1. (Compare Pr 6:1-5; 10:1, 17).
2. shall eat -- that is, obtain (Pr 12:14).
transgressors -- as in Pr 2:22.
violence -- or, |mischief| to themselves.
3. He ... mouth ... life -- because evil speeches may provoke violence from others.
he that openeth wide his lips shall have destruction -- On last clause, compare Pr 10:14.
4. (Compare Pr 12:11, 27).
5. loathsome ... shame -- better, causeth shame and reproach (compare Pr 19:26), by slander, &c., which the righteous hates.
6. A sentiment of frequent recurrence, that piety benefits and sin injures.
7. In opposite ways men act hypocritically for gain of honor or wealth.
8. Riches save some from punishment, while others suffer because they will not heed the rebuke of sloth, which makes and keeps them poor.
9. light ... lamp -- prosperity; the first, the greater, and it
rejoiceth -- burns brightly, or continues, while the other, at best small, soon fails.
10. The obstinacy which attends self-conceit, produces contention, which the well-advised, thus evincing modesty, avoid.
11. by vanity -- or, |nothingness,| that is, which is vain or useless to the public (as card playing or similar vices).
gathereth ... labour -- (Compare Margin), little by little, laboriously.
12. desire cometh -- is realized.
a tree of life -- or, |cause of happiness.|
13. the word -- that is, of advice, or, instruction (compare Pr 10:27; 11:31).
14. (Compare Pr 10:11).
fountain -- or, |source of life.|
to depart -- (compare Pr 1:2-4), or, |for departing,| &c., and so gives life.
15. Right perception and action secure good will, while evil ways are difficult as a stony road. The wicked left of God find punishment of sin in sinning.
hard -- or, |harsh| (compare Hebrew: De 21:4; Jer 5:15).
16. dealeth -- acts with foresight.
a fool ... folly -- for want of caution.
17. A wicked -- or, |unfaithful|
messenger falleth into mischief -- or, |by mischief,| or |evil,| and so his errand fails. Contrasted is the character of the faithful, whose faithfulness benefits others.
18. (Compare Pr 10:17; 12:1).
19. Self-denial, which fools will not endure, is essential to success.
20. The benefits of good and evil of bad society are contrasted.
21. (Compare Pr 11:31).
good ... repaid -- or, |He (God) will repay good.|
22. wealth ... just -- While good men's estates remain in their families, God so orders that the gains of sinners enure to the just (compare Pr 28:8; Ps 37:18, 22, 26, &c.).
23. The laboring poor prosper more than those who injudiciously or wickedly strive, by fraud and violence, to supersede the necessity of lawful labor.
24. spareth -- or, |withholds.|
rod -- of correction.
hateth -- or, acts as if he hated him (compare Pr 3:12; 8:36).
chasteneth ... betimes -- or, |diligently seeks for him all useful discipline.|
25. The comparative temporal prosperity of the righteous and wicked, rather than contentment and discontent, is noted.