In the Introductory Chapter we spoke of the earliest Form of Liturgical Worship traceable in the records of the British Church.The Gallican Liturgy brough into Britain. And while we attributed its adoption to the visit of Germanus and Severus, who were sent as a deputation from Gaul to help the Britons to combat the Pelagian heresy, we observed that it was highly probable that the Liturgy which they brought with them was modified in some particulars, yet for the leading features we turn to the Gallican Form as it was used in the country from which it derived, its appellation. It was superseded, we said, by the Roman in England at the Council of Cloveshoo, 747 A.D., but one of the effects of the Norman Conquest was the Gallicanising of the country, and many variations from the Roman introduced into the Sarum have been attributed to the national prejudices of the Liturgical Reformer Osmund, the Norman Count.
Points of resemblance between the Sarum Missal and the Gallican Liturgy.
One peculiarity pointing in this direction has lately been noticed. In the Sarum Liturgy the rubrics are cast in the imperative mood instead of the present or future indicative, as is usually the case. Now we may fairly conjecture that this was adopted from the Gallican; we are unable to speak positively, because no rubrics have yet been found belonging to this Liturgy. But in the Sister-Liturgy, the Mozarabic, used in the neighbouring country of Spain, and bearing such a close resemblance in its structure that their common origin has never been doubted, this characteristic distinction is found: e.g., In the Sarum, Let the Priest say; in the Mozarabic, Let the Priest say; but in the Roman, The Priest says.
The original source of the Gallican Liturgy.
The Gallican belonged by origin to the Ephesine family of Liturgies, and was in the first instance connected with St. John. The Church of Ephesus established Christianity in Gaul at an early date, radiating in all probability from Lyons over a great part of the country. In the second century, 177 A.D., we find the Christians of Lyons and Vienne writing to the Churches in Asia and Phrygia, and seeking sympathy in their sufferings like children from a common mother.
The Liturgy of Ephesus, varying in some degree to suit the country, became the Liturgy of France, and continued in use there till Pepin first introduced the Roman chant and psalmody, and Charlemagne completely supplanted it by imposing the Sacramentary of St. Gregory, and issued an edict that this should be strictly adhered to. Our interest however is but little diminished by the knowledge that before the Conquest it had ceased to be used in Gaul, or by the fact that the eighth century witnessed the discontinuance of it in its Anglican form in this country. The manner in which the highest act of Worship was performed during those centuries when this land was being claimed for Christ, and the Church set up upon the ruins of Paganism, is well worthy of our careful consideration, and on these grounds we have subjoined an outline of the Gallican Liturgy according to the plan which, with considerable difficulty and perhaps some uncertainty, the best Liturgiologists have been able to construct.
The following is an outline of the structure of the Gallican Liturgy: --
An Anthem or Introit with |Glory be to the Father,| etc. The mutual salutation of Priest and People, |The LORD be with you,| etc.
The Trisagion (in Greek and Latin), followed by Kyrie eleison.
A Lesson from (i.) the Prophets, (ii) an Epistle.
The Gospel read at the Ambon, the clerks at the beginning making response, |Glory be to Thee, O LORD,| and at the end, |Glory to GOD Almighty.|
Homilies, Prayers, and Collect, post precem.
Departure of the Catechumens.
The Preface or address on the day, and Collect.
An Anthem, during which was made tho oblation of the Elements, and prayer for their sanctification.
The recitation of the Diptychs, with prayers for the souls of the Saints named.
Collects post nomina.
Kiss of peace, and Collect ad pacem.
The Preface, i.e. the part beginning |It is meet and right,| etc.
The commencement of the Canon.
The Collect post mysterium, or post secreta.
The Fraction and the Commixture during the singing of an Anthem.
A proper Preface.
The LORD'S Prayer recited by the Priest and People.
The Blessing, and the Priest's Communion.
The Communicants approach the Altar.
Two Collects, one post communionem, the other consummatio Missæ, with which the Service closed.