1. mocker -- scorner. Such men are made by wine.
strong drink -- made by spicing wine (compare Isa 5:11, 22); and it may include wine.
raging -- or boisterous as a drunkard.
deceived -- literally, |erring,| or reeling.
2. (Compare Pr 19:12). Men who resist authority injure themselves (Ro 13:2).
3. to cease from strife -- or, better, |to dwell from or without strife,| denoting the habit of life.
fool ... meddling -- (Pr 17:14).
4. shall ... beg -- literally, |ask| (in this sense, Ps 109:10).
5. Counsel ... water -- that is, deeply hidden (Pr 18:4; Ps 13:2). The wise can discern well.
6. Boasters are unreliable.
goodness -- or, |kind disposition.|
7. The conduct of good men proclaims their sound principles. God's covenant and their good example secure blessing to their children (Pr 4:26; Ps 112:1, 2).
8. As in Pr 14:35; 16:10, 15, this is the character of a good king, not of all kings.
9. The interrogation in the affirmative strengthens the implied negation (compare Job 15:14; Ec 7:20).
10. Various measures, implying that some are wrong (compare Pr 11:1; 16:11).
11. The conduct of children even is the best test of principle (compare Mt 7:16).
12. Hence, of course, God will know all you do (Ps 94:9).
13. Activity and diligence contrasted with sloth (Pr 6:9; 10:11).
lest ... poverty -- literally, |be deprived of inheritance.|
14. when ... his way -- implying that he goes about boasting of his bargains.
15. The contrast denotes the greater value of knowledge (compare Pr 3:14-16).
16. Take his garment -- implies severe exaction, justified by the surety's rashness.
a strange woman -- by some readings |strangers,| but the former here, and in Pr 27:13, is allowable, and strengthens the sense. The debauchee is less reliable than the merely careless.
17. Bread ... sweet -- either as unlawfully (Pr 9:17) or easily obtained.
mouth ... gravel -- well expresses the pain and grief given at last.
18. (Compare Pr 15:22). Be careful and considerate in important plans.
19. Those who love to tell news will hardly keep secrets.
flattereth ... lips -- (compare Margin; Pr 1:10).
meddle ... him -- literally, |join,| or |associate with.|
20. his lamp -- (Compare Pr 13:9; 24:20).
21. gotten hastily -- contrary to God's providence (Pr 28:20), implying its unjust or easy attainment; hence the man is punished, or spends freely what he got easily (compare Pr 20:17).
22. (Compare Ps 27:14; Ro 12:17-19).
23. (Compare Pr 20:10; 11:1).
24. Man's goings -- literally, |Stately steppings of a strong man.|
a man -- any common man.
understand -- or, |perceive.|
25. devoureth ... holy -- or, better, |who rashly speaks promises,| or |devotes what is holy,| consecrating any thing. This suits better the last clause, which expresses a similar view of the results of rashly vowing.
26. (Compare Pr 20:8).
bringeth ... over them -- The wheel was used for threshing grain. The figure denotes severity (compare Am 1:3).
27. The spirit ... Lord -- Men's minds are God's gifts, and thus able to search one another (compare Pr 20:5; Pr 18:8, 17; 1Co 2:11).
28. (Compare Pr 3:3; 16:6, 12).
29. The glory of young men ... the beauty of old men -- Each age has its peculiar excellence (Pr 16:31).
30. blueness -- literally, |joining,| the process of uniting the edges of a wound throws off purulent matter.
stripes ... belly -- So punishment provides healing of soul (Pr 18:8), by deterring from evil courses.