V.1. Forasmuch, then, as Christ hath suffered for us in the flesh, arm yourselves likewise with the same mind; for he that hath suffered in the flesh hath ceased from sin.
St. Peter continues still in the same strain. Just as he hitherto has admonished us generally that we should suffer, if it be the will of God, and has set Christ before us as an example, -- so he now confirms it more broadly, and repeats it again, saying, While Christ, who is our captain and head, has suffered in the flesh and presented us an example, (besides that He has ransomed us from our sins,) we also should imitate Him, and prepare ourselves, and put on the same armor. For in the Scriptures the life of the Lord Christ, and especially his suffering, is presented before us in a twofold manner.
Sometimes as a gift, as St. Peter has already exhibited it in the third chapter; and to those first, who are built up and instructed in the faith that we are ransomed, and our sins taken away by the blood of Christ; and so he is a gift and bestowment upon us, which none can receive except by faith. Whereof he speaks where he says, |Christ has once suffered for our sins.| That is certainly the grand doctrine, and the most precious one of the Gospel.
Again, Christ is set before us and offered to us as an example and pattern for us to follow. For if we only receive Christ, through faith, as a free gift, we shall go farther and do ourselves as He has done for us, and imitate Him in His whole life and sufferings. In this manner St. Peter presents it here. But he does not speak here particularly of those marks of the love which leads us to befriend our neighbor, and do good, which are called, specifically, good works (for he had said enough of this above), but of such evidences as concern our personal experience, and are of service in strengthening our faith, that sin may be put to death in the flesh, and we thereby become of so much better service to our neighbor. For if I control my body so that it be not lustful, then can I leave my neighbor, his wife or child, at peace; while if I subdue hate and envy, I shall become so much better prepared to be kind and friendly toward my neighbor.
We have repeated often enough already that we are justified through faith, and thus have the Lord Christ as ours; still we must also do good works and show kindness to our neighbor. For we are never entirely purified while we live on earth, and every one still finds in his body evil lusts. The believer indeed prays for the death of sin and the gift of heaven, but is not yet become entirely and completely strong; but as Christ described the Samaritan, who was not yet healed, but was laid under restrictions and directions that he might become sound, so it is also with us. If we believe, then is our sin restrained, -- that is, the disease which we have derived from Adam, and we begin to recover. But it is the case, in one more, in another less, that in proportion as one mortifies and subdues the flesh, so much does his faith increase. So that if we have these two things, faith and love, our future experience will be, that we shall continue to drive sin before us till we die.
Therefore St. Peter says, arm yourselves with the same mind; that is, take up a firm purpose, and strengthen yourselves with the mind which you receive from Christ; for, if we are Christians, then must we also say, My Master has suffered and spilt His blood for me, and has died for my sake. Should I then be so base as not to love Him? While the Master runs upon the spears' points in the conflict, how much more should the servant advance with joy? Thus do we awaken a courage such that we press onward, and arm ourselves in our own minds so as joyfully to persevere.
The word flesh refers in Scripture not only outwardly to the body, but includes all that is derived from Adam. As when God says, in Gen. vi.: |My Spirit shall not always strive with men, for they also are flesh;| and Isaiah, chap. xl., |All flesh shall see the Salvation of God,| -- that is, it shall be revealed for all men. So we also make confession in our own form of faith, |I believe in the resurrection of the flesh,| that is, that men shall rise again. So man uniformly throughout is called flesh, as he lives here in this state of being.
The marks of the flesh are carefully recounted, one after another, in Paul's Epistle to the Galatians v., not only the gross carnal works, as lasciviousness, but also the highest and most reckless blasphemies, as idolatry and heresy, which belong not only to the flesh, but to the reason. We must understand, therefore, that man, with his intellectual nature, -- and with respect both to that which is inward and that which is outward -- that is, the body and spirit, -- has the appellation of flesh; and this, because with all his faculties, internal and external, he seeks only that which is carnal, and can serve to gratify the flesh. St. Peter says here, too, that Christ suffered in the flesh, while it is certain that His suffering extended further than to the body merely, for His soul suffered the greatest anguish, as is said by the prophet Isaiah.
In the same way, also, you are to understand that which follows, in the passage before us: |Whoever hath suffered in the flesh hath ceased from sin.| For this implies not only such things as the death and the torture of the body, but whatever can work misery to man -- whatever he endures through calamity and necessity. For there are many people who are sound in body, and yet inwardly experience much heart-sorrow and anguish. If it comes upon us for Christ's sake, it is serviceable and profitable. For whoever suffers in the flesh (says he) ceases from sin, and therefore the Holy Cross is profitable, that sin may thereby be subdued; since it requires you to mortify lust, envy and hate, and other wickedness. Therefore God has imposed the Holy Cross upon us that He might urge and constrain us to believe, and extend the hand of kindness one to the other. Hereupon it follows:
V.2. That he henceforth, in the time that still remains for him in the flesh, should live not according to the lusts of men, but the will of God.
We should henceforth, as long as we live, hold the flesh captive through the Cross, and by mortifications, so as to do that which pleases God, and not with the idea that we should or can deserve anything by it. Not according to the lusts of men (says he), -- that is, that we should not do that to which we might yet be tempted by others; for we are not to be conformed to this world, as Paul says, Rom. xii. What the world demands of us we must refuse.
V.3. For the time past of our life is enough to have wrought the will of the Gentiles, when we walked in lasciviousness, lusts, excess of wine, revellings, banquetings and abominable idolatries.
We have already gone altogether too far, that before our believing we have so shamefully spent our life in accordance with the will of the Gentiles, which is the same with lusts of men. Therefore as long as life continues we should see to it that we do that which is well-pleasing to God; for we have our enemy in our flesh, the one that is the real knave -- not gross matter merely, but more particularly blindness of mind, which Paul calls carnal wisdom, -- that is, the policy of the flesh. If we have subdued this depravity, that other is carefully to be constrained, which does our neighbor injury in so secret a manner as not to be observed.
St. Peter calls that lasciviousness that is accompanied with outward gestures or words by which evil intentions are expressed, though the deed itself be not performed, and it is that which is unchaste to the sight and hearing, upon which afterward the lust and the act also follow. Thereupon there succeeds such idolatry as is abominable. And we may easily bring all this upon us, for when we have lost faith we have certainly lost God, also, and may fall into more abominable idolatries than the heathen, if we view the matter aright.
V.4-5. And it surprises them that ye run not with them to the same excess of disorderly life, and they calumniate you, who must give account to Him that is ready to judge the living and the dead.
That is, ye have hitherto lived after the manner of the heathen, but since you have now forsaken it, it appears strange to men, and seems shameful and foolish, and they say, |What great fools they are to withdraw themselves from all worldly good and gratification.| But let it seem strange to them; let them libel you; they shall yet be compelled to give in their account; wherefore leave it to Him that will judge righteously.
V.6. For to this end also was the Gospel preached to the dead, that they should be judged according to men in the flesh, but live to God in the spirit.
Here we have, however, a strange and remarkable text. The words clearly declare that the Gospel is preached not only to the living, but also to the dead, and adds besides, |in order that they may be judged according to men in the flesh.| Now they certainly have not flesh, which can be understood only of the living. It is a wonderful passage, however understood: whether it should be made to refer to us, or to concern something foreign, I do not know, yet this is my understanding of it. We are not to be anxious how God will condemn the heathen who died many centuries ago, but only how He will judge those that are now living; so that the passage should be considered as spoken of men on earth.
But as to the word flesh, you are to understand, as I said above, that the entire man is called flesh, according as he lives, just as he also is called in respect to his whole nature, spiritual, while he follows after that which is spiritual. Still there is also a commingling of the two things with one another, just as I say of a man who is wounded, that he is whole and yet is wounded; and so, too, though the sound part is greater than the wounded part, still he is spoken of only with reference to the injured part as wounded; and such, too, is the method of the Spirit here: therefore he says, that they as to their outward being are condemned, but inwardly, as respects the spirit, are preserved in life.
But how does that, where He says that they live, agree with that which he subjoins, that they are dead? I will explain it according to my understanding, yet not so as to limit the Holy Ghost in that he calls the unbelieving dead. For I cannot accept the sense that to those that are dead and perished, the Gospel has been preached. This, then, would be what St. Peter means, that the Gospel has been freely published and universally spread abroad, concealed neither from dead nor living -- neither from angels nor yet from devils, and preached not secretly in a corner, but so publicly that all creatures might hear it that have ears to hear, as Christ gave command in the last of Mark: |Go ye forth and preach the Gospel to all creatures.| If, therefore, it is preached in such a manner, there will those be found who are condemned after the flesh, but live after the spirit.
V.7. But the end of all things is at hand. This is also a remarkable passage, for already nearly 1500 years are passed since then. St. Peter preached that the time is neither near nor brief, yet he says, that the end of all things is at hand; as John also declares in his first epistle, chap, ii., |It is the last hour.| If it were not the Apostle's language, we might say it was contradictory: but by this we must firmly abide, that the Apostle has truth with him. Yet what he means here he shall explain himself in the second epistle, where he tells us why the time is said to be near, and says: |One day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day;| of which I have spoken above. So that we must explain it in this manner, that it shall not be as long hereafter to the end of the world as it has been from the beginning to the present time. And it is not to be expected that one should live two or three thousand years after the birth of Christ, so that the end shall come before we look for it. Wherefore he further adds:
V.7, 8. Be ye therefore sober, and watch unto prayer. And above all things have fervent charity among yourselves: for charity shall cover the multitude of sins.
Here you perceive the reason why we are to watch and be sober; namely, that we may be prepared to pray for ourselves and our neighbors. Since charity cannot be fervent unless you keep the body in subjection, that charity may have place within you. Here St. Peter has quoted a passage from the book of Proverbs, ch. x.12. Hate stirreth up strife, but love covereth the multitude of sins. And this is what St. Peter means: Subdue your flesh and lusts: unless you do it, you will easily offend one another, and yet not easily be able to forgive one another. Take care, therefore, that you subdue the wicked lusts, so you shall be able to show charity one to another, and to forgive, for charity covereth sins.
This passage has been explained to the prejudice of faith, inasmuch as they tell us: |You say that faith alone makes us righteous, and that no one through works may be free from sin. Why then do Solomon and Peter, as in this passage, say, love covers sins?| Answer. Whoever has hatred toward another, says Solomon, ceases not to stir up strife and bitterness. But where there is love, it covers sins and cheerfully forgives. Where there is wrath, or in other words, where there is an intractable man, reconciliation is not permitted; he remains full of wrath and hate. On the other hand, a man who is full of love is he whom one cannot enrage, however much injury may be done him; he perceives it all, but does as though he saw it not. So that the covering is spoken of as regards our neighbor, and not as it respects God. Nothing shall cover up sin before God for you, except faith. But my love covers the sin of my neighbor; and just as God with His love covers my sins, if I believe, so too should I cover my neighbor's sins. Therefore He says, Ye should have charity one to another, that one may cover the other's sins. And love covers not only one, two, or three sins, but the multitude of sins; cannot suffer and do too much; covers up all. So St. Paul also speaks and teaches in accordance with this passage, I. Cor. xiii.7. Charity beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things. It has respect to the best good of all, can suffer all, and take for the best whatever shall be imposed upon it. There follows, further:
V.9. Be hospitable one to another without grudging, and minister one to another, as every one has received the gift. He is said to be hospitable who cheerfully acts the host. When the Apostles went abroad one with another and preached, and sent their younger brethren here and there, it was necessary that one should lodge the other. How well would it be, even now, that men should preach from one place to another, from city to city, from house to house, -- and without remaining too long in one place, might see to it that where one was weak he should be helped, and where one had fallen down he should be lifted up, and things of that sort. St. Peter directs that this should take place without murmuring; that no one should suffer it to seem too much for him. This is also a work of love, as it follows immediately afterward, that we should minister to one another! Wherewith? With the gifts of God which every one has received. The gospel directs that every one be the servant of the other, and beside, see to it that he abide in the gift which he has received, which God has bestowed upon him; that is, the state, whatever it be, whereunto he has been called.
God's will is not that a lord should serve his servant, that the maid be as the mistress, and a prince serve the beggar; -- for he will not break down magistracy. But his meaning is, that men should serve one another spiritually, with their hearts: although you are a high and great lord, yet should you employ your power to this end, that you may therewith serve your neighbor. Thus should every one hold himself for a servant; the lord may still remain a lord, and yet hold himself, in his own esteem, no better than the servant: so that he even cheerfully would become a servant if it were God's ordering; and the same is applicable to other conditions.
V.10. As good stewards of the manifold grace of God. God has not bestowed upon us all like grace; therefore should every one inquire to what he has been appointed, and what kind of gift has been bestowed upon him. When he discovers this, let him use it for the service of his neighbor, as St. Peter further explains, and says:
V.11. If any man speak, let him speak as the word of God. That is, if any one has the grace that enables him to preach and teach, let him teach and preach. As St. Paul says, also, Rom. xii.3: |That no one think more of himself than he ought to think, but every man according as God has dealt to him the measure of faith. For as we have many members in one body and all members have not the same office, so we, being many, are one body in Christ, and every one members one of another; and have many gifts, differing according to the grace that has been given unto us.| And then follows, |Has any one a prophecy, let it be in accordance with faith; Has any one a ministry, let him wait on his ministering: Does any one teach, let him wait on his teaching.| He teaches the same doctrine also elsewhere, in his Epistles to the Corinthians and Ephesians.
For this reason has God distributed various gifts among men which should be employed to this intent alone, that one should minister therewith to another, especially those who are in authority, be it in preaching, or some other ministry.
Now St. Peter says, here, If any one speak, let him speak as the word of God. This point is worthy of special remark, that no one is to preach anything but what he is sure is the word of God. There St. Peter has shut up the Pope's mouth, and lo! he will be St. Peter's successor, so cunningly has he managed it. Further:
V.11. If any one ministers, let him do it as of the ability which God giveth. That is, whoever rules in the christian church and has an office or ministry for the care of souls, he is not to proceed as he may choose, and say, |I am sovereign lord, I must be obeyed; what I do shall remain established.| God requires that we should do no otherwise than as he directs. So that since it is God's work and ordinance, let a bishop do nothing except he be sure that God sanctions it, that it is either God's word or work.
And besides, inasmuch as God will not permit that we should regard as a matter of sport what we do with the christian church, we must stand in such an assurance as this, that God speaks and works through us, and that our faith may also say, |That which I have spoken and done, God also has spoken and done; on this I will even die.|
And yet if I am not certain of the matter, then my faith will rest upon the sand when the devil assaults me. Thus here it is emphatically forbidden us to receive the command of any bishop, unless it is also the case, that he is certain that he does what God does, and can say, |I have God's word and command for it.| Where that is wanting, we must hold him for a liar.
For God has prescribed that our conscience must rest on the bare rock. This is said also of government in general, that no one might follow his own darkness, and that nothing might be done of which he was not sure that God would sanction it. Whence you perceive how St. Peter so long ago thrust down to the ground the government of Popes and bishops, as we have it at the present day. Now follows:
V.11. That God in all things may be glorified through our Lord Jesus Christ, to whom be praise and dominion for ever and ever; Amen. For this reason it is, you are to be so confident, (he means), that God speaks and does all that you speak and do. For if you perform a work of which you are not sure that God has done it, you cannot praise and give thanks. But where a man is certain of it, in that case he may praise and thank Him for His word and works' sake, though he should be belied and held up for derision. Therefore it is a shameful and ruinous thing that in Christendom any one should govern in opposition to the word and works of God. Therefore, from necessity, has St. Peter subjoined that in which he instructs how government should be ordered among christian people. Then follows, further:
V.12. Beloved, be not surprised at the fiery trial which is to try you, as though some strange thing happened unto you. That is a mode of speech not common in our language. But St. Peter uses this very phraseology, in order to remind us of that concerning which the Holy Scripture speaks. For the Scripture is accustomed to speak of suffering as though it were a furnace full of fire and heat. St. Peter has spoken in the same manner, above, in the first chapter: |That the trial of your faith be found far more precious than the perishing gold that is tried by fire.| We may also read in the prophet Isaiah, chap. xlviii., God says: |I have tried thee in the furnace of affliction;| and Ps. xvi., |With fire hast thou tried me;| and Ps. xxv., |Lord, thou wilt consume and destroy my nerves and my heart;| also, Ps. lxv., |We have passed through fire and water.| Thus the Scriptures are accustomed to illustrate what we call suffering, by burning or trial by fire. This is St. Peter's conclusion, that we should not suffer ourselves to be surprised, or to think it strange and wonderful that the heat or fire should meet us, whereby we are tried, just as gold is when it is melted in the fire.
When faith begins, God does not neglect it; He lays the cross upon our back in order to strengthen us and make our faith mighty. The Gospel is a powerful word, but it cannot enter upon its work without opposition, and no one can be sure that it possesses such power, but he who has experienced it. Where there is suffering and the cross, there its power may be shown and exercised. It is a living word, and therefore it must exercise all its energy upon the dead. But if there is no such thing as death and corruption, there is nothing for it to do, and none can be certain that it possesses such virtue, and is stronger than sin and death. Therefore, he says, are you tried; that is, God appoints for you no flame or heat (in other words, cross and suffering, which make you glow as in a furnace), except to try you, whether you rely upon His word. Thus it is written, Wisdom x., of Jacob, |God appointed for him a severe conflict, that he might learn by experience that divine wisdom is the strongest of all things.| That is the reason why God imposes the cross on all believers, that they may taste and prove the power of God which through faith they have possessed.
V.13. But be ye partakers of the sufferings of Christ. St. Peter does not say that we should feel the sufferings of Christ, that thereby we should be partakers with Him through faith, but would say this: just as Christ has suffered, so are you to expect to suffer and be tried. If you do thus suffer, then do you therein have fellowship with the Lord Christ. If we would live with Him, we must also die with Him. If I wish to sit with Him in His kingdom, I must also suffer with Him, as Paul also says, repeatedly.
V.13. Rejoice, that in the time of the revelation of His glory, ye may be glad with exceeding joy. Though you should be brought to torture and the flames, you would still be happy. For though there be pain as to the body, there shall yet be a spiritual joy, inasmuch as you are to be happy forever. For this joy springs here from suffering, and is everlasting. Yet whoever cannot bear his sufferings cheerfully, and is dissatisfied, and chooses to contend with God, he shall endure, both here and hereafter, eternal torment and suffering. Thus we read of holy martyrs, that they have submitted cheerfully to torture, thus opening the way to eternal enjoyment; as for instance, of St. Agatha, that she went as joyfully to prison as though it had been to a dance. And the Apostles went also with joy, and thanked God |that they were counted worthy to suffer for Christ's sake.|
In the time of the revelation of His glory. Christ does not permit Himself as yet to be seen as a Lord, but is still a sharer with us in our labors. So far as He is Himself concerned, He is truly such, but we who are His members, are not Lords as yet. Still we shall yet be Lords, when His glory at the last day shall be revealed before all men, brighter than the sun.
V.14. If ye be reproached for the name of Christ, happy are you. Christ is a hateful name with the world; whoever preaches of Him must endure to have the most esteemed on earth slander and revile his name. But this in our times is more strange and unseemly, that they who persecute us bear also the name of Christ; they say they are Christians and baptized, yet in fact renounce and persecute Christ. This is indeed a sad strife. They hold the same name as tenaciously as we do, against us. For this reason we greatly need consolation, -- although the most discreet and pious follow after us, -- that we may abide firmly and remain cheerful. But how?
V.14. For the Spirit of glory and of God resteth upon you. On their part He is evil spoken of, but on your part He is glorified. Ye (he says) have within you a Spirit, that is, the Spirit of God and of glory, such as makes you glorious. But this does not take place on earth, but it shall take place when the glory of Christ shall be revealed at the last day. Besides, He is not only a Spirit that makes us glorious, but one which we also regard as glorious in Himself. For it belongs peculiarly to the Holy Spirit to purify and glorify, even as He has made Christ pure and glorious. Now the same Spirit (he says) rests upon you; and forasmuch as ye bear the name of Christ, it is slandered by them. For He must endure to be reviled and slandered, to the highest degree. Therefore it is not you who receive the reviling; it belongs to the Spirit, which is a Spirit of glory: be not anxious; He will regard it and raise you to honor. This is the consolation which we as Christians have, that we may say, That word is not mine, this faith is not mine, they are all the work of God: whoever reviles me reviles God, as Christ says in Matthew x., |Whoever receiveth you receiveth me;| and on the other hand, |Whoever reviles you reviles me.| St. Peter, therefore, would say, Know that the Spirit which you have is strong enough easily to punish His enemies; as God says also in Ex. xxiii., If thou wilt hearken to my commandments, I will be the enemy of thine enemies. And the Scripture often repeats it, that the enemies of the saints are the enemies of God. If we only have experience that we are Christians, and believe, we shall not be ashamed, but the reviling is directed more especially against God Himself. Therefore, he says, be ye cheerful and happy, for that opposition is to the Spirit, which is not yours, but God's. Now he adds an admonition:
V.15, 16. But let no one suffer as a murderer, or a thief, or an evil-doer, or a busy-body in other men's matters; but if any man suffer as a Christian, let him not be ashamed, but let him glorify God on this behalf. He would say, now, You have heard how you are to suffer, and conduct yourselves under it, but beware that it do not come upon you because you have deserved it on account of your evil deeds, but for Christ's sake. Yet this is not now the case with us, for we must suffer, notwithstanding the fact that those who persecute us bear also the name of Christ, so that no one can die because he is a Christian, but only as an enemy of Christ, and even they who persecute him say they are real Christians, and say, too, that he is blessed who dies for Christ's sake. Here the Spirit alone must determine, since you must know that you are a Christian in the sight of God. God's tribunal is a secret one, and when He has uncovered the matter, He will judge no more according to the name, since at that time the name of the most exalted must vanish away.
Now, St. Peter says, If ye suffer in this manner, be ye not ashamed, but glorify God. Here he makes the suffering and anguish the more welcome, because it is great, insomuch that we praise God through it, and because we are not worthy of it. Yet now all will shrink therefrom. Of what advantage is it to embrace the cross in monasteries? The cross of Christ does not save me. I must, indeed, believe in His cross, but I must myself bear my own cross. His suffering must I experience inwardly, if I would possess the true treasure. Let St. Peter's bones be holy, yet how does it help you? You and your bones should be holy, too, which can take place only when you suffer for Christ's sake.
V.17. For the time is come that judgment must begin at the house of God; and if it first begin at us, what shall the end be of them that obey not the Gospel of God? He here brings two passages from the prophets together in one. As to the first, Jeremiah says, xxv.: |Behold, I send my judgments upon the city which is called by my name; and if first of all I afflict my dearly beloved children who believe on me, who first of all must suffer and past through the fire, do ye who are my enemies, ye who do not believe, suppose that ye shall escape punishment?| So in chap. xlix. he says: |They whose judgment was not to drink the cup, have assuredly drunken, and thinkest thou that thou art he that shall not drink?| That is, I strike my beloved, that you may see how I shall treat my enemies. Observe here the force of the words: if God holds his saints in such esteem, yet has been willing to have them judged and exposed with such severity, what will then be done with the others?
So also Ezekiel, chap. ix., saw armed men with their swords, who were to slay all, to whom God said, begin at my sanctuary. That is what St. Peter means in this place. Therefore he says, the time is come, as the prophets have foretold, when judgment must begin with us. When the Gospel is preached, God arrests and punishes sin, since it is He that kills and makes alive. The pious he gently strokes, and first of all is the rod of kind correction: but what then will be done with those that do not believe? As though he had said, if He proceeds with such severity toward His own children, you may infer what must be the punishment of those who do not believe.
V.18. And if the righteous scarcely be saved, where shall the ungodly and the sinner appear? This passage is also taken from the book of Proverbs, chap. ii.31.: |If the righteous be recompensed in the earth, where shall the godless abide?| The same thing also is said here by St. Peter. The righteous can hardly be saved and only just escapes. The righteous is he who believes, yet in his faith, even, he has trouble and labor in order to persevere and be saved, for he must pass through the fire. Where then will he be found who has not faith? If God gives thus to faith a shock that makes it tremble, how can he abide steadfast who is without faith? whence he concludes:
V.19. Wherefore let them that suffer according to the will of God, commit their souls to Him as a faithful creator, in well-doing. That is, they to whom God appoints suffering, that they have not themselves sought out and invited, should commit their souls to his charge. These are they that do good, abide in good works, fall not away because of suffering, commit themselves to their Creator, who is faithful. This is to us a great consolation. God created thy soul without thy care or cooperation, while as yet thou wast not; so is he also able to preserve it. Therefore commit thyself to Him, yet in such a way that it be joined with good works. Not that you are to think, -- now I will not be afraid to die; you must see to it that you are a true Christian and prove your faith by your works. But if you go on so venturously, it will be wise to examine how it will go with you. This is the last admonition which St. Peter gives to those that suffer for Christ's sake. We pass now to