsor, Justin. Narrative and Critical History of America. Cambridge, 1886-89.8 vols.

2. SPECIAL

Adams, Henry. Documents relating to New England Federalism, 1800-1815. Boston, 1877.

Adams, John. Works with a Life of the Author, Notes and Illustrations. (Ed. by Charles Francis Adams.) Boston, 1850-56.10 vols.

Arber, Edward. The Story of the Pilgrim Fathers, 1606-1623 A. D. as told by themselves, their Friends and their Enemies, edited from the original Texts. London, 1897.

Barlow, Joel. Political Writings. New York, 1796.

Bradford, William. History of |Plimoth| Plantation.

Reprint from original MS. with report of proceedings incident to its return. Boston, 1898.

Brown, John. The Pilgrim Fathers of New England and their Puritan Successors. London, 1895. Revised American ed.1897. [a]

Byington, Ezra B. The Puritan in England and New England. Boston, 1897.

Campbell, Douglas. The Puritans in Holland, England and America. New York, 1892.2 vols.

Cobb, Sanford H. Rise of Religious Liberty in America. New York and London, 1902.

Pages 236-290 and 512-514 treat of Connecticut, while 454-482 deal with the American Episcopate.

Doyle, John Andrew. The English in America; The Puritan Colonies. New York, 1889.2 vols.

Ellis, George E. The Puritan Age and Rule in the Colony of Massachusetts Bay, 1629-1685. Boston and New York, 1888.

Felt, Joseph Barton. The Ecclesiastical History of New England, comprising not only Religious but Moral and other Relations. Arranged chronologically and with index. Boston, 1855-62.2 vols.

Fish, Carl Russell. The Civil Service and the Patronage. New York, 1905.

Pages 32-39, Jefferson's removal of Mr. Goodrich of New Haven.

Fiske, John. The Beginnings of New England; or, The Puritan Theocracy in its Relations to Civil and Religious Liberty. Boston and New York, 1880.

Gardiner, S. R. The First Two Stuarts and the Puritan Revolution, 1603-1660. London, 1887.

Goodwin, John Abbott. The Pilgrim Republic: An Historical Review of the Colony of New Plymouth, with sketches of the Rise of other New England Settlements, the History of Congregationalism and the Creeds of the Period [New England to 1732]. Cambridge, 1895.

Heckewelder, J. A Narrative of the Mission of the United Brethren among the Delaware and Mohigan Indians from 1740 to 1808. Philadelphia, 1820.

Lauer, P. E. Church and State in New England. Baltimore, 1892.

Also in Johns Hopkins University Studies, Nos.2 & 3.

Lodge, Henry Cabot. A Short History of the English Colonies in America. New York, 1881.

Love, Wm. De Loss, Jr. The Fasts and Thanksgiving Days of New England. Boston, 1895. Includes a bibliography.

Loskiel, George H. History of the Missions of the United Brethren among the Indians in North America. London, 1794.

Mather, Cotton. Magnalia Christi Americana; or, The Ecclesiastical History of New England from its First Planting in the Year 1620 to the Year of our Lord 1698. Ed. London, 1702, -- Hartford, 1820.2 vols. [a]

3d ed. with Introduction and occasional Notes by T. Bobbins. Hartford, 1853, 2 vols.

Mourt's Relation or Journal of a Plantation settled at Plymouth, in New England and proceedings Thereof. London, 1622. 2d ed. Annotated by A. Young. Boston, 1841. Also found in Young's Chronicle of the Pilgrim Fathers. Boston, 1846. [a]

Reprint with illustrative cuts, George B. Cheever, Editor, New York, 1849.

Reprint ed. by H. M. Dexter. Boston, 1865. (See vol. viii, 1st series, Mass. Hist Soc. Col., also Library of New England History, vol. i.)

Neal, Daniel. History of the Puritans, or Protestant Non-conformists: from the Reformation in 1517 to the death of Queen Elizabeth, with an Account of their principles: their Attempts for a further Reformation in the Church: their Sufferings, and the Lives and Characters of their considerable Divines, etc. London, 1732, 4 vols. Revised ed. London, 1837, 3 vols. [a]

Palfrey, John G. Comprehensive History of New England. Boston, 1858-90.5 vols.

Prince, Thomas. A Chronological History of New England in the form of Annals. Boston, 1736. Edited by Drake with Memoir of the Author. Boston, 1852. [a]

Reprint to Mass. Hist. Soc. Col., 2d series, vol. vii, 1818. New edition, edited by N. Hale. Boston, 1826. Found also in Arber's English Garner, vol. ii, 1879.

Reichel, W. C. Memorial of the Dedication of Monuments erected by Moravian Historical Society to mark the sites of ancient missionary stations. Philadelphia, 1858.

Schaff, Philip. Religious Liberty. See American Historical Society Annual Report, 1886-87.

Thornton, J. Wingate. The Pulpit of the American Revolution. Boston, 1876.

Weeden, William B. Economic and Social History of New England. Boston, 1890.2 vols.

Winthrop, John. History of New England, 1636-47, edited by James Savage. Boston, 1853.2 vols.

Wood, John (Cheetham, James). History of the Administration of John Adams. New York, 1802.

-- -- History of the Administration of J. Adams, with Notes. New York, 1846.

3. STATISTICAL

Baird, Robert. Religion in America; or An Account of the Origin, Relation to the State and Present Condition of the Evangelic Churches in the United States. New York, 1856.

Bishop, J. Leander. A History of American Manufactures, 1608-1860.1868.3 vols.

This includes a history of the origin and growth of the principal mechanical arts and manufactures: notice of important inventions; results of each decennial census; tariffs; and statistics of manufacturing centres. It has a good index by which the industrial history of each colony and state can be quickly traced. Bolles, Albert S. The Financial History of the United States. New York, 1879-86.3 vols.

Carroll, Henry King. Religious Forces in the United States, enumerated, classified and described on the basis of the Government Census of 1890. New York, 1893.

Dorchester, Daniel. Christianity in the United States from the first settlement down to the present time. New York and Cincinnati, 1888.

Hayward, John. The Religious Creeds and Statistics of every Christian Denomination in the United States. Boston, 1836.

4. LOCAL

Connecticut-State, county, town, etc., of which only the more important town and county histories, and reports of anniversary celebrations are given. Those omitted are of small interest outside of their respective towns, except to genealogists or to those whose families chance to be mentioned in the sketch of historical development or of commercial growth. The many books of this type contribute general coloring, and some of them a few important bits of information, to the story of the development of the state, but many are not worth enumerating as sources, or as assistants to the general reader or student.

Allen, Francis Olcott. The History of Enfleld, compiled from all the public records of the town known to exist, covering from the beginning to 1850. Lancaster, 1900. 3 vols.

Carefully compiled and attested by the town clerk. Includes also graveyard inscriptions and extracts from Hartford, Northampton and Springfield records.

Andrews, Charles M. The River Towns of Connecticut, Wethersfield, Hartford and Windsor. Baltimore, 1889. (Also Johns Hopkins Historical and Political Science Papers, vii, 341-456.)

Atwater, Edward E. (editor). History of the City of New Haven. New York, 1887.

Good for the earlier history, for a few extracts from records; contains descriptions of public men and events, also extracts from old newspapers, etc.

-- -- History of the Colony of New Haven to its absorption into Connecticut. New Haven, 1881. A much better book, being the best special history of the New Haven Colony.

Baldwin, Simeon E. Constitutional Reform. A Discussion of the Present Inequalities of Representatives in the General Assembly [of Connecticut]. New Haven, 1873.

-- -- The Early History of the Ballot in Connecticut. American Historical Association Papers, i, 407-422. New York, 1890.

-- -- The Three Constitutions of Connecticut. In New Haven Historical Society Papers, vol. v.

Barber, John W. Connecticut Historical Collections. New Haven, 1856.

A book of brief anecdotal town histories, curious legends, notable events, newspaper clippings, together with a goodly number of illustrations.

Bolles, John Rogers. The Rogerenes: Some hitherto unpublished annals belonging to the Colonial History of Connecticut. Part 1. A. Vindication, by J. R. Bolles. Part 2. History of the Rogerenes, by Anna B. Williams. Boston, 1904.

Bowen, Clarence W. The Boundary Disputes of Connecticut. Boston, 1882.

Breckenridge, Francis A. Recollections of a New England Town (Meriden). Meriden, 1899.

Typical of the life in New England towns, 1800-1850.

Bronson, Henry, Early Government of Connecticut. (New Haven Historical Society Papers, iii, 293 et seq.)

Bushnell, Horace. |Work and Play,| being the first volume of his |Literary Varieties.| New York, 1881.

Contains an historical estimate of Connecticut.

Caulkins, Frances M. History of New London, Connecticut. New London, 1852.

-- -- History of Norwich, Connecticut. Norwich, 1845.

These two histories are readable, reliable and full of detail, culled from original records, many of which are now deposited with the New London Historical Society.

Clap, Thomas. Annals or History of Yale College. New Haven, 1766.

Cothren, William. History of Ancient Woodbury, Connecticut, 1669-1879. (Including Washington, Southbury, Bethlehem, Roxbury, and part of Oxford and Middlebury.) Waterbury, 1854, 1872, 1879.3 vols.

Vols. i and ii, history, with considerable genealogy. Vol. iii, 1679-1879, births, marriages and deaths.

Dexter, Franklin Bowditch. Thomas Clap and his Writings. See New Haven Historical Society Papers, vol. v.

-- -- Sketch of the History of Yale University. New Haven, 1887.

Dwight, Theodore. History of Connecticut. New York, 1841.

-- -- History of Hartford Convention. Hartford, 1833.

Of the 447 pages, 340 are devoted to recounting the events which led to the calling of the convention, and, with much political bias, to the history of Jefferson's political career from 1789, quoting from official correspondence and his private letters. Pages 340-422 deal with the convention proper, giving, pp.383-400, its |Secret Journal.| The Appendix, pp.422-447, has brief biographies of the members.

Dwight, Timothy. Travels in New England and New York. New Haven, 1831.4 vols.

Dodd, Stephen. The East Haven Register in Three Parts. New Haven, 1824.

A rare little book of 200 pages compiled by the pastor of the Congregational Church in East Haven. Part i contains a history of the town from 1640 to 1800; part ii, names, marriages, and births, 1644-1800; part iii, account of the deaths in families, from 1647 to 1824.

Field, David Dudley. A History of the Towns of Haddam and East Haddam. Middletown, 1814.

A book of some forty-eight pages, of which six are devoted to genealogies |taken partly from the records of the towns, and partly from the information of aged people| by the pastor of the church in Haddam. Though largely ecclesiastical, its author -- a college A. M. -- realizes the value of statistics in references to population, necrology, taxes, militia, farming, and other industries, and weaves them into his rambling story.

-- -- Statistical Account of the County of Middlesex. Middletown, 1819.

Fowler, William Chauncey. History of Durham, 1662- 1866.

Includes in chapter xii -- pp.229-443 -- extracts trom Town Records, Ministerial Records, Proprietor's Eecords.

Gillett, E. Steiner, Bernard Christian. A History of the Plantation of Menunkatuck and of the Original Town of Guilford, Connecticut (present towns of Guilford and Madison) written largely from the manuscripts of The Hon. Ralph Dunning Smyth. Baltimore, 1897.

The book draws upon the preceding histories of Guilford, namely that of the Rev. Thomas Kuggles, Jr., and the later sketch of Guilford and Madison by Daniel Dudley Field, first written in 1827 for the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences. It was revised by R. D. Smyth in 1840 and published in 1877 after his death. Mr. Sterner has added matter derived from a study of the town records and other sources, making a history that covers all points of development.

-- -- Governor William Leete and the absorption of New Haven by the Colony of Connecticut. American Historical Association, Annual Report, 1891, pp.209-222.

-- -- History of Slavery in Connecticut. (See Johns Hopkins Historical Studies, ii, 30 et seq.) Baltimore, 1893.

Stiles, Ezra. A Discourse on the Christian Union. Brookfield, 1799.

-- -- The Literary Diary of Ezra Stiles, edited under the authority of the corporation of Yale University by F. B. Dexter, M. A. New York, 1901.3 vols.

Stiles, Henry Reed. Ancient Windsor. Hartford, 1891. 2 vols.

Swift, Zephaniah. System of the Laws of the State of Connecticut. Windham, 1795.

Trumbull, Benjamin. A Complete History of Connecticut, Civil and Ecclesiastical, 1639 to 1713, continued to 1764. New Haven, 1818.2 vols.

Reprint with Introductory Notes and Index by Jonathan Trumbull. New London, 1898.

Trumbull, J. Hammond (Editor). Hartford County Memorial History. Hartford, 1886.2 vols.

Vol. i, part i, The County of Hartford treated topically, as early history, the colonial period, |Bench and Bar,| |Medical History,| etc. Part ii, Hartford, Town and City. Vol. ii, Brief Histories of the different towns.

Trumbull, J. Hammond. Historical Notes of the Constitutions of Connecticut, 1639 to 1818; and Progress of the Movement which resulted in the Convention of 1818, and the Adoption of the present Constitution. Hartford, 1873. Reprinted by order of State Comptroller, Hartford, 1901.

-- -- Origin and Early Progress of Indian Missions in New England. Worcester, 1874.

-- -- Defense of Stonington (Connecticut) against a British Squadron. Hartford, 1864.

-- -- The True Blue Laws of Connecticut and New Haven and the False Blue Laws invented by the Rev. Samuel Peters. To which are added specimens of the Laws of other Colonies and some of the Blue Laws of England. Hartford, 1876.

-- -- List of Books printed in Connecticut, 1709-1800 (edited by his daughter Annie E. Trumbull). The list contains 1741 titles and also a list of printers. Hartford, 1904.

Webster, Noah. Collection of Papers on Political, Literary and Moral Subjects. New York, 1843.

5. LOCAL BIOGRAPHIES

Bacon, Leonard. Sketch of Life and Public Services of James Hillhouse. New Haven, 1860.

Blake, B.L. Gurdon Saltonstall. In New London Historical Society Papers, part 5, vol. i.

Dexter, Franklin B. Biographical Sketches of Graduates of Yale.3 vols. May, 1701-May, 1745; New York, 1885. May, 1745-May, 1763; New York, 1896. May, 1763-May, 1778; New York, 1903.

Kilbourne, P. K. Biographical History of the County of Litchfield. New York, 1851.

Mitchell, Donald G. American Lands and Letters.3 vols.

First volume, for early newspapers, the Hartford Wits and literati of the colonial period.

Sprague, W. B. Annals of the American Pulpit. New York, 1857-69.9 vols.

Biographical Sketches in chronological order, contributed by 540 writers of sectarian prominence, and with intent to show development of churches and the power of character.

Vols. i and ii, Trinitarian-Congregationalists. Vols. iii and iv, Presbyterian. Vol. v, Episcopalians (reference for the Episcopal Republican coalition in 1818 in Connecticut). Vol. vi, Baptists. Vol. vii, Methodists. Vol. viii, Unitarians. Vol. ix, Lutherans, Dutch Reformed, etc.

Tyler, Moses Coit. Three Men of Letters (George Berkeley, Timothy Dwight and Joel Barlow). New York and London, 1895.

B. CONNECTICUT NEWSPAPERS

w. abbreviation for weekly

HARTFORD

American Mercury, w. Anti-Federal.

Founded July 12, 1784, with Joel Barlow, editor, and Elisha Babcock, publisher. In 1833 merged into the Independent Press.

Yale University Library has a file practically complete to 1828, only 20 numbers missing.

Connecticut Courant. w. Federal, Whig, Republican.

Founded 1764, by Thomas Green as organ of the Loyal Sons of Liberty; later supported Washington and Adams; continued as the weekly and now daily Hartford Courant. Said to be the oldest newspaper still published in the United States. Connecticut Courant and the Weekly Hartford Intelligencer, 1774.

Connecticut Courant and the Weekly Intelligencer, Feb. 1781.

The latter part of title dropped March 21, 1791.

In 1837 the Daily Courant was established. This paper bought out the Independent Press (which in turn had absorbed the American Mercury); and the staff of the Press, including Charles Dudley Warner, Gen. J. K. Hawley and Stephen A. Hubbard, joined William H. Goodrich, who was the business manager of the Couraut.

Connecticut Mirror, w. Federal.

Founded July 10, 1809, by Charles Hosmer, publisher. During the War of 1812, it was the organ of the |extreme right| of the Federal party. It was continued until about 1835.

Yale University Library contains an almost complete file up to 1831.

Times. w. Democratic-Republican.

Founded Jan., 1817, with Frederick D. Bolles, publisher, and M. Niles, editor. Its slogan was |Toleration| and the New Constitution.

March 2,1841, it became the Daily Times, and still continues.

NEW HAVEN

Columbian Register, w. Democrat.

Founded Dec.1, 1812, Joseph Barber, publisher, to give |proceedings of Congress, latest news from Europe and history of New England, particularly of Connecticut.| Daily edition, 1845; Sunday edition, 1877.

Yale University has a continuous file.

The Connecticut Gazette, w.

Printed by James Parker, April, 1755. Suspended April 14,1764. Eevived by Benjamin Mecom, July 5, 1765. Ended Feb.19, 1768.

Connecticut Herald, w. Federal, Republican.

Founded 1803, by Corostock, Griswold & Co., publishers, Thomas Green Woodward, editor. A Daily Herald, issued Nov.16,1832. In 1835 its publishers, Woodward & Carrington, bought the Connecticut Journal. The Daily Herald and Journal of 1846 soon became, by buying out the Courier, The Morning Journal and Courier, as now, and its weekly edition, the Connecticut Herald.

Yale University has a continuous file.

The Connecticut Journal and New Haven Post Boy. w. Federal.

Founded 1767 by Thomas and Samuel Green. It was started about four months before the Connecticut Gazette (New Haven). It failed April 7,1835, and was sold to Woodward & Carrington, owners of the Daily Herald.

The title |and New Haven Post Boy| was omitted about 1775. It was known in 1799, for a few months only, as the Connecticut Journal and Weekly Advertiser, and in 1809, for a few months only, as the Connecticut Journal and Advertiser.

Yale's file dates from 1774 to 1835.

The New Haven Gazette and the Connecticut Magazine, w. Meigs & Dana, Feb.16, 1786-1798.

NEW LONDON

The Connecticut Post and New Haven Visitor, w.

Founded Oct.30, 1802, as the Visitor; title changed Nov.3, 1803. Ended its existence about Nov.8, 1834.

The New London Gazette, w. (Connecticut Gazette.)

Founded by Timothy Green, November, 1763. The earlier Connecticut Gazette, published at New Haven, April, 1755-April 14, 1763, having ended February, 1768, the New London Gazette adopted the New Haven paper's name. The firm became Timothy Green & Son, 1789-1794. Samuel Green (the son) conducted the paper to 1841, except the year 1805, and from 1838 to 1840. Known as the Connecticut and Universal Intelligencer, Dec.10, 1773-May 11, 1787.

Yale University flies are from 1765 to 1828, except 1775, '76, '77, and '78.

OUTSIDE OF CONNECTICUT

Niles' Weekly Register, w. Baltimore, 1811-1849.

It was known from 1811 to 1814 as the Weekly Register; from 1814 to August, 1837, as Niles' Weekly Register, and from 1837 to 1849 as Niles' National Register. It devoted itself to the record of public events, essays and documents dealing with political, historical, statistical, economic and biographical matter.

C. PUBLIC RECORDS AND OTHERS TOUCHING UPON CONNECTICUT HISTORY

New Haven Colonial Records, ed. by C. J. Hoadly.2 vols. 1638-1649; 1653-1664. Hartford, 1857-58.

Connecticut, Colonial Records of, ed. by C. J. Hoadly and J. Hammond Trumbull.15 vols.1635-1776,. Hartford, 1850-90.

State of Connecticut, Records of the, ed. by C. J. Hoadly. 2 vols.1776-1778; 1778-1780. Hartford, 1894-95.

United Colonies of New England, Records of the, in vol. ii. of E. Hazard's |Historical Collections consisting of State Papers and other authentic Documents, etc.|

Plymouth Colony, Records of, ed. by N. R. Shurtleff and D. Pulsifer.12 vols. Boston, 1855-61.

Records of the General Association of Connecticut, June 20, 1738, June 19, 1799; Hartford, 1888.8 vols.

Minutes of Proceedings of the General Association, 1818, on.

Proceedings of Connecticut Missionary Society, 1801-1819.

Report of the Superintendent of Common Schools of Connecticut, 1853.

This annual report has a detailed account of the Western Land Bill appropriations, pp.64-108.

The Constitutions of Connecticut, with Notes and Statistics regarding Town Representation in the General Assembly, and Documents relating to the Constitutional Convention of 1902. Printed by Order of the State Comptroller. Hartford, 1901.

The Code of 1650. In Hinman's |Antiquities of Connecticut.|

The Public Statute Laws of the State of Connecticut. Hartford, 1808.

Acts and Laws, 1784-1794. (Supplements to Oct., 1795, laid in.) New London, 1784.

Acts and Laws, 1811-1821.

D. HISTORICAL SOCIETY PUBLICATIONS

American Historical Association Annual Report.1889-1904.

Connecticut Historical Society Collections.8 vols.

Especially vol. i, Extract from Hooker's Sermon. Vol. ii, Hartford Church Papers. Vol. iii, Extract from Letter to the Rev. Thomas Prince. Vols. v and vi, Talcott Papers.

Massachusetts Historical Society Collections, 1792-1904. 64 vols.

Volumes containing the Mather, Sewall, and Winthrop Papers were especially useful.

Narragansett Club Publications. Providence, 1866.6 vols.

The Correspondence of Roger Williams and John Cotton, vols. i and ii.

New Haven Colony Historical Society Papers.6 vols.

Rhode Island Historical Society Collections.8 vols.1827-92. Proceedings, 4 vols., 1871-92, and Publications, 1892, onwards.

MANUSCRIPTS

Judge Church's MS. in New Haven Historical Society Library.

A sketch prepared for the historian Hollister.

Manuscript Records of the Newport Yearly Meeting, deposited in the Friends' School, Providence, R. I.

Manuscript Minutes of the Hartford North Association, deposited in Yale library.

Stiles, Ezra. Itinerary and Memoirs, 1760-1794, deposited in Yale College.

E. DENOMINATIONAL LITERATURE

1. BAPTIST

Asplund, John. The Annual Register of the Baptist Denomination in North America ... to Nov.1,1790; containing an account of the Churches and their Constitutions, Ministers, Members, Associations, their Plan and Sentiments, Rule and Order, Proceedings and Correspondence. Worcester, 1791-94.

Backus, Isaac. A History of New England with Particular Reference to the Denomination of Christians called Baptists. Newton, Mass., 1871.2 vols.

This edition by D. Weston includes Isaac Backus' prefaces to vol. i, finished 1777; vol. ii, 1784; and vol iii, 1796.

This contemporary writer is regarded as an authority, as much of his work was founded upon the court, town, and church records and upon the minutes of ecclesiastical councils. He searched diligently the records of Plymouth, Taunton, Boston, Essex, Providence, Newport, Hartford and New Haven. The book has a chronological record of the Connecticut churches. It is very discursive.

Benedict, David. A General History of the Baptist Denomination in America and other parts of the world. Boston, 1813.

This contains a more complete list of the associations and churches than that given by Backus. There is a valuable chapter, |Baptist Communities who differ from the main body of the denomination and who are also distinguished by some peculiarities of their own.|

Burrage, Henry S. A History of the Baptists in New
England. Philadelphia, 1894.

Particularly useful in tracing the progress of the denomination in the different states, and in its contribution to the history of religious liberty.

Cathcart, William (Editor). The Baptist Encyclopedia: A Dictionary of the Doctrines ... of the Baptist Denomination in all Lands. Philadelphia, 1883.2 vols.

Curtis, Thomas F. The Progress of Baptist Principles in the Last Hundred Years. Boston, 1856.

Denison, Frederic. Notes of the Baptists and their Principles in Norwich. Norwich, 1859.

This contains the famous Separatist Petition to the King in 1756.

Guild, Reuben A. History of Brown University, with Illustrated Documents. Providence, 1867.

Hovey, Alvah. A Memoir of the Life and Times of the Reverend Isaac Backus, A. M. Boston, 1858.

Newman, Albert H. A History of the Baptist Churches in the United States. New York, 1894.

2. CONGREGATIONALIST

A Confession of Faith, Owned and Consented to by the Elders and Messengers of the Churches in the Colony of Connecticut in New England Assembled by Delegates at Saybrook, Sept.9, 1708.

First Edition (first book printed in Connecticut), New London, 1710.

Second Edition, New London, 1760, with Heads of Agreement; Edition of Hartford, 1831. [a]

A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God in the Conversion of Many Hundred Souls in Northampton and the Neighboring Towns.... In a letter to the Rev'd. Doctor Benjamin Colman of Boston, written by the Rev'd. Mr. Edwards, Minister of Northampton, on Nov.6, 1736. London, 1737.

Autobiography of Lyman Beecher, D. D. New York, 1864.3vols.

Especially valuable for the attitude of the Congregational clergy during the first constitutional reform movement in Connecticut.

Bacon, Leonard. The Genesis of the New England Churches. New York, 1874.

-- -- Thirteen Historical Discourses, on completion of Two Hundred Years from the beginning of the First Church, New Haven. New Haven, 1839.

Baldwin, Simeon E. Ecclesiastical Constitution of Yale College. In New Haven Historical Society's Papers, vol. iii.

Contributions to the Ecclesiastical History of Connecticut: prepared under the direction of the General Association, to commemorate the completion of one hundred and fifty years since its first annual Assembly. New Haven, 1861.

See under L. Bacon, the history of David Brainerd.

Barrowe, Henry. Answer to Mr. Gifford.

-- -- A Briefe Discoverie of the False Church. Date, 1590. London ed.1707.

-- -- A True Description of the Word of God, of the Visible Church, 1589.

Briggs, Charles Augustus. American Presbyterianism: Its Origin and Early History. New York, 1885.

Browne, Robert. An Answer to Master Cartwright His Letter for Joyning with the English Churches. London, 1585.

-- -- A True and Short Declaration. Middelburg, 1584.

-- -- A Treatise of Reformation without tarrying. Middelburg, 1582.

-- -- The Book which Sheweth the life and manners of all true Christians, and how unlike they are unto Turkes and Papists and Heathen folk. Also the pointes and partes of all Divinitie that Cross, Arthur Lyon. The History of the Anglican Episcopate and the American Colonies. New York and London, 1902.

Hawkins, E. Historical Notices of the Missions of the Church of England in the North American Colonies. London, 1845.

Chiefly drawn from MS. documents of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel.

Hawks (Frances Lister) and Perry (William Stevens). Documentary History of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States. Containing ... documents concerning the Church in Connecticut. New York, 1863-34.2vols.

See Perry, William Stevens.

McConnell, Samuel Davis. History of the American Episcopal Church. New York, 1890.

A brief general history with a number of pages devoted to the attempts to establish the Episcopate in America and to the political hostility that it roused.

Perry, William Stevens (Bishop of Iowa). [See F. L. Hawks.] Documentary History of the Protestant Episcopal Church. New York, 1863-64.2 vols.

Unbiased; arranged under topical heads; has illustrated monographs by different authors; illustrations, including facsimiles; and also critical notes, frequently referring to original sources. It contains many letters from the missions established by the London Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts.

Shaw, W. A. A History of the Church of England. 2 vols.

4. METHODIST

Asbury's (Francis) Journal. New York, 1821.3 vols. A brief diary of all Bishop Asbury's American journeys: Vols. ii and iii concern New England, with comments on his surroundings, his preaching and the people.

Bangs, Nathan. History of the Methodist Episcopal Church. New York, 1841-45.4 vols.

Clark, Edgar F. The Methodist Episcopal Churches of Norwich. Norwich, 1867.

Convenient secondary authority gives, pp.6-21, a connected account of the early days of Connecticut Methodism.

Scudder, Moses Lewis. American Methodism. Hartford, 1870.

General attitude of New England towards the introduction of Methodism.

Stevens, Abel. Memorials of the Introduction of Methodism into the Eastern States. Boston, 1848.

Biographical notices of the early preachers, sketches of the earlier societies, and reminiscences of struggles and successes. |Some account of every Methodist preacher who was regularly appointed to New England during the first five years| of New England Methodism, derived from original sources, letters, and from books now out of print. The fullest account of Connecticut Methodists. It contains frequent citations from Jesse Lee's diary.

Appendix A contains valuable statistics; appendix B has a scurrilous pamphlet, |A Key to unlock Methodism, or Academical Hubbub,| etc., published in Norwich, 1800.

-- -- The Centenary of American Methodism: a Sketch of its History, Theology, Practical System, and Success. New York, 1866.

-- -- The History of the Religious Movement of the Eighteenth Century, called Methodism. New York, 1858-61.3 vols.

5. QUAKERS, OR THE SOCIETY OF FRIENDS

Besse, Joseph. A Collection of the Sufferings of the People called Quakers, for the Testimony of a Good Conscience, etc., to the year 1689. London, 1753.2 vols.

Vol. ii contains a full account of their persecutions, together with copies of the proceedings against them and letters from the sufferers.

Bowden, James. History of the Society of Friends in America. New York and London, 1845.2 vols.

A history of the sect throughout New England, containing many short biographies. It is fair and frank in its record of New England persecutions. The author adopts the unique plea that the excesses of the converts were inspired by the Holy Spirit as a reproof to their persecutors for the kind of persecution and punishment that was meted out to innocent persons.

Evans, Charles. Friends in the Seventeenth Century. Philadelphia, 1876.

Gough, John. History of the People called Quakers. Dublin, 1789-90.4 vols.

Hallowell, Richard Price. The Pioneer Quakers. Boston and New York, 1887.

Manuscript Records of Early Newport Yearly (Friends') Meetings -- at Friends' School, Providence, R. I.

Minutes of meetings, reports of cases of oppression, of converts, etc.

Sewel, William. The History of the Rise, Increase and Progress of the Christian People called Quakers, Intermixed with Several Remarkable Occurrences. Written originally in Low Dutch by W. S. and by himself translated into English.

1st ed., Amsterdam, 1717; 2d ed., London, 1722; 3d ed., 1725, 2 vols. Philadelphia, 1728, etc. New York, 1844. [a]

Wagstaff, William R. History of the Friends (compiled from standard records and authentic sources). New York and London, 1845.

A defense of the excesses in Quaker eccentricities as religious enthusiasm in persons who were driven by persecution to the verge of madness. A similar view is expressed by R. P. Hallowell and by Brooks Adams in his |Emancipation of Massachusetts.|

F. TRACTS (RELIGIOUS, POLITICAL OR BOTH)

Of these, several titles that are found at full length either in the text or footnotes are omitted here. Many more might have been added, but it is thought best to omit them because of their cumbrous titles, their scant interest to the average reader, and their inaccessibility, being found only in the largest libraries or among rare Americana. For similar reasons, works strictly theological in character are also not listed. Any sizable library possesses a copy of H. M. Dexter's |Congregationalism as seen in the Literature of the last Three Hundred Years.| Its bibliography of over 7000 titles gives all the religious, ecclesiastical or politico-ecclesiastical tracts, and theological works touching upon Congregationalism. Yale University library has a large amount of the Americana collected by Mr. Dexter.

Trumbull's list of books published in Connecticut before 1800 gives the titles of books and pamphlets of strictly local import

The Baptist Confession of Faith; first put forth in 1648; afterwards enlarged, corrected and published by an Assembly of Delegates (from the churches in Great Britain) met in London, July 3, 1689; adopted by the Association at Philadelphia, September 22, 1742, and now received by churches of the same denomination in most of the American States, to which is added a System of Church Discipline. Portland, 1794.

Bartlett, Moses. False and Seducing Teachers. New London, 1757.

Beecher, Lyman. Sermon. A Reformation of Morals practicable and indispensible. ... New Haven, 1813. Andover, 1814.

Bishop, Abraham. Connecticut Republicanism. An Oration on the extent and power of Political Delusion. Delivered in New Haven, September, 1800.

-- -- Proofs of a Conspiracy against Christianity and the Government of the United States; exhibited in several views of the Church and State in New England. Hartford, 1802.

-- -- The Oration in honor of the election of President Jefferson and the peaceful acquisition of Louisiana, 1801.

Bishop, George. New England Judged, Not by Man's, but the Spirit of the Lord: And the Summe sealed up of New England's Persecutions. Being a Brief Relation of the Sufferings of the People called Quakers in these Parts. London, 1661.

Bolles, John. Concerning the Christian Sabbath.1757.

-- -- To Worship God in Spirit and in Truth is True Liberty of Conscience.1756.

-- -- A Relation of the Opposition which some Baptist People met at Norwich.1761.

Booth, Abraham. Essay on Kingdom of Christ. London, 1788. New London, 1801. [a]

American edition edited by John Sterry of the Norwich |True Republican,| together with notes containing his strictures on the Connecticut and English Established Church.

Bragge, Robert. Church Discipline. London, 1739. Republished, New London, 1768. [a]

|A Defence of simple Congregationalism and disestablishment.|

Browne, Joseph. Principles of Baptism. A Letter to Infant Baptisers in the North Parish of New London. New London, 1767.

Quoted by Rev. E. H. Gillett, Hist. Mag.2d series, vol. iv, p.28.

Browne, Robert. A Treatise of reformation without tarrying for Magistrates and of the wickednesse of those Preachers which will not reforme till the Magistrates commande or compell them. Middelburg, 1582. Only three copies known. Reprint at Boston and London.

Chauncy, Charles, Rev. Seasonable Thoughts. Boston, 1743.

Treats of the Great Awakening, of which the author was a determined opponent.

Clap, Thomas. Brief History and Vindication of the Doctrines received and established in the Churches of New England. New Haven, 1755.

Daggett, David. Argument, before the General Assembly of Connecticut, Oct.1804, in the case of Certain Justices of the Peace.... New Haven, 1804.

-- -- Count the Cost. An Address to the People of Connecticut.... By Jonathan Steadfast. Hartford, 1804.

-- -- Facts are Stubborn Things, or Nine Plain Questions to the People of Connecticut. By Simon Holdfast. Hartford, 1803.

-- -- Steady Habits Vindicated. Hartford, 1805.

-- -- Sun-Beams may be extracted from Cucumbers, but the process is tedious. An Oration, pronounced 4 July, 1799.... New Haven, 1799.

Darling, Thomas. Some Remarks on President Clap's |History and Vindication.| New Haven, 1757.

Foster, Isaac. Defence of Religious Liberty. Worcester, 1779.

Frothingham, Ebenezer. A Key to unlock the Door, That leads in, to take a Fair View of the Religious Constitution, Established by Law, in the Colony of Connecticut ... with a short Observation upon the Explanation of Saybrook Plan, etc. and Mr. Hobart's attempt etc. Reviewing R. Ross, Plain Address. Boston, 1767.

Hobart, Noah. An Attempt to Illustrate and Confirm the Ecclesiastical Covenant of the Connecticut Churches, -- occasioned by a late Explanation of the Saybrook Platform. New Haven, 1765.

Holly, Israel. A Plea in Zion's Behalf: The Censured Memorial made Public ... to which is added a few Brief Remarks upon ... an Act for Exempting ... Separatists from Taxes, etc.1765.

Quoted by Rev. E. H. Glllett, Hist. Mag., 2d series, vol. iv.

Huntington, R. (Editor). Review of the Ecclesiastical Establishments of Europe (by William Graham). 1808.

Special reference to the bearing of the book on the Connecticut Establishment, and particularly upon its Parish System.

Judd, William. Address to the People of the State of Connecticut, on the removal of himself and four other Justices from Office.... New Haven, 1804.

Leland, John. A Blow at the Root. Being a fashionable Fast-Day Sermon. New London, 1801.

-- -- The Connecticut Dissenters' Strong Box: No. I. Containing, The High-flying Churchman stript of his legal Robe appears a Yaho. New London, 1802.

-- -- Van Tromp lowering his Peak with a Broadside: Containing a plea for the Baptists of Connecticut. Danbury, 1803.

-- -- The Rights of Conscience inalienable; ... Or, The high-flying Churchman, stript of his legal Robe, appears a Yaho.

See The Connecticut Dissenters' Strong Box.

Martin-Mar-Prelate Tracts. See H. M. Dexter's Congregationalism as seen in Literature, Lecture iii, pp. 131-205.

Norton, John. The Heart of New England rent at the Blasphemies of the Present Generation. Or a brief Tractate concerning the Doctrine of the Quakers etc. Cambridge, New England, 1659.

Paine, Solomon. A Short View of the Difference between the Church of Christ, and the established Churches in the Colony of Connecticut in their Foundation and Practice with their Ends: being a Word of Warning to several Ranks of Profession; and likewise Comfort to the Ministers and Members of the Church of Christ. 1752.

Richards, George H. The Politics of Connecticut; by a Federal Republican. New London, 1817.

Rogers, John. A Midnight Cry from the Temple of God to the Ten Virgins. See F. M. Caulkins' History of New London, pp.202-221.

-- -- John Rogers, A Servant of Jesus Christ ... giving a Description of True Shepherds of Christ's Flocks and also of the Anti-Christian Ministry.4th ed. Norwich, 1776.

-- -- New London Prison.

See F. H. Gillett, Hist. Mag., 2d series, vol. iv.

Ross, Robert. Plain Address to the Quakers, Moravians, Separatists, Separate Baptists, Rogerines, and other Enthusiasts on Immediate Impulses and Revelations, etc. New Haven, 1752.

Stiles, Ezra. A Discourse on Christian Union. (Appendix containing a list of New England Churches. A. D. 1760.) Boston, 1761.

Stoddard, Solomon. The Doctrine of Instituted Churches Explained and Proved from the Word of God.1700. Webster, Noah. A Rod for the Fool's Back. New Haven, 1800.

Being a reply to Abraham Bishop.

Williams, Nathan. An Inquiry Concerning the Design and Importance of Christian Baptism and Discipline. Hartford, 1792.

Wolcott, Roger. The New-English Congregational Churches are and always have been Consociated Churches, and their Liberties greater and better founded, in their Platform of Church Discipline agreed to at Cambridge, 1648, than what is contained at Saybrook, 1705, etc. Boston, 1761.

FOOTNOTES:

[a] This is the edition referred to in text.

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