Pr 10:1-32. Here begins the second part of the book, Pr 10:1-22:16, which, with the third, Pr 22:16-25:28, contains series of proverbs whose sense is complete in one or two verses, and which, having no logical connection, admit of no analysis. The parallelisms of Pr 10:1-15:33 are mostly antithetic; and those of Pr 16:1-22:16, synthetic. The evidences of art in the structure are very clear, and indicate, probably, a purpose of facilitating the labor of memorizing. Pr 10:1-32. Here begins the second part of the book, Pr 10:1-22:16, which, with the third, Pr 22:16-25:28, contains series of proverbs whose sense is complete in one or two verses, and which, having no logical connection, admit of no analysis. The parallelisms of Pr 10:1-15:33 are mostly antithetic; and those of Pr 16:1-22:16, synthetic. The evidences of art in the structure are very clear, and indicate, probably, a purpose of facilitating the labor of memorizing.
1. wise [and] foolish -- as they follow or reject the precepts of wisdom.
maketh ... father -- or, |gladdens a father.|
heaviness -- or, |grief.|
2. Treasures ... nothing -- that is, Ill-gotten gains give no true happiness (compare Pr 4:17; Mt 6:19).
righteousness -- especially beneficence (Ps 112:9).
death -- the greatest of all evils.
3. (Compare Ps 37:16-20). The last clause is better: |He will repel the greedy desires of the wicked.|
4. slack -- literally, |deceitful,| failing of its purpose (compare Ho 7:16).
maketh rich -- (compare Pr 10:22).
5. son -- as Pr 1:8, 10, and often.
sleepeth -- in indolence, and not for rest.
causeth shame -- literally, |is base| (compare Pr 14:35; 17:2).
6. Blessings -- literally, |Praises.| The last clause is better: |The mouth of the wicked covereth (or concealeth) violence (or mischievous devices)| to be executed in due time (Ps 5:9; 10:7; Ro 3:14), and hence has no praises (compare Pr 10:11).
7. blessed -- literally, |for a blessing,| or praise.
shall rot -- literally, |be worm-eaten,| useless and disgusting.
8. wise, &c. -- (compare Pr 9:8, 9, 16), opposed to
prating fool -- or, |fool of lips of wicked language.|
fall -- headlong, suddenly.
9. perverteth his ways -- acts deceitfully.
known -- discovered and punished.
10. Two vices contrasted; hypocrisy, or insinuating evil against one (Pr 6:13; Ps 35:19), and rashness of speech. In each case, the results are on the evildoers.
11. a well -- or, |source| of good to himself and others (Joh 7:37, 38). On last clause, see on Pr 10:6.
12. strifes -- or, |litigations.|
covereth -- by forgiveness and forbearance.
13. In the lips ... found -- hence, not beaten, as the wicked-speaking fool.
void of understanding -- (Pr 6:32; 7:7).
14. lay up knowledge -- that is, as treasures for good use.
mouth ... destruction -- or, |as to the mouth,| &c., destruction is near; they expose themselves to evil by prating.
15. Both by trusting in |uncertain riches| (1Ti 6:17), or by the evils of poverty (Pr 30:9), men, not fearing God, fall into dangers.
16. The industry of the righteous is alone truly successful, while the earnings of the wicked tempt and lead to sin.
17. keepeth -- observes (Pr 3:18; 4:22).
refuseth -- or, |turns from reproof,| which might direct him aright.
18. Both vices must one day be known and punished, and hence their folly.
19. Much speech involves risk of sin; hence the wisdom of restraining the tongue (Ps 39:1; Jas 1:26).
20. Right speech is the fruit of a good heart, but the wicked show theirs to be useless.
21. Fools not only fail to benefit others, as do the righteous, but procure their own ruin (compare Pr 10:11, 17; Ho 4:6).
22. it maketh, &c. -- |it| is emphatic. Riches from God are without the sorrow of ill-gotten wealth (compare Ec 2:21-23; 1Ti 6:9, 10, 17).
23. Sin is the pleasure of the wicked; wisdom that of the good.
24. it -- the very thing. The wicked get dreaded evil; the righteous, desired good.
25. (Compare Ps 1:4; 37:9, 10, 36).
righteous ... foundation -- well laid and firm (Mt 7:24, 25).
26. that is, causes vexation.
27. (Compare Pr 9:11; Ps 55:23).
28. gladness -- in confidence of realizing it.
expectation ... perish -- in disappointment.
29. The way, &c. -- that is, God's providence sustains the righteous and overthrows the wicked (Ho 14:9).
30. (Compare Pr 12:3; Ps 37:9-11; 102:28).
earth -- or, |land of promise.|
31. bringeth forth -- literally, |germinates| as a plant.
froward -- (Compare Pr 2:12, 14).
cut off -- as an unproductive plant.
32. know -- regard and provide for (Ps 1:6).
frowardness -- all kinds of deceit and ill-nature. The word is plural.