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SermonIndex.net : Christian Books : CHAPTER VI. MANUSCRIPT TESTIMONY SHEWN TO BE OVERWHELMINGLY IN FAVOUR OF THESE VERSES.--PART I.

The Last Twelve Verses Of The Gospel According To S Mark by John William Burgon

CHAPTER VI. MANUSCRIPT TESTIMONY SHEWN TO BE OVERWHELMINGLY IN FAVOUR OF THESE VERSES.--PART I.

S. Mark xvi.9-20, contained in every MS. in the world except two. -- Irrational Claim to Infallibility set up on behalf of Cod. B (p.73) and Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF} (p.75). -- These two Codices shewn to be full of gross Omissions (p.78), -- Interpolations (p.80), -- Corruptions of the Text (p.81), -- and Perversions of the Truth (p.83). -- The testimony of Cod. B to S. Mark xvi.9-20, shewn to be favorable, notwithstanding (p.86).

The two oldest Copies of the Gospels in existence are the famous Codex in the Vatican Library at Rome, known as |Codex B;| and the Codex which Tischendorf brought from Mount Sinai in 1859, and which he designates by the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet ({HEBREW LETTER ALEF}). These two manuscripts are probably not of equal antiquity.(121) An interval of fifty years at least seems to be required to account for the marked difference between them. If the first belongs to the beginning, the second may be referred to the middle or latter part of the ivth century. But the two Manuscripts agree in this, -- that they are without the last twelve verses of S. Mark's Gospel. In both, after {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PHI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER BETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO} (ver.8), comes the subscription: in Cod. B, -- {GREEK CAPITAL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER TAU}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ALPHA} {GREEK CAPITAL LETTER MU}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER RHO}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER NU}; in Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF}, -- {GREEK CAPITAL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER NU} {GREEK CAPITAL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER TAU}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ALPHA} {GREEK CAPITAL LETTER MU}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER RHO}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER NU}.

Let it not be supposed that we have any more facts of this class to produce. All has been stated. It is not that the evidence of Manuscripts is one, -- the evidence of Fathers and Versions another. The very reverse is the case. Manuscripts, Fathers, and Versions alike, are only not unanimous in bearing consistent testimony. But the consentient witness of the MSS. is even extraordinary. With the exception of the two uncial MSS. which have just been named, there is not one Codex in existence, uncial or cursive, -- (and we are acquainted with, at least, eighteen other uncials,(122) and about six hundred cursive Copies of this Gospel,) -- which leaves out the last twelve verses of S. Mark.

The inference which an unscientific observer would draw from this fact, is no doubt in this instance the correct one. He demands to be shewn the Alexandrine (A) and the Parisian Codex (C), -- neither of them probably removed by much more than fifty years from the date of the Codex Sinaiticus, and both unquestionably derived from different originals; -- and he ascertains that no countenance is lent by either of those venerable monuments to the proposed omission of this part of the sacred text. He discovers that the Codex Bezae (D), the only remaining very ancient MS. authority, -- notwithstanding that it is observed on most occasions to exhibit an extraordinary sympathy with the Vatican (B), -- here sides with A and C against B and {HEBREW LETTER ALEF}. He inquires after all the other uncials and all the cursive MSS. in existence, (some of them dating from the xth century,) and requests to have it explained to him why it is to be supposed that all these many witnesses, -- belonging to so many different patriarchates, provinces, ages of the Church, -- have entered into a grand conspiracy to bear false witness on a point of this magnitude and importance? But he obtains no intelligible answer to this question. How, then, is an unprejudiced student to draw any inference but one from the premisses? That single peculiarity (he tells himself) of bringing the second Gospel abruptly to a close at the 8th verse of the xvith chapter, is absolutely fatal to the two Codices in question. It is useless to din into his ears that those Codices are probably both of the ivth century, -- unless men are prepared to add the assurance that a Codex of the ivth century is of necessity a more trustworthy witness to the text of the Gospels than a Codex of the vth. The omission of these twelve verses, I repeat, in itself, destroys his confidence in Cod. B and Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF}: for it is obvious that a copy of the Gospels which has been so seriously mutilated in one place may have been slightly tampered with in another. He is willing to suspend his judgment, of course. The two oldest copies of the Gospels in existence are entitled to great reverence because of their high antiquity. They must be allowed a most patient, most unprejudiced, most respectful, nay, a most indulgent hearing. But when all this has been freely accorded, on no intelligible principle can more be claimed for any two MSS. in the world.

The rejoinder to all this is sufficiently obvious. Mistrust will no doubt have been thrown over the evidence borne to the text of Scripture in a thousand other places by Cod. B and Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF}, after demonstration that those two Codices exhibit a mutilated text in the present place. But what else is this but the very point requiring demonstration? Why may not these two be right, and all the other MSS. wrong?

I propose, therefore, that we reverse the process. Proceed we to examine the evidence borne by these two witnesses on certain other occasions which admit of no difference of opinion; or next to none. Let us endeavour, I say, to ascertain the character of the Witnesses by a patient and unprejudiced examination of their Evidence, -- not in one place, or in two, or in three; but on several important occasions, and throughout. If we find it invariably consentient and invariably truthful, then of course a mighty presumption will have been established, the very strongest possible, that their adverse testimony in respect of the conclusion of S. Mark's Gospel must needs be worthy of all acceptation. But if, on the contrary, our inquiries shall conduct us to the very opposite result, -- what else can happen but that our confidence in these two MSS. will be hopelessly shaken? We must in such case be prepared to admit that it is just as likely as not that this is only one more occasion on which these |two false witnesses| have conspired to witness falsely. If, at this juncture, extraneous evidence of an entirely trustworthy kind can be procured to confront them: above all, if some one ancient witness of unimpeachable veracity can be found who shall bear contradictory evidence: what other alternative will be left us but to reject their testimony in respect of S. Mark xvi.9-20 with something like indignation; and to acquiesce in the belief of universal Christendom for eighteen hundred years that these twelve verses are just as much entitled to our unhesitating acceptance as any other twelve verses in the Gospel which can be named?

I. It is undeniable, in the meantime, that for the last quarter of a century, it has become the fashion to demand for the readings of Codex B something very like absolute deference. The grounds for this superstitious sentiment, (for really I can describe it in no apter way,) I profess myself unable to discover. Codex B comes to us without a history: without recommendation of any kind, except that of its antiquity. It bears traces of careless transcription in every page. The mistakes which the original transcriber made are of perpetual recurrence. |They are chiefly omissions, of one, two, or three words; but sometimes of half a verse, a whole verse, or even of several verses.... I hesitate not to assert that it would be easier to find a folio containing three or four such omissions than to light on one which should be without any.|(123) In the Gospels alone, Codex B leaves out words or whole clauses no less than 1,491 times:(124) of which by far the largest proportion is found in S. Mark's Gospel. Many of these, no doubt, are to be accounted for by the proximity of a |like ending.|(125) The Vatican MS. (like the Sinaitic(126)) was originally derived from an older Codex which contained about twelve or thirteen letters in a line.(127) And it will be found that some of its omissions which have given rise to prolonged discussion are probably to be referred to nothing else but the oscitancy of a transcriber with such a codex before him:(128) without having recourse to any more abstruse hypothesis; without any imputation of bad faith; -- certainly without supposing that the words omitted did not exist in the inspired autograph of the Evangelist. But then it is undeniable that some of the omissions in Cod. B are not to be so explained. On the other hand, I can testify to the fact that the codex is disfigured throughout with repetitions. The original scribe is often found to have not only written the same words twice over, but to have failed whenever he did so to take any notice with his pen of what he had done.

What then, (I must again inquire,) are the grounds for the superstitious reverence which is entertained in certain quarters for the readings of Codex B? If it be a secret known to the recent Editors of the New Testament, they have certainly contrived to keep it wondrous close.

II. More recently, a claim to co-ordinate primacy has been set up on behalf of the Codex Sinaiticus. Tischendorf is actually engaged in remodelling his seventh Leipsic edition, chiefly in conformity with the readings of his lately discovered MS.(129) And yet the Codex in question abounds with |errors of the the eye and pen, to an extent not unparalleled, but happily rather unusual in documents of first-rate importance.| On many occasions, 10, 20, 30, 40 words are dropped through very carelessness.(130) |Letters and words, even whole sentences, are frequently written twice over, or begun and immediately cancelled: while that gross blunder ... whereby a clause is omitted because it happens to end in the same words as the clause preceding, occurs no less than 115 times in the New Testament. Tregelles has freely pronounced that 'the state of the text, as proceeding from the first scribe, may be regarded as very rough.' |(131) But when |the first scribe| and his |very rough| performance have been thus unceremoniously disposed of, one would like to be informed what remains to command respect in Codex {HEBREW LETTER ALEF}? Is, then, manuscript authority to be confounded with editorial caprice, -- exercising itself upon the corrections of |at least ten different revisers,| who, from the vith to the xiith century, have been endeavouring to lick into shape a text which its original author left |very rough?|

The co-ordinate primacy, (as I must needs call it,) which, within the last few years, has been claimed for Codex B and Codex {HEBREW LETTER ALEF}, threatens to grow into a species of tyranny, -- from which I venture to predict there will come in the end an unreasonable and unsalutary recoil. It behoves us, therefore, to look closely into this matter, and to require a reason for what is being done. The text of the sacred deposit is far too precious a thing to be sacrificed to an irrational, or at least a superstitious devotion to two MSS., -- simply because they may possibly be older by a hundred years than any other which we possess. |Id verius quod prius,| is an axiom which holds every bit as true in Textual Criticism as in Dogmatic Truth. But on that principle, (as I have already shewn,) the last twelve verses of S. Mark's Gospel are fully established;(132) and by consequence, the credit of Codd. B and {HEBREW LETTER ALEF} sustains a severe shock. Again, |Id verius quod prius;| but it does not of course follow that a Codex of the ivth century shall exhibit a more correct text of Scripture than one written in the vth, or even than one written in the xth. For the proof of this statement, (if it can be supposed to require proof,) it is enough to appeal to Codex D. That venerable copy of the Gospels is of the vith century. It is, in fact, one of our five great uncials. No older MS. of the Greek Text is known to exist, -- excepting always A, B, C and {HEBREW LETTER ALEF}. And yet no text is more thoroughly disfigured by corruptions and interpolations than that of Codex D. In the Acts, (to use the language of its learned and accurate Editor,) |it is hardly an exaggeration to assert that it reproduces the textus receptus much in the same way that one of the best Chaldee Targums does the Hebrew of the Old Testament: so wide are the variations in the diction, so constant and inveterate the practice of expanding the narrative by means of interpolations which seldom recommend themselves as genuine by even a semblance of internal probability.|(133) Where, then, is the a priori probability that two MSS. of the ivth century shall have not only a superior claim to be heard, but almost an exclusive right to dictate which readings are to be rejected, which retained?

How ready the most recent editors of the New Testament have shewn themselves to hammer the sacred text on the anvil of Codd. B and {HEBREW LETTER ALEF}, -- not unfrequently in defiance of the evidence of all other MSS., and sometimes to the serious detriment of the deposit, -- would admit of striking illustration were this place for such details. Tischendorf's English |New Testament| -- |with various readings from the three most celebrated manuscripts of the Greek Text| translated at the foot of every page, -- is a recent attempt (1869) to popularize the doctrine that we have to look exclusively to two or three of the oldest copies, if we would possess the Word of GOD in its integrity. Dean Alford's constant appeal in his revision of the Authorized Version (1870) to |the oldest MSS.| (meaning thereby generally Codd. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF} and B with one or two others(134)), is an abler endeavour to familiarize the public mind with the same belief. I am bent on shewing that there is nothing whatever in the character of either of the Codices in question to warrant this servile deference.

(a) And first, -- Ought it not sensibly to detract from our opinion of the value of their evidence to discover that it is easier to find two consecutive verses in which the two MSS. differ, the one from the other, than two consecutive verses in which they entirely agree? Now this is a plain matter of fact, of which any one who pleases may easily convince himself. But the character of two witnesses who habitually contradict one another has been accounted, in every age, precarious. On every such occasion, only one of them can possibly be speaking the truth. Shall I be thought unreasonable if I confess that these perpetual inconsistencies between Codd. B and {HEBREW LETTER ALEF}, -- grave inconsistencies, and occasionally even gross ones, -- altogether destroy my confidence in either?

(b) On the other hand, discrepant as the testimony of these two MSS. is throughout, they yet, strange to say, conspire every here and there in exhibiting minute corruptions of such an unique and peculiar kind as to betray a (probably not very remote) common corrupt original. These coincidences in fact are so numerous and so extraordinary as to establish a real connexion between those two codices; and that connexion is fatal to any claim which might be set up on their behalf as wholly independent witnesses.(135)

(c) Further, it is evident that both alike have been subjected, probably during the process of transcription, to the same depraving influences. But because such statements require to be established by an induction of instances, the reader's attention must now be invited to a few samples of the grave blemishes which disfigure our two oldest copies of the Gospel.

1. And first, since it is the omission of the end of S. Mark's Gospel which has given rise to the present discussion, it becomes a highly significant circumstance that the original scribe of Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF} had also omitted the end of the Gospel according to S. John.(136) In this suppression of ver.25, Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF} stands alone among MSS. A cloud of primitive witnesses vouch for the genuineness of the verse. Surely, it is nothing else but the reductio ad absurdum of a theory of recension, (with Tischendorf in his last edition,) to accommodate our printed text to the vicious standard of the original penman of Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF} and bring the last chapter of S. John's Gospel to a close at ver.24!

Cod. B, on the other hand, omits the whole of those two solemn verses wherein S. Luke describes our LORD's |Agony and bloody Sweat,| together with the act of the ministering Angel.(137) As to the genuineness of those verses, recognised as they are by Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Hippolytus, Epiphanius, Didymus, Gregory of Nazianzus, Chrysostom, Theodoret, by all the oldest versions, and by almost every MS. in existence, including Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF}, -- it admits of no doubt. Here then is proof positive that in order to account for omissions from the Gospel in the oldest of the uncials, there is no need whatever to resort to the hypothesis that such portions of the Gospel are not the genuine work of the Evangelist. |The admitted error of Cod. B in this place,| (to quote the words of Scrivener,) |ought to make some of its advocates more chary of their confidence in cases where it is less countenanced by other witnesses than in the instance before us.|

Cod. B (not Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF}) is further guilty of the |grave error| (as Dean Alford justly styles it,) of omitting that solemn record of the Evangelist: -- |Then said JESUS, Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do.| It also withholds the statement that the inscription on the Cross was |in letters of Greek, and Latin, and Hebrew.|(138) Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF}, on the other hand, omits the confession of the man born blind ({GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH DASIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PHI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}, {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}, {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}; {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH PERISPOMENI AND YPOGEGRAMMENI}) in S. John ix.38. -- Both Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF} and Cod. B retain nothing but the word {GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH DASIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} of the expression {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH DASIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}, in S. Matth. i.25; and suppress altogether the important doctrinal statement {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH DASIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH PERISPOMENI AND YPOGEGRAMMENI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH PERISPOMENI AND YPOGEGRAMMENI}, in S. John iii.13: as well as the clause {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}; {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH DASIA AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}, in S. John viii.59. Concerning all of which, let it be observed that I am neither imputing motives nor pretending to explain the design with which these several serious omissions were made. All that is asserted is, that they cannot be imputed to the carelessness of a copyist, but were intentional: and I insist that they effectually dispose of the presumption that when an important passage is observed to be wanting from Cod. B or Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF}, its absence is to be accounted for by assuming that it was also absent from the inspired autograph of the Evangelist.

2. To the foregoing must be added the many places where the text of B or of {HEBREW LETTER ALEF}, or of both, has clearly been interpolated. There does not exist in the whole compass of the New Testament a more monstrous instance of this than is furnished by the transfer of the incident of the piercing of our Redeemer's side from S. John xix.24 to S. Matth. xxvii., in Cod. B and Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF}, where it is introduced at the end of ver.49, -- in defiance of reason as well as of authority.(139) |This interpolation| (remarks Mr. Scrivener) |which would represent the SAVIOUR as pierced while yet living, is a good example of the fact that some of our highest authorities may combine in attesting a reading unquestionably false.|(140) Another singularly gross specimen of interpolation, in my judgment, is supplied by the purely apocryphal statement which is met with in Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF}, at the end of S. Matthew's account of the healing of the Centurion's servant, -- {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PSI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER CHI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}, {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA} (viii.13.) -- Nor can anything well be weaker than the substitution (for {GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH DASIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}, in S. John ii.3) of the following,(141) which is found only in Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF}: -- {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER CHI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}, {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}.

But the inspired text has been depraved in the same licentious way throughout, by the responsible authors of Cod. B and Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF}, although such corruptions have attracted little notice from their comparative unimportance. Thus, the reading (in {HEBREW LETTER ALEF}) {GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ZETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PSI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} (S. John ix.4) carries with it its own sufficient condemnation; being scarcely rendered more tolerable by B's substitution of {GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON} for the second {GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}. -- Instead of {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} (S. Luke vi.48), B and {HEBREW LETTER ALEF} present us with the insipid gloss, {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}. -- In the last-named codex, we find the name of |Isaiah| ({GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}) thrust into S. Matth. xiii.35, in defiance of authority and of *fact*. -- Can I be wrong in asserting that the reading {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} (for {GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH DASIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}) in S. John i.18, (a reading found in Cod. B and Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF} alike,) is undeserving of serious attention? -- May it not also be confidently declared that, in the face of all MS. evidence,(142) no future Editors of the New Testament will be found to accept the highly improbable reading {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK CAPITAL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}, in S. John ix.11, although the same two Codices conspire in exhibiting it? -- or, on the authority of one of them ({HEBREW LETTER ALEF}), to read {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH YPOGEGRAMMENI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ZETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}(143) (for {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH PERISPOMENI AND YPOGEGRAMMENI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ZETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH DASIA AND VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}) in S. John i.4? -- Certain at least it is that no one will ever be found to read (with B) {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER BETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ARCHAIC KOPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON} in S. Luke x.1, -- or (with {HEBREW LETTER ALEF}) {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON} (instead of {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH DASIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH DASIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI}) in S. John i.34. -- But let me ask, With what show of reason can the pretence of Infallibility, (as well as the plea of Primacy), be set up on behalf of a pair of MSS. licentiously corrupt as these have already been proved to be? For the readings above enumerated, be it observed, are either critical depravations of the inspired Text, or else unwarrantable interpolations. They cannot have resulted from careless transcription.

3. Not a few of the foregoing instances are in fact of a kind to convince me that the text with which Cod. B and Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF} were chiefly acquainted, must have been once and again subjected to a clumsy process of revision. Not unfrequently, as may be imagined, the result (however tasteless and infelicitous) is not of serious importance; as when, (to give examples from Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF},) for {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER CHI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH PERISPOMENI AND YPOGEGRAMMENI} (in S. Luke v.1) we are presented with {GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER CHI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER CHI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}: -- when for {GREEK SMALL LETTER ZETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} (in S. Luke xv.13) we read {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER CHI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}; and for {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH DASIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER XI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ZETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} (in S. Luke xxii.25), we find {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER CHI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} [{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}] {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER XI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ZETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}, {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}, (which is only a weak reproduction of S. Matth. xx.25): -- when again, for {GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} (in S. John vi.17), we are shewn {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER BETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}: and when, for {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH DASIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} (in S. John vi.64) we are invited to accept {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}.(144) But it requires very little acquaintance with the subject to foresee that this kind of license may easily assume serious dimensions, and grow into an intolerable evil. Thus, when the man born blind is asked by the HOLY ONE if he believes {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH DASIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI} {GREEK CAPITAL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI} (S. John. ix.35), we are by no means willing to acquiesce in the proposed substitute, {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}: neither, when the SAVIOUR says, {GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH DASIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} (S. John x.14) are we at all willing to put up with the weak equivalent {GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}. Still less is {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA} any equivalent at all for {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}, {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA} in S. John xvii.10: or, {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ZETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}, {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}, for {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ZETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}; {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH DASIA AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}, in S. John xxi.18. Indeed, even when our LORD is not the speaker, such licentious depravation of the text is not to be endured. Thus, in S. Luke xxiii.15, Cod. B and Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF} conspire in substituting for {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PSI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO} {GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH DASIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}, -- {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PSI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}; which leads one to suspect the copyist was misled by the narrative in ver.7. Similar instances might be multiplied to an indefinite extent.

Two yet graver corruptions of the truth of the Gospel, (but they belong to the same category,) remain to be specified. Mindful, I suppose, of S. James' explanation |how that by works a man is justified,| the author of the text of Codices B and {HEBREW LETTER ALEF} has ventured to alter our LORD's assertion (in S. Matth. xi.19,) |Wisdom is justified of her children,| into |Wisdom is justified by her works;| and, in the case of Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF}, his zeal is observed to have so entirely carried him away, that he has actually substituted {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} for {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} in the parallel place of S. Luke's Gospel. -- The other example of error (S. Matth. xxi.31) is calculated to provoke a smile. Finding that our SAVIOUR, in describing the conduct of the two sons in the parable, says of the one, -- {GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH DASIA AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH VARIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}, and of the other, -- {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}; some ancient scribe, (who can have been but slenderly acquainted with the Greek language,) seems to have conceived the notion that a more precise way of identifying the son who |afterwards repented and went,| would be to designate him as {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH DASIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH DASIA AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}. Accordingly, in reply to the question, -- {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}; we are presented (but only in Cod. B) with the astonishing information, -- {GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}. And yet, seeing clearly that this made nonsense of the parable, some subsequent critic is found to have transposed the order of the two sons: and in that queer condition the parable comes down to us in the famous Vatican Codex B.

4. Some of the foregoing instances of infelicitous tampering with the text of the Gospels are, it must be confessed, very serious. But it is a yet more fatal circumstance in connexion with Cod. B and Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF} that they are convicted of certain perversions of the truth of Scripture which must have been made with deliberation and purpose. Thus, in S. Mark xiv, they exhibit a set of passages -- (verses 30, 68, 72) -- |which bear clear marks of wilful and critical correction, thoroughly carried out in Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF}, only partially in Cod. B; the object being so far to assimilate the narrative of Peter's denial with those of the other Evangelists, as to suppress the fact, vouched for by S. Mark only, that the cock crowed twice. (In Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF}, {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} is omitted in ver.30,' -- {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON} and {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} in ver.72, -- 'and {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PHI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON} in ver.68: the last change being countenanced by B.)|(145) One such discovery, I take leave to point out, is enough to destroy all confidence in the text of these two manuscripts: for it proves that another kind of corrupting influence, -- besides carelessness, and accident, and tasteless presumption, and unskilful assiduity, -- has been at work on Codices B and {HEBREW LETTER ALEF}. We are constrained to approach these two manuscripts with suspicion in all cases where a supposed critical difficulty in harmonizing the statements of the several Evangelists will account for any of the peculiar readings which they exhibit.

Accordingly, it does not at all surprise me to discover that in both Codices the important word {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER XI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} (in S. Matth. xxviii.8) has been altered into {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}. I recognise in that substitution of {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON} for {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER XI} the hand of one who was not aware that the women, when addressed by the Angel, were inside the sepulchre; but who accepted the belief (it is found to have been as common in ancient as in modern times) that they beheld him |sitting on the stone.|(146) -- In consequence of a similar misconception, both Codices are observed to present us with the word |wine| instead of |vinegar| in S. Matthew's phrase {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH PSILI AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER XI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER CHI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}: which results from a mistaken endeavour on the part of some ancient critic to bring S. Matth. xxvii.34 into harmony with S. Mark xv.23. The man did not perceive that the cruel insult of the |vinegar and gall| (which the SAVIOUR tasted but would not drink) was quite a distinct thing from the proffered mercy of the |myrrhed wine| which the SAVIOUR put away from Himself altogether.

So again, it was in order to bring S. Luke xxiv.13 into harmony with a supposed fact of geography that Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF} states that Emmaus, (which Josephus also places at sixty stadia from Jerusalem), was |an hundred and sixty| stadia distant. The history of this interpolation of the text is known. It is because some ancient critic (Origen probably) erroneously assumed that Nicopolis was the place intended. The conjecture met with favour, and there are not wanting scholia to declare that this was the reading of |the accurate| copies, -- notwithstanding the physical impossibility which is involved by the statement.(147) -- Another geographical misconception under which the scribe of Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF} is found to have laboured was that Nazareth (S. Luke i.26) and Capernaum (S. Mark i.28) were in Judaea. Accordingly he has altered the text in both the places referred to, to suit his private notion.(148) -- A yet more striking specimen of the preposterous method of the same scribe is supplied by his substitution of {GREEK CAPITAL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} for {GREEK CAPITAL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} in Acts viii.5, -- evidently misled by what he found in viii.40 and xxi.8. -- Again, it must have been with a view of bringing Revelation into harmony with the (supposed) facts of physical Science that for the highly significant Theological record {GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH VARIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH DASIA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH DASIA AND OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} at the Crucifixion,(149) has been substituted both in B and {HEBREW LETTER ALEF}, {GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA}, -- a statement which (as the ancients were perfectly well aware(150)) introduces into the narrative an astronomical contradiction. -- It may be worth adding, that Tischendorf with singular inconsistency admits into his text the astronomical contradiction, while he rejects the geographical impossibility. -- And this may suffice concerning the text of Codices B and {HEBREW LETTER ALEF}.

III. We are by this time in a condition to form a truer estimate of the value of the testimony borne by these two manuscripts in respect of the last twelve verses of S. Mark's Gospel. If we were disposed before to regard their omission of an important passage as a serious matter, we certainly cannot any longer so regard it. We have by this time seen enough to disabuse our minds of every prejudice. Codd. B and {HEBREW LETTER ALEF} are the very reverse of infallible guides. Their deflections from the Truth of Scripture are more constant, as well as more licentious by far, than those of their younger brethren: their unauthorized omissions from the sacred text are not only far more frequent but far more flagrant also. And yet the main matter before us, -- their omission of the last twelve verses of S. Mark's Gospel, -- when rightly understood, proves to be an entirely different phenomenon from what an ordinary reader might have been led to suppose. Attention is specially requested for the remarks which follow.

IV. To say that in the Vatican Codex (B), which is unquestionably the oldest we possess, S. Mark's Gospel ends abruptly at the 8th verse of the xvith chapter, and that the customary subscription ({GREEK CAPITAL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER TAU}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ALPHA} {GREEK CAPITAL LETTER MU}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER RHO}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER NU}) follows, -- is true; but it is far from being the whole truth. It requires to be stated in addition that the scribe, whose plan is found to have been to begin every fresh book of the Bible at the top of the next ensuing column to that which contained the concluding words of the preceding book, has at the close of S. Mark's Gospel deviated from his else invariable practice. He has left in this place one column entirely vacant. It is the only vacant column in the whole manuscript; -- a blank space abundantly sufficient to contain the twelve verses which he nevertheless withheld. Why did he leave that column vacant? What can have induced the scribe on this solitary occasion to depart from his established rule? The phenomenon, -- (I believe I was the first to call distinct attention to it,) -- is in the highest degree significant, and admits of only one interpretation. The older MS. from which Cod. B was copied must have infallibly contained the twelve verses in dispute. The copyist was instructed to leave them out, -- and he obeyed: but he prudently left a blank space in memoriam rei. Never was blank more intelligible! Never was silence more eloquent! By this simple expedient, strange to relate, the Vatican Codex is made to refute itself even while it seems to be bearing testimony against the concluding verses of S. Mark's Gospel, by withholding them: for it forbids the inference which, under ordinary circumstances, must have been drawn from that omission. It does more. By leaving room for the verses it omits, it brings into prominent notice at the end of fifteen centuries and a half, a more ancient witness than itself. The venerable Author of the original Codex from which Codex B was copied, is thereby brought to view. And thus, our supposed adversary (Codex B) proves our most useful ally: for it procures us the testimony of an hitherto unsuspected witness. The earlier scribe, I repeat, unmistakably comes forward at this stage of the inquiry, to explain that he at least is prepared to answer for the genuineness of these Twelve concluding Verses with which the later scribe, his copyist, from his omission of them, might unhappily be thought to have been unacquainted.

It will be perceived that nothing is gained by suggesting that the scribe of Cod. B. may have copied from a MS. which exhibited the same phenomenon which he has himself reproduced. This, by shifting the question a little further back, does but make the case against Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF} the stronger.

But in truth, after the revelation which has been already elicited from Cod. B, the evidence of Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF} may be very summarily disposed of. I have already, on independent grounds, ventured to assign to that Codex a somewhat later date than is claimed for the Codex Vaticanus.(151) My opinion is confirmed by observing that the Sinaitic contains no such blank space at the end of S. Mark's Gospel as is conspicuous in the Vatican Codex. I infer that the Sinaitic was copied from a Codex which had been already mutilated, and reduced to the condition of Cod. B; and that the scribe, only because he knew not what it meant, exhibited S. Mark's Gospel in consequence as if it really had no claim to those twelve concluding verses which, nevertheless, every authority we have hitherto met with has affirmed to belong to it of right.

Whatever may be thought of the foregoing suggestion, it is at least undeniable that Cod. B and Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF} are at variance on the main point. They contradict one another concerning the twelve concluding verses of S. Mark's Gospel. For while Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF} refuses to know anything at all about those verses, Cod. B admits that it remembers them well, by volunteering the statement that they were found in the older codex, of which it is in every other respect a faithful representative. The older and the better manuscript (B), therefore, refutes its junior ({HEBREW LETTER ALEF}). And it will be seen that logically this brings the inquiry to a close, as far as the evidence of the manuscripts is concerned. We have referred to the oldest extant copy of the Gospels in order to obtain its testimony: and, -- |Though without the Twelve Verses concerning which you are so solicitous,| (it seems to say,) |I yet hesitate not to confess to you that an older copy than myself, -- the ancient Codex from which I was copied, -- actually did contain them.|

The problem may, in fact, be briefly stated as follows. Of the four oldest Codices of the Gospels extant, -- B, {HEBREW LETTER ALEF}, A, C, -- two (B and {HEBREW LETTER ALEF}) are without these twelve verses: two (A and C) are with them. Are these twelve verses then an unauthorized addition to A and C? or are they an unwarrantable omission from B and {HEBREW LETTER ALEF}? B itself declares plainly that from itself they are an omission. And B is the oldest Codex of the Gospel in existence. What candid mind will persist in clinging to the solitary fact that from the single Codex {HEBREW LETTER ALEF} these verses are away, in proof that |S. Mark's Gospel was at first without the verses which at present conclude it?|

Let others decide, therefore, whether the present discussion has not already reached a stage at which an unprejudiced Arbiter might be expected to address the prosecuting parties somewhat to the following effect: --

|This case must now be dismissed. The charge brought by yourselves against these Verses was, that they are an unauthorized addition to the second Gospel; a spurious appendix, of which the Evangelist S. Mark can have known nothing. But so far from substantiating this charge, you have not adduced a single particle of evidence which renders it even probable.

|The appeal was made by yourselves to Fathers and to MSS. It has been accepted. And with what result?

(a) |Those many Fathers whom you represented as hostile, prove on investigation to be reducible to one, viz. Eusebius: and Eusebius, as we have seen, does not say that the verses are spurious, but on the contrary labours hard to prove that they may very well be genuine. On the other hand, there are earlier Fathers than Eusebius who quote them without any signs of misgiving. In this way, the positive evidence in their favour is carried back to the iind century.

(b) |Declining the testimony of the Versions, you insisted on an appeal to MSS. On the MSS., in fact, you still make your stand, -- or rather you rely on the oldest of them; for, (as you are aware,) every MS. in the world except the two oldest are against you.

|I have therefore questioned the elder of those two MSS.; and it has volunteered the avowal that an older MS. than itself -- the Codex from which it was copied -- was furnished with those very Verses which you wish me to believe that some older MS. still must needs have been without. What else can be said, then, of your method but that it is frivolous? and of your charge, but that it is contradicted by the evidence to which you yourselves appeal?

|But it is illogical; that is, it is unreasonable, besides.

|For it is high time to point out that even if it so happened that the oldest known MS. was observed to be without these twelve concluding verses, it would still remain a thing unproved (not to say highly improbable) that from the autograph of the Evangelist himself they were also away. Supposing, further, that no Ecclesiastical writer of the iind or iiird century could be found who quoted them: even so, it would not follow that there existed no such verses for a primitive Father to quote. The earliest of the Versions might in addition yield faltering testimony; but even so, who would be so rash as to raise on such a slender basis the monstrous hypothesis, that S. Mark's Gospel when it left the hands of its inspired Author was without the verses which at present conclude it? How, then, would you have proposed to account for the consistent testimony of an opposite kind yielded by every other known document in the world?

|But, on the other hand, what are the facts of the case? (1) The earliest of the Fathers, -- (2) the most venerable of the Versions, -- (3) the oldest MS. of which we can obtain any tidings, -- all are observed to recognize these Verses. 'Cadit quaestio' therefore. The last shadow of pretext has vanished for maintaining with Tischendorf that 'Mark the Evangelist knew nothing of' these verses: -- with Tregelles that 'The book of Mark himself extends no further than {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH PSILI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PHI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER BETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH PERISPOMENI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON} {GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}:' -- with Griesbach that 'the last leaf of the original Gospel was probably torn away.'... It is high time, I say, that this case were dismissed. But there are also costs to be paid. Cod. B and Cod. {HEBREW LETTER ALEF} are convicted of being 'two false witnesses,' and must be held to go forth from this inquiry with an injured reputation.|

This entire subject is of so much importance that I must needs yet awhile crave the reader's patience and attention.

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