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SermonIndex.net : Christian Books : VERBS, 72-84

A Grammar Of Septuagint Greek by Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare

VERBS, 72-84

72. Analytic Tenses. By an Analytic Tense is meant one which is formed with an auxiliary instead of by an inflexion, as in English, is coming' for comes.' No reader of the LXX can fail to be struck by the frequency of such forms. It results from the fact that both languages combine to produce them. They are suggested by the great use made of the participle in Hebrew, while at the same time there was a strong tendency towards the employment of such forms within the Greek language itself. They are to be found in the best writers, both in prose and poetry, from Homer downwards. Plato often has recourse to them, partly for the sake of philosophical precision, and partly, it must be confessed, because in his later style he preferred two words to one. In the Laws prepon esti almost altogether displaces prepei.

PRESENT

3 K. [2 Kings} 20:5 ouk ei su esthion arton; Cp. Is.10:8: Ezk.36:13.

3 K. [2 Kings} 18:12 estin phoboumenos.

Nb.14:8 estin rheousa. Cp.3 K. [2 Kings} 20:15: Dan.2:28.

2 Esd. [Ezra] 23:24 ouk eisin epiginoskontes.

Prov.3:5 isthi pepoithos.

Jdg.11:10 esto akouon.

Dan. O' 6:26 estosan proskunountes.

2 Chr.15:16 einai . . . leitourgousan.

FUTURE SIMPLE

Gen.4:14 esomai stenon kai tremon. Cp. Dan. O 6:27.

Is.47:7 esomai archousa.

Gen.4:12 stenon kai tremon ese.Cp. Ex.22:25: Dt.28:29.

Dt.28:29 ese . . . adikoumenos.

Nb.8:19 estai . . . proengizon. Cp. Gen.18:18.

Mal.3:3 esontai . . . prosagontes.

Is.22:24 esontai epikremamenoi.

Ezk.34:29 esontai apollumenoi. Cp. Dt.14:33

PERFECT

Is.8:14 pepoithos es.

Is.10:20, 17:8 pepoithotes omen.

Nb.22:12 estin gar eulogemenos.

FUTURE PERFECT

Gen.43:9, 44:32 hemartekos esomai.

2 K. [2 Sam.] 22:3: Is.12:2, 8:17 pepoithos esomai (fut. simp. in force).

Sir.7:25 ese tetelekos.

Is.58:14 ese pepoithos.

Is.17:7, 22:24 pepoithos estai.

Ex.12:6 estai humin diateteremenon.

Is.32:3 esontai pepoithotes.

Gen.41:36 estai . . . pephulagmena.

IMPERFECT

Dan.10:2 emen penthon.

Dan. O' 7:11 theoron emen.

Gen.40:13 estha oinochoon.

Gen.37:2: Ex.3:1 en poimainon. Cp. Gen.39:23, 42:6: Nb.11:1: Jdg.16:21: Jonah 1:10: Sus.1: 1 Mac.6:43.

1 K. [1 Sam.] 17:34 poimainon en.

Jer.4:24 en tremonta (sc. ta ore).

3 K. [2 Kings} 18:3 en phoboumenos. Cp. Dan. O' 6:18.

Dan. O' 1:16 en . . . anairoumenos.

Baruch 1:19 emetha apeithountes.

Dt.9:24 apeithountes ete. Cp. Dt.9:22, 31:27.

Jdg.1:7 esan sullegontes. Cp. Josh.10:26: 1 Mac.11:41.

PLUPERFECT

Dan. O' 10:9 emen peptokos.

Dan. Th 10:9 emen katanenugmenos.

2 Chr.18:34 en hestekos.

1 K. [1 Sam.] 4:13 en . . . exestekuia.

Jdg.8:11: Sus. Th 35 en pepoithuia.

Josh.7:22 en enkekrummena.

2 Chr.5:8 en diapepetakota.

Tob.6:18 hetoimasmene en.

Is.20:6 emen pepoithotes.

Ex.39:23 esan pepoiekotes auta.

b. Gignesthai may be used as an auxiliary instead of einai.

Ps.72:14 egenomen memastigomenos.

Is.30:12 pepoithos egenou.

Nb.10:34 egeneto skiazousa.

Ps.125:3 egenethemen euphrainomenoi.

Ex.17:12 egenonto . . . esterigmenai.

Sir.13:9 hupochoron ginou, 18:33 me ginou . . . sumbolokopon.

c. Sometimes the verbal adjective is used in place of the participle.

Is.18:3 akouston estai.

Dt.4:36 akouste egeneto.

Gen.45:2: Is.48:3 akouston egeneto.

Is.23:5 hotan de akouton genetai.

Dt.30:5 pleonaston se poiesei.

d. When a causative form is wanted corresponding to akouston genesthai recourse is had to akouston poiein, e.g. -

Sir.46:17 akousten epoiesen ten phoen autou. Cp. Ps.105:2, 142:8: Jer.27:2, 38:7: Is.30:30, 45:21, 48:5, 6, 20, 52:7, 62:11.

e. In the N.T. these analytic tenses are relatively even commoner than in the LXX.

PRESENT

Col.3:2 estin . . . kathemenos.

2 Cor.9:12 esti prosanaplerousa.

Col.1:6 esti karpophoroumenon kai auxanomenon.

Col.2:23 esti . . . echonta.

2 Cor.2:17 esmen . . . kapeleuontes.

Acts 5:25 eisin . . . hestotes kai didaskontes.

Mt.5:25 isthi eunoon.

FUTURE SIMPLE

Lk.5:11 anthropous ese zogron.

Acts 7:6 estai . . . paroikon.

1 Cor.14:10 esesthe . . . lalountes.

PERFECT

Acts 25:10 hestos eimi (present in meaning).

Acts 21:33 esti pepoiekos.

1 Cor.15:9 elpikotes esmen.

Hb.7:21, 23 eisi gegonotes.

James 5:16 e pepoiekos.

2 Cor.1:19 pepoithotes omen.

Hb.4:2 esmen euengelismenoi.

Hb.10:10 hegiasmenoi esmen.

Acts 2:13 memestomenoi eisi.

FUTURE PERFECT

Hb.2:13 esomai pepoithos (from Is.12:2 perfect only in form).

IMPERFECT

Acts 10:30, 11:5 emen proseuchomenos. Cp.22:19, 20: Gal.1:22.

Lk.4:44 en kerusson. Cp. Lk.5:16, 23:8: Acts 7:60, 8:13, 28, 9:28, 10:24, 12:20: Phil 2:26.

Acts 12:5 en ginomene.

Acts 21:3 en . . . apophortizomenon.

Acts 16:12 emen . . . diatribontes.

Gal.1:23 akouontes esan. Cp. Acts 1:10.

Acts 1:13 esan katamenontes. Cp. Acts 1:14, 2:2, 5, 12, 42: Mk.2:18.

f. Besides einai other auxiliaries are used in the N.T. --

2 Cor.6:14 me ginesthe heterozugountes.

Col.1:18 hina genetai . . . proteuon.

Rev.3:2 ginou gregoron.

Acts 8:16 bebaptismenoi huperchon.

With the last example cp. Aristeas § 193 ei me pepoithos huparchoi. The

same author has kecharismenos ese in § 40 and ischuon esti in 241.

g. Instances of analytic tenses occur here and there in Josephus, e.g. -

B.J.1.31.1 kai touto en malista tarassonAntipatron.

Ant.2.6.7 ti parontes eiemen.

h. Also in the Apostolic Fathers -

2 Clem.17:7 esontai doxan dontes. Barn. Ep.19:4 ese tremon,

19:6 ou me gene epithumon. Cp.19:9. Herm. Past. Vis.3.4.2

huperechontes autous eisin, Sim.5.4.2 esomai heorakos . . . akekoos,

9.13.2 ese . . . phoron, Mdt.5.2.8 ese heuriskomenos, Sim.9.1.8 euthenoun

en, 9.4.1 hupodedukuiai esan . . . hupodedukeisan.

73. Deliberative Use of the Present Indicative. The deliberative use of

the present indicative is not unknown in Latin, especially in Terence, e.g.

Phorm.447 quid ago? Cp. Heaut.343: Eun.811: Ad.538. It occurs also in

the Greek of the LXX.

Gen.37:30 ego de pou poreuomai eti;

So in N.T. --

Jn.11:47 ti poioumen; What is our course?

74. The Jussive Future. a. The Jussive Future is rare in Attic Greek, and,

when it does occur, is regarded as a weak form of imperative. In the LXX,

on the other hand, it is very common, and is employed in the most

solemn language of legislation. From the nature of the case it is not used

in the first person. It may be employed in command or in prohibition. As

instances of the former we may take -

Lvt.19:18 agapeseis ton plesion sou hos seauton. Cp. Ex.

34:18,20: 3 K. [2 Kings} 17:11.

Lvt.19:19 ton nomon mou phulaxesthe. Cp. Lvt.11:44.

Lvt.19:22 kai exilasetai ho hiereus. Cp. Lvt.19:20,21.

b. Very often the jussive future follows an imperative.

Gen.40:14 mnestheti mou . . . kai poieseis. Cp. Gen.44:4: Ex.7:26, 9:1, 13: Nb.15:2, 17: 3 K. [2 Kings} 17:13.

Josh.8:4 me makran ginesthe . . . kai esesthe pantes hetoimoi. Cp. Nb.13:18.

c. Of the use of the jussive future in prohibition we have a conspicuous example in the Ten Commandments (Ex.20:13-17: Dt.5:17-21) - Ou moicheuseis, Ou klepseis ktl. So also -

Dt.6:16 ouk ekpeiraseis Kurion ton Theon sou. Cp. Nb.22:12: Ex.22:28: Lvt.19:12-19.

d. In the case of the jussive future we have ou in prohibition, because the formula was originally one of prediction.

e. Occasionally there is a transition from the jussive future to ou me with subjunctive -

Nb.23:25 oute katarasis katarase moi auton, oute eulogon me eulogeses auton.

f. In the N.T. the jussive future is often used in passages quoted from the LXX. In Matthew it is employed independently.

Mt.5:48 esesthe oun humeis teleioi, 6:45 ouk esesthe hos hoi hupokritai, 20:26-28 ouch houtos estai en humin . . . estai humon doulos, 21:3 kai ean tis humin eipe ti, ereite ktl.

75. The Optative. a. The pure optative, i.e. the optative as employed to express a wish, is of frequent occurrence in the LXX, as might be expected from the character of the contents, so much of which is in the form either of aspiration or of imprecation. But the use of the optative where in Latin we should have the historic tenses of the subjunctive is hardly to be found outside of Maccabees.

2 Mac.3:37 tou de basileos eperotesantos ton Heliodoron, poios tis eie epiteseios.

4 Mac.17:1 elegon de kai ton doruphoron tines hos . . . hina me psauseien ti tou somatos autes, heauten erripsen kata tes puras.

The established practice is for the subjunctive to follow the historic tenses in a final clause -

Ex.1:11 epestesen . . . hina kakososin, 9:16 dieterethes hina endeixomai.

Wisd.16:11 diesozonto, hina me . . . genontai. Cp.16:18.

Cp. Aristeas §§ 11, 18, 19, 26, 29, 42, 111, 175, 193.

b. In the N.T. also the subjunctive is regularly employed in final clauses after an historic tense, e.g. -

Tit.1:5 toutou charin apelipon se en Krete, hina ta leiponta epidiorthose.

c. The pure optative is said to occur 35 times in the N.T., always, except in Philemon 20, in the 3d person.

In Luke-Acts the optative is commonly employed in dependent questions, e.g. -

Luke 18:36 epunthaneto ti eie touto,

with which contrast

Mk.14:11 ezetei pos eukairos auton parado.

Outside of Acts the optative with ei is found only in four passages -

1 Cor.14:10, 15:37 (ei tuchoi): 1 Pet.3:14, 17.

76. Conditional with an. Occasionally we find the apodosis in a conditional sentence devoid of an.

Nb.22:33 kai ei me exeklinen, nun oun se men apekteina, ekeinen de periepoiesamen. Contrast 22:29 and compare 2 K. [2 Sam.] 2:27.

77. Infinitive of Purpose. The use of the infinitive to express purpose, as in English, is common to all stages of the Greek language, but abounds more in the LXX than in classical Greek.

Gen.37:25 ekathisan de phagein arton. Cp.39:14, 42:7, 27, 43:22: Ex.14:11: Nb.22:20: Job.2:1.

Of the use of the infinitive with the article to express purpose we have had occasion to speak already (§ 59).

78. Infinitive of Consequence. This construction is of doubtful propriety in Attic Greek. In the LXX it is much less common than the Infinitive of Purpose.

Ex.11:1 kai ouk eisekousen exaposteilai tous huious Israel.

79. Paucity of Participles. The small use made of participles in the LXX, as compared with classical Greek, is a natural result of the paratactical construction which reigns throughout. The same is the case, though to a less extent, in the N.T. Take for instance -

Mk.14:16 kai exelthon hoi mathetai, kai elthon eis ten polin, kai heuren kathos eipen autois; kai hetoimasan to pascha.

The participle has disappeared in the modern language. Doubtless the influence of Biblical Greek was among the causes of its decline.

80. Misuse of the Participle. The misuse of the participle marks a stage of its decline. We find this tendency already manifesting itself in the LXX. Such an anacoluthon indeed as the following -

Ex.8:15, 9:7 idon de Pharao . . . ebarunthe he kardia autou

may be passed over, as it might easily be paralleled from the most strictly classical writers. But we find sentences in the LXX in which a participle is the only verb. Sometimes this arises from following the Hebrew as in -

Jdg.13:19, 20 kai Manoe kai he gune autou blepontes, 14:4 kai en to kairo ekeino hoi allophuloi kurieuontes en Israel.

More often it does not, as in -

Ex.12:37 aparantes de hoi huioi Israel, 15:18 kurios basileuon ton aiona.

Jdg.4:16 kai Barak diokon.

Moreover we find a participle coupled with a finite verb by kai. When the subject of the two is the same, it is open to us to say that it is not copulative, but merely emphasizes the verb, as in -

Nb.21:11 kai exarantes (Hb. impf.) ex Oboth, kai parenebalon en Chalgaei, 22:23 kai idousa he onos . . . kai exeklinen.

Hardly so however when the subject is different.

Ex.12:30 kai anastas Pharao . . . kai egenethe krauge.

Nb.22:23 kai idon Balak . . . kai ephobethe Moab.

81. The Intensive Participle. On the other hand there is a cause in operation in the LXX tending to an unnecessary use of participles. For in place of a cognate dative we often find the participle used along with a finite form of the same verb, to convey the intensive force that is accomplished in Hebrew by the addition of the infinitive to the finite verb, e.g. -

Gen.22:17 ei men eulogon eulogeso se, kai plethunon plethuno to sperma sou.

Jdg.11:25 me machomenos emachesato meta Israel e polemon epolemesen auton;

We might fill pages with instances of this idiom, but a statement of its frequency must suffice. This emphatic use of the participle is a more unmitigated Hebraism than the other forms of the etymological figure. The cognate accusative is quite Greek and the cognate dative is to be found in pure Greek, but we should search in vain among classical authors for the intensive use of the participle. There is a clear instance indeed in Lucian (Dialogi Marini 4.3 idon eidon), but it is interesting to remember that Lucian himself came from the banks of the Euphrates. In Hdt.5.95 autos men pheugon ekpheugei there is a difference of meaning between the participle and the finite verb - he himself escapes by flight.

In the N.T. we have one instance, other than a quotation, of this Hebraism, namely -

Eph.5:5 iste ginoskontes,

but both the reading and the interpretation of this passage are disputed.

82. Other Varieties of the Etymological Figure. In Josh.17:13 exolethreusai de autous ouk exolethreusan the infinitive absolute of the Hebrew is represented in Greek by the infinitive, instead of by a participle or a cognate dative, so that sheer nonsense is made of the translation. In another passage, where the Greek departs from our Hebrew, an adjective takes the place of the participle -

Jdg.5:30 oikteirmon oikteiresei.

Sometimes we find an adverb in place of the participle -

Ex.15:1 endoxos gar dedoxastai.

Nb.22:17 entimos gar timeso se.

Prov.23:1 noetos noei, 27;23 gnostos epignose.

The following turns of expression may also be noticed -

Jdg.11:25 en agatho agathoteros.

Dt.18:8 merida memerismenen.

1 K. [1 Sam.] 1:11 doso auton enopion sou doton.

83. Middle and Passive Voices. In later Greek the boundary lines between the middle and passive voices are not clearly demarcated. Even in classical authors we find the future middle used in a passive sense, as it is also in -

Ex.12:10 ouk apoleipsetai a' autou heos proi, kai ostoun suntripsetai ap' autou.

The same seems to be the case with xuresomai and exuresato in Jdg.16:17, 22.

So in N.T. --

1 Cor.6:11 alla apelousasthe, alla hegiasthete, all' edikaiothete, 10:2 kai pantes eis ton Mosen ebaptisanto,

though here Riddell's semi-middle sense of the verb might plausibly be brought in by way of explanation.

Instances of passive form with middle meaning are common in the LXX -

Nb.22:34 apostraphesomai I will get me back again.

Jdg.15:9 exeriphesan spread themselves, 16:20 ektinachthesomai shake myself, 16:26 episterichthesomai support myself.

3 K. [2 Kings} 17:3 krubethi hide thyself, 18:1 poreutheti kai ophtheti toAchaab go and shew thyself, 20:25 eprathe sold himself.

So in N.T. in Luke 11:38 ebaptisthe is used for ebaptisato.

84. Causative Use of the Verb. a. The causative use of the verb which is found in the LXX may be set down with confidence as a Hebraism. Basileuein according to the Greek language means to be king,' but it is frequently employed in the LXX in the sense of to make king,' e.g. -

Jdg.9:6 ebasileusan tonAbeimelech.

1 K. [1 Sam.] 8:22 basileuson autois basilea, 15:11 ebasileusa ton Saoul eis basilea.

There are all together thirty-six occurrences of the word in this causative sense.

b. Classical Greek again knows bdelussesthai in the sense of to loathe' or abominate,' but not bdelussein in the sense of to make abominable,' as in -

Ex.5:21 ebdeluxate ten osmen hemon enantion Pharao.

Lvt.11:43 kai ou me bdeluxete tas psuchas humon. Cp. Lvt.20:25: 1 Mac.1:48.

c. Still more strange to classical Greek is the sense of to make to sin' often imposed upon examartanein, e.g. -

4 K. [2 Kings] 17:21 kai exemarten autous hamartian megalen.

This is the prevailing sense of the word in the LXX, which is found all together twenty-eight times, mostly in the phrase ho exemarten ton Israel.

d. In this causative use of the verb is to be found the explanation of Ex.14:25 kai egagen autous meta bias, where the R.V. margin has made them to drive.' Other similar instances are -

Ex.13:18 ekuklosen = he led round.

1 K. [1 Sam.] 4:3 kata ti eptaisen hemas kurios semeron;

Ps.142:11 zeseis me.

85. Reduplication of Words. In Greek we are accustomed to reduplication of syllables, but not to reduplication of words. This primitive device of language is resorted to in the LXX, in imitation of the Hebrew, for at least three different purposes -

1) intensification,

2) distribution,

3) universalisation.

1) The intensifying use.

sphodra sphodra Gen.30:43: Ex.1:7, 12: Nb.14:7: Ezk.9:9: Judith 4:2.

sphodra sphodros Gen.7:19: Josh.3:16.

To the same head may be assigned -

Ex.8:14 sunegagon autous thimonias thimonias.

Dt.28:43 ho proselutos ho en soi anabesetai ano ano, su de katabese kato kato.

In all the above instances perhaps the kind of intensification involved is that of a repeated process.

2) The distributive use.

heis heis 1 Chr.24:6

duo duo Gen.6:19, 7:3: Sir.36:15.

hepta hepta Gen.7:3.

chilious ek phules, chilious ek phules Nb.31:6.

to proi proi 1 Chr.9:27.

ergasia kai ergasia 2 Chr.34:13.

In pure Greek such ideas would be expressed by the use of ana or kata. Sometimes we find kata; employed in the LXX along with the reduplication, as in --

Dt.7:22 kata mikron mikron.

Zech.12:12 kata phulas phulas.

The idea year by year' is expressed in many different ways -

eniauton kat' eniauton Dt.14:21: 1 K. [1 Sam.] 1:7: 2 Chr.24:5.

kat' eniauton eniauton 1 K. [1 Sam.] 7:16.

eniauton ex eniautou Dt.15:20

to kat' eniauton eniauto 3 K. [2 Kings} 10:28.

to kat' eniauton eniauton 2 Chr.9:24.

3) The universalising use.

anthropos anthropos = whatsoever man Lvt.17:3, 8, 10, 13; 18:6; 20:9; 22:18: Ezk.14:4, 7.

andri andri Lvt.15:3.

Of the above three uses the distributive is the only one which is to be found in the N.T.

Mk.6:7 duo duo, 6:39 sumposia sumposia, 6:40 prasiai prasiai.

So also in the Pastor of Hermas -

Sim.8.2.8 elthon tagmata tagmata, 4.2 estesan tagmata tagmata.

86. Expressions of Time. a. Year after year' is expressed in 2 K. [2 Sam.] 21:1 by a nominative absolute eniautos echomenos eniautou without any pretence of grammar.

b. The use of the word day' in vague expressions of time is a Hebraism, e.g. -

Gen.40:4 hemeras = for some time. Cp. Dan. O 11:9.

Jdg.15:1 meth' hemeras = after some time. Cp.3 K. [2 Kings] 17:7.

3 K. [2 Kings} 18:1 meth' hemeras pollas = after a long time.

c. Day by day' (Hb. day, day) is expressed in Gen.39:10 by hemeran ex hemeras (cp. Lat. diem ex die). In Esther 3:4 kath' hekasten hemeran is correctly used as the Greek equivalent for the phrase day and day, which St. Paul (2 Cor.4:16) has reproduced word for word in the form hemera kai hemera.

d. The use of yesterday and the day before' as a general expression for past time = heretofore is a Hebraism which presents itself in the LXX under a variety of slight modifications.

echthes kai triten 1K.4:7, 10:11: 2 K. [2 Sam.] 3:17, 5:2: 1 Chr.11:2.

echthes kai triten hemeran Gen.31:2, 5: Ex.5:7, 14: Josh.4:18: 1 K. [1 Sam.] 14:21, 19:7, 21:5: 1 Mac.9:44.

echthes kai trites Ruth 2:11: 4 K. [2 Kings] 13:5: Sus. Q 15.

ap' echthes kai trites hemeras Josh.3:4.

pro tes echthes kai trites Dt.19:4.

pro tes echthes kai pro tes trites. Ex.21:29.

pro tes echthes kai pro tes trites hemeras Ex.21:36.

pro tes echthes oude pro tes trites Dt.4:42, 19:6.

pro tes echthes oude pro tes trites hemeras. Ex.4:10.

In Joshua 20:5, which occurs only in the Codex Alexandrinus, we have ap;#8217; echthes kai triten, where echthes-kai-triten is treated as a single indeclinable noun.

e. Just at that time' is expressed variously as follows -

authori Dan. O 3:15.

aute te hora 1 Esd.8:65: Dan.3:5, Th 3:15. Cp. Acts 22:13.

en aute te hora Dan. Th 5:5. Cp. Lk.12:12, 13:31, 20:19.

en aute te hora ekeine Dan. O 5:5.

en auto to kairo Tob.3:17. Cp. Lk.13:1.

87. Pleonastic Use of ekei and ekeithen. Just as a personal pronoun is supplied after the relative (§ 69), so a demonstrative adverb of place is supplied after a relative adverb or after some phrase equivalent to one.

Gen.33:19 hou estesen ekei ten skenen autou. Cp.39:20, 40:3: Ex.21:13.

Ex.20:24 hou ean eponomaso to onoma mou ekei.

Dan. Th 9:7 hou diespeiras autous ekei.

3 K. [2 Kings} 17:19 en ho autos ekatheto ekei. Cp. Gen.39:20: Ex.12:13.

Gen.31:13 en to topo ho eleipsas moi ekei stelen.

Nb.14:24 eis hen eiselthen ekei. Cp.15:18, 35:26: Dt.4:27.

Ex.8:22 eph' hes ouk estai ekei.

4 K. [2 Kings] 1:4 he kline eph' hes anebes ekei.

Dt.9:28 hothen exegages hemas ekeithen.

Nb.23:13 ex hon ouk opse auton ekeithen.

Dan. O 9:7 eis has dieskorpisas autous ekei.

This idiom, which is thoroughly Hebrew, is to be explained on the same principle as in § 69. In the N.T. it is found only in Revelation -

Rev.12:6 hopou echei ekei topon, 12:14 hopou trephetai ekei, 17:9 hopou he gune kathetai ep' auton (= ekei).

88. pas with ou and me. a. The use of pas with a negative particle, where in classical Greek oudeis or medeis would be employed, is a Hebraism, even though in certain cases the resulting expression may be paralleled from pure Greek usage. The pas may either precede or follow the negative (ou, me, mede, ou me) without difference of meaning.

b. We will first take instances from the LXX where the pas precedes the negative.

Ex.12:43 pas allogenes ouk edetai ap' autou. Cp.12:48: Ezek.44:9.

Dan. O 5:9 pas anthropos ou dunatai. Cp. Dan. O 2:10.

Hbk.2:19 pan pneuma ouk estin en auto.

1 Mac.2:61 pantes . . . ouk asthenesousin.

Ex.22:22 pasan cheran kai orphanon ou kakosete.

Jer.17:22 pan ergon ou poiesete. Cp. Ex.12:16, 20: Nb.28:18: Jdg.13:14.

So in N.T. --

Rom.10:12 pas ho pisteuon ep' auto ou kataischunthesetai. Cp. Eph.4:29, 5:5.

Rev.18:22 pas technites . . . ou me heurethe en soi eti.

2 Pet.1:20 pasa propheteia graphes idias epiluseos ou ginetai.

1 Jn.2:21 pan pseudos ek tes aletheias ouk esti. Cp.1 Jn.3:6, 10, 15; 4:3; 5:18: Rev.22:3.

c. In the following passages of the LXX the pas follows the negative -

Ps.142:2 ou dikaiothesetai enopion sou pas zon.

Eccl.1:9 ouk estin pan prosphaton hupo ton helion.

Ex.20:10: Dt.5:14 ou poiesete en aute pan ergon. Cp. Ex.20:16.

2 K. [2 Sam.] 15:11 ouk egnosan pan rhema.

Tob.12:11 ou me krupso aph' humon pan rhema.

Ps.33:11 ouk elattothesontai pantos agathou.

Jdg.13:4 me phages pan akatharton.

Tob.4:7 me apostrepses to prosopon sou apo pantos ptochou.

So in N.T. --

Rom 3:20 ex ergon nomou ou dikaiothesetai pasa sarx. Cp. Gal.2:16: Mt.24:22.

Lk.1:37 ouk adunatesei para tou Theou pan rhema.

Acts 10:14 oudepote ephagon pan koinon.

1 Cor.1:29 hopos me kauchesetai pasa sarx.

Rev.21:27 ou me eiselthe eis auten pan koinon.

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