62. hemisus. In Attic Greek hemisus, like some other adjectives, mostly of quantity, has a peculiar construction. It governs a noun in the genitive, but agrees with it in gender. Thus -
Plat. Phædo 104 A ho hemisus tou arithmou hapas. Thuc.5.31.2 epi te hemiseia tes ges. Demosth. p.44, 4.16 tois hemisesi ton hippeon.
This idiom is kept up by Hellenistic writers, such as Philo, Strabo, and the translator of Josephus' Jewish War. It is however very rare in the LXX, occuring only in the following passages -
3 K. [2 Kings} 16:9 ho archon tes hemisous (§ 11) tes hippou. Josh.4:12, 1 Chr.5:23 hoi hemiseis phules Manasse. Tob.10:10 ta hemisu (sic) ton huparchonton. Ezk.16:51 tas hemiseis ton hamartion.1 Mac.3:34, 37 tas hemiseis ton dunameon.
Elsewhere instead of the Attic idiom we find to hemisu or hemisu, irrespective of the gender and number of the noun which follows, e.g. -
to hemisu tou siklou Ex.39:2 hemisu archonton 2 Esd. [Ezra] 4:16.
to hemisu autes Lvt.6:20. en hemisei hemeron Ps.101:25
to hemisu tou haimatos Ex.24:6. to hemisu ton huparchonton Tob.8:21.
63. pas. a. In classical Greek the rule for pas in the singular is that with the article it is collective, without the article it is distributive -
pasa he polis = all the city.
pasa polis = every city.
pas differs from ordinary adjectives in taking the predicative position in an attributive sense. Thus while agathe he polis means the city is good,' pasa he polis means all the city.' pas may however take the attributive position, like any other adjective. When it does so, the collective force is intensified -
pasa he polis = all the city.
he pasa polis = the whole city.
Thus Plato's expression (Apol.40 E) ho pas chronos is rendered by Cicero (T.D.1.97) perpetuitas omnis consequentis temporis. For other instances of this use in classical authors we may take -
Hdt.7.46 ho pas anthropinos bios. Plat. Rep.618 B ho pas kindunos, Phileb.67 B hoi pantes boes = all the oxen in the world.
Xen. Anab.5.6.5 hoi pantes anthropoi.
In such cases there is an additional stress gained by the unusual position assigned to pas.
b. In the LXX the same distinction seems to be maintained. It is true a writer will go from one to the other, e.g. -
Jdg.16:17,18 kai anengeilan aute ten pasan kardian autou . . . kai eiden Daleida hoti apengeilen aute pasan ten kardian autou -
but so in English we might first say he told her his whole heart, and then add and she saw that he had told her all his heart.
Other instances of the strongly collective force of pas in the attributive position are -
Gen.45:20 ta gar panta agatha Aiguptou humin estai.
Josh.4:14 enantion tou pantos genous Israel.
Wisd.7:9 ho pas chrusos.
2 Mac.8:9 to pan tes Ioudaias . . . genos.
Still there is a tendency in the LXX to assimilate pas to adjectives generally and to employ it in the attributive position without any special emphasis.
c. Neither is the rule that pas without the article is distributive at all closely adhered to, e.g. -
Ex.8:16 en pase ge Aiguptou, 16:6 pros pasan sunagogen huio Israel.
1 K. [1 Sam.] 7:2 pas oikos Israel.
d. In the plural hoi pantes is rare, but may be found -
Jdg.20:46 hoi pantes houtoi.
1 Mac.2:37 Apothanomen hoi pantes en te haploteti hemon.
2 Mac.12:40 tois de pasi saphes egeneto. Cp. Aristeas § 36 tois pasi . . . politais.
Hai pasai is still rarer, but see -
3 Mac.1:1 parangeilas tais pasais dunamesin.
Ta panta is comparatively common, occuring, e.g., in Gen.1:31, 9:3: Ex.29:24: Lvt.19:13: 2 Mac.10:23, 12:22: 3 Mac.2:3.
e. In the N.T. the collective use of pas followed by the article is clearly marked in many passages, e.g. -
Gal.5:14 ho . . . pas nomos. Mt.8;34 pasa he polis exelthen.
Also the distributive use of pas without the article, as in 1 Cor.11:4,5 pas aner . . . pasa de gune. In Rom.3:19 we have the two usages brought into contrast -
hina pan stoma phrage, kai hupodikos genetai pas ho kosmos to Theo.
On the other hand there are also instances of pas in the singular and without the article being used collectively, e.g. -
Eph.2;21 pasa oikodome.
Mt.2:3 pasa Hierosoluma.
Acts 2:36 pas oikos Israel.
f. In the plural hoi pantes is more common in St. Paul than in the LXX. Take for instance -
Phil.2:21 hoi pantes gar ta heauton zetousi. Cp.2 Cor.5:14.1 Cor.10:17 hoi gar pantes ek tou henos artou metechomen. Cp. Eph.4:13. Rom.11:32 sunekleise gar ho Theos tous pantas eis apeitheian.2 Cor.5:10 tous gar pantas hemas ktl.1 Cor.9:22 tois pasi gegona panta.
hoi pantes andres.
Ta panta occurs in Rom.8:32, 11:36: 1 Cor.15:27, 12:6, 19: Eph.5:13: Acts 17:25: Mk.4:11 and perhaps in other passages.
64. Comparison of Adjectives. Owing to the peculiarity of Hebrew syntax the treatment of this subject mostly falls under the head of Prepositions. We need only notice here that the positive may be put for the comparative.
Gen.49:12 leukoi hoi odontes autou e gala.
Dt.7:17 polu to ethnos touto e ego, 9;1 ethne megala kai ischurotera mallon e humeis.
So in N.T. --
Mt.18:8,9 kalon soi estin eiselthein . . . e . . . blethenai. Cp. Mk.9:43, 45.
65. Omission of mallon. The comparison of attributes may be effected by the use of verbs as well as of adjectives. In such cases the omission of mallon is common in the LXX.
Nb.22:6 ischuei houtos e hemeis, 24:7 hupsothesetai e Gog basileia.
Hos.7:6 eleos thelo e thusian.
2 Mac.7:2 hetoimoi gar apothneskein esmen e patroous nomous parabainein.
Cp. Aristeas § 322 terpein gar oiomai se tauta e ta ton muthologon biblia.