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The Spiritual Declension of the Soul by Michael Durham
"A believer may pass through much affliction, and yet secure very little blessing from it all. Abiding in Christ is the secret of securing all that the Father meant the chastisement to bring us." -
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: The Ecclesiastical History Of Sozomenus
The Ecclesiastical History Of Sozomenus
THE ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY OF Sozomen,
Part I.--The Life.
Part II.--Sozomen as Author.
Prefatory Remarks, by Valesius,
Memoir of Sozomen.
Address to the Emperor Theodosius by Salaminius Hermias Sozomen, and Proposal for an Ecclesiastical History.
Chapter I.--The Preface of the Book, in which he investigates the
Chapter II.--Of the Bishops of the Large Towns in the Reign of Constantine; and how, from fear of Licinius, Christianity was professed cautiously in the East as far as Libya, while in the West, through the Favor of Constantine, it was professed with Freed
Chapter III.--By the Vision of the Cross, and by the Appearance of Christ, Constantine is led to embrace Christianity.--He receives Religious Instruction from our Brethren.
Chapter IV.--Constantine commands the Sign of the Cross to be carried before him in Battle; an Extraordinary Narrative about the Bearers of the Sign of the Cross.
Chapter V.--Refutation of the Assertion that Constantine became a Christian in consequence of the Murder of his son Crispus.
Chapter VI.--The Father of Constantine allows the Name of Christ to be Extended; Constantine the Great prepared it to Penetrate Everywhere.
Chapter VII.--Concerning the Dispute between Constantine and Licinius his Brother-In-Law about the Christians, and how Licinius was conquered by Force and put to Death.
Chapter VIII.--List of the Benefits which Constantine conferred in the Freedom of the Christians and Building of Churches; and other Deeds for the Public Welfare.
Chapter IX.--Constantine enacts a Law in favor of Celibates and of the Clergy.
Chapter X.--Concerning the Great Confessors who survived.
Chapter XI.--Account of St. Spyridon: His Modesty and Steadfastness.
Chapter XII.--On the Organization of the Monks: its Origin and Founders.
Chapter XIII.--About Antony the Great and St. Paul the Simple.
Chapter XIV.--Account of St. Ammon and Eutychius of Olympus.
Chapter XV.--The Arian Heresy, its Origin, its Progress, and the Contention which it occasioned among the Bishops.
Chapter XVI.--Constantine, having heard of the Strife of the Bishops, and the Difference of Opinion concerning the Passover, is greatly troubled and sends Hosius, a Spaniard, Bishop of Cordova, to Alexandria, to abolish the Dissension among the Bishops, a
Chapter XVII.--Of the Council convened at Nicæa on Account of Arius.
Chapter XVIII.--Two Philosophers are converted to the Faith by the Simplicity of Two Old Men with whom they hold a Disputation.
Chapter XIX.--When the Council was assembled, the Emperor delivered a Public Address.
Chapter XX.--After having given Audience to both Parties, the Emperor condemned the Followers of Arius and banished them.
Chapter XXI.--What the Council determined about Arius; the Condemnation of his Followers; his Writings are to be burnt; certain of the High Priests differ from the Council; the Settlement of the Passover.
Chapter XXII.--Acesius, Bishop of the Novatians, is summoned by the Emperor to be present at the First Council.
Chapter XXIII.--Canons appointed by the Council; Paphnutius, a certain Confessor, restrains the Council from forming a Canon enjoining Celibacy to all who were about to be honored with the Priesthood.
Chapter XXIV.--Concerning Melitius; the Excellent Directions made by the Holy Council in his Complications.
Chapter XXV.--The Emperor prepared a Public Table for the Synod, after inviting its Members to Constantinople, and honoring them with Gifts, he exhorted all to be of One Mind, and forwarded to Alexandria and every other place the Decrees of the Holy Synod
Chapter I.--The Discovery of the Life-Bringing Cross and of the Holy
Chapter II.--Concerning Helena, the Mother of the Emperor; she visited Jerusalem, built Temples in that City, and performed other Godly Works: Her Death.
Chapter III.--Temples built by Constantine the Great; the City called by his Name; its Founding; the Buildings within it; the Temple of Michael the Archsoldier, in the Sosthenium, and the Miracles which have occurred there.
Chapter IV.--What Constantine the Great effected about the Oak in Mamre; he also built a Temple.
Chapter V.--Constantine destroyed the Places dedicated to the Idols, and persuaded the People to prefer Christianity.
Chapter VI.--The Reason why under Constantine, the Name of Christ was spread throughout the Whole World.
Chapter VII.--How the Iberians received the Faith of Christ.
Chapter VIII.--How the Armenians and Persians embraced Christianity.
Chapter IX.--Sapor King of Persia is Excited against the Christians. Symeon, Bishop of Persia, and Usthazanes, a Eunuch, Suffer the Agony of Martyrdom.
Chapter X.--Christians slain by Sapor in Persia.
Chapter XI.--Pusices, Superintendent of the Artisans of Sapor.
Chapter XII.--Tarbula, the Sister of Symeon, and her Martyrdom.
Chapter XIII.--Martyrdom of St. Acepsimas and of his Companions.
Chapter XIV.--The Martyrdom of Bishop Milles and his Conduct. Sixteen Thousand Distinguished Men in Persia suffer Martyrdom under Sapor, besides Obscure Individuals.
Chapter XV.--Constantine writes to Sapor to stay the Persecution of the Christians.
Chapter XVI.--Eusebius and Theognis who at the Council of Nice had assented to the Writings of Arius restored to their own Sees.
Chapter XVII.--On the Death of Alexander, Bishop of Alexandria, at his Suggestion, Athanasius receives the Throne; and an Account of his Youth; how he was a Self-Taught Priest, and beloved by Antony the Great.
Chapter XVIII.--The Arians and Melitians confer Celebrity on Athanasius; concerning Eusebius, and his Request of Athanasius to admit Arius to Communion; concerning the Term |Consubstantial|; Eusebius Pamphilus and Eustathius, Bishop of Antioch, create Tum
Chapter XIX.--Synod of Antioch; Unjust Deposition of Eustathius; Euphronius receives the Throne; Constantine the Great writes to the Synod and to Eusebius Pamphilus, who refuses the Bishopric of Antioch.
Chapter XX.--Concerning Maximus, who succeeded Macarius in the See of Jerusalem.
Chapter XXI.--The Melitians and the Arians agree in Sentiment; Eusebius and Theognis endeavor to inflame anew the Disease of Arius.
Chapter XXII.--The Vain Machinations of the Arians and Melitians against St. Athanasius.
Chapter XXIII.--Calumny respecting St. Athanasius and the Hand of Arsenius.
Chapter XXIV.--Some Indian Nations received Christianity at that Time through the Instrumentality of Two Captives, Frumentius and Edesius.
Chapter XXV.--Council of Tyre; Illegal Deposition of St. Athanasius.
Chapter XXVI.--Erection of a Temple by Constantine the Great at Golgotha, in Jerusalem; its Dedication.
Chapter XXVII.--Concerning the Presbyter by whom Constantine was persuaded to recall Arius and Euzoïus from Exile; the Tractate concerning his Possibly Pious Faith, and how Arius was again received by the Synod assembled at Jerusalem.
Chapter XXVIII.--Letter from the Emperor Constantine to the Synod of Tyre, and Exile of St. Athanasius through the Machination of the Arian Faction.
Chapter XXIX.--Alexander, Bishop of Constantinople; his Refusal to receive Arius into Communion; Arius is burst asunder while seeking Natural Relief.
Chapter XXX.--Account given by the Great Athanasius of the Death of Arius.
Chapter XXXI.--Events which occurred in Alexandria after the Death of Arius. Letter of Constantine the Great to the Church there.
Chapter XXXII.--Constantine enacts a Law against all Heresies, and prohibits the People from holding Church in any place but the Catholic Church, and thus the Greater Number of Heresies disappear. The Arians who sided with Eusebius of Nicomedia, artfully
Chapter XXXIII.--Marcellus Bishop of Ancyra; his Heresy and Deposition.
Chapter XXXIV.--Death of Constantine the Great; he died after Baptism and was buried in the Temple of the Holy Apostles.
Chapter I.--After the Death of Constantine the Great, the Adherents of
Chapter II.--Return of Athanasius the Great from Rome; Letter of Constantine Cæsar, Son of Constantine the Great; Renewed Machinations of the Arians against Athanasius; Acacius of Berroea; War between Constans and Constantine.
Chapter III.--Paul, Bishop of Constantinople, and Macedonius, the Pneumatomachian.
Chapter IV.--A Sedition was excited on the Ordination of Paul.
Chapter V.--The Partial Council of Antioch; it deposed Athanasius; it substituted Gregory; its Two Statements of the Faith; those who agreed with them.
Chapter VI.--Eusebius surnamed Emesenus; Gregory accepted Alexandria; Athanasius seeks Refuge in Rome.
Chapter VII.--High Priests of Rome and of Constantinople; Restoration of Paul after Eusebius; the Slaughter of Hermogenes, a General of the Army; Constantius came from Antioch and removed Paul, and was wrathfully disposed toward the City; he allowed Maced
Chapter VIII.--Arrival of the Eastern High Priests at Rome; Letter of Julius, Bishop of Rome, concerning them; by means of the Letters of Julius, Paul and Athanasius receive their own Sees; Contents of the Letter from the Archpriests of the East to Julius
Chapter IX.--Ejection of Paul and Athanasius; Macedonius is invested with the Government of the Church of Constantinople.
Chapter X.--The Bishop of Rome writes to the Bishops of the East in Favor of Athanasius, and they send an Embassy to Rome who, with the Bishop of Rome, are to investigate the Charges against the Eastern Bishops; this Deputation is dismissed by Constans, t
Chapter XI.--The Long Formulary and the Enactments issued by the Synod of Sardica. Julius, Bishop of Rome, and Hosius, the Spanish Bishop, deposed by the Bishops of the East, because they held Communion with Athanasius and the Rest.
Chapter XII.--The Bishops of the Party of Julius and Hosius held another Session and deposed the Eastern High Priests, and also made a Formulary of Faith.
Chapter XIII.--After the Synod, the East and the West are separated; the West nobly adheres to the Faith of the Nicene Council, while the East is disturbed by Contention here and there over this Dogma.
Chapter XIV.--Of the Holy Men who flourished about this time in Egypt, namely, Antony, the Two Macariuses, Heraclius, Cronius, Paphnutius, Putubastus, Arsisius, Serapion, Piturion, Pachomius, Apollonius, Anuph, Hilarion, and a Register of many other Saint
Chapter XV.--Didymus the Blind, and Aëtius the Heretic.
Chapter XVI.--Concerning St. Ephraim.
Chapter XVII.--Transactions of that Period, and Progress of Christian Doctrine through the Joint Efforts of Emperors and Arch-Priests.
Chapter XVIII.--Concerning the Doctrines held by the Sons of Constantine. Distinction between the Terms |Homoousios| and |Homoiousios.| Whence it came that Constantius quickly abandoned the Correct Faith.
Chapter XIX.--Further Particulars concerning the Term |Consubstantial.| Council of Ariminum, the Manner, Source, and Reason of its Convention.
Chapter XX.--Athanasius again reinstated by the Letter of Constantius, and receives his See. The Arch-Priests of Antioch. Question put by Constantius to Athanasius. The Praise of God in Hymns.
Chapter XXI.--Letter of Constantius to the Egyptians in behalf of Athanasius. Synod of Jerusalem.
Chapter XXII.--Epistle written by the Synod of Jerusalem in Favor of Athanasius.
Chapter XXIII.--Valens and Ursacius, who belonged to the Arian Faction, confess to the Bishop of Rome that they had made False Charges against Athanasius.
Chapter XXIV.--Letter of Conciliation from Valens and Ursacius to the Great Athanasius. Restoration of the Other Eastern Bishops to their own Sees. Ejection of Macedonius again; and Accession of Paul to the See.
Chapter I.--Death of Constans Cæsar. Occurrences which took place in
Chapter II.--Constantius again ejects Athanasius, and banishes those who represented the Homoousian Doctrine. Death of Paul, Bishop of Constantinople. Macedonius: his Second Usurpation of the See, and his Evil Deeds.
Chapter III.--Martyrdom of the Holy Notaries.
Chapter IV.--Campaign of Constantius in Sirmium, and Details concerning Vetranio and Magnentius. Gallus receives the Title of Cæsar, and is sent to the East.
Chapter V.--Cyril directs the Sacerdotal Office after Maximus, and the Largest Form of the Cross, surpassing the Sun in Splendor, again appears in the Heavens, and is visible during several Days.
Chapter VI.--Photinus, Bishop of Sirmium. His Heresy, and the Council convened at Sirmium in Opposition thereto. The Three Formularies of Faith. This Agitator of Empty Ideas was refuted by Basil of Ancyra. After his Deposition Photinus, although solicited
Chapter VII.--Death of the Tyrants Magnentius and Silvanus the Apostate. Sedition of the Jews in Palestine. Gallus Cæsar is slain, on Suspicion of Revolution.
Chapter VIII.--Arrival of Constantius at Rome. A Council held in Italy. Account of what happened to Athanasius the Great through the Machinations of the Arians.
Chapter IX.--Council of Milan. Flight of Athanasius.
Chapter X.--Divers Machinations of the Arians against Athanasius, and his Escape from Various Dangers through Divine Interposition. Evil Deeds perpetrated by George in Egypt after the Expulsion of Athanasius.
Chapter XI.--Liberius, Bishop of Rome, and the cause of his being exiled by Constantius. Felix his Successor.
Chapter XII.--Aëtius, the Syrian, and Eudoxius, the Successor of Leontius in Antioch. Concerning the Term |Consubstantial.|
Chapter XIII.--Innovations of Eudoxius censured in a Letter written by George, Bishop of Laodicea. Deputation from the Council of Ancyra to Constantius.
Chapter XIV.--Letter of the Emperor Constantius against Eudoxius and his Partisans.
Chapter XV.--The Emperor Constantius repairs to Sirmium, recalls Liberius, and restores him to the Church of Rome; he also commands Felix to assist Liberius in the Sacerdotal Office.
Chapter XVI.--The Emperor purposed, on account of the Heresy of Aëtius and the Innovations in Antioch, to convene a Council at Nicomedia; but as an Earthquake took place in that City, and many other Affairs intervened, the Council was first convened
Chapter XVII.--Proceedings of the Council of Ariminum.
Chapter XVIII.--Letter from the Council at Ariminum to the Emperor Constantius.
Chapter XIX.--Concerning the Deputies of the Council and the Emperor's Letter; Agreement of the Adherents of Ursacius and Valens afterwards with the Letter put forth; Exile of the Archbishops. Concerning the Synod at Nicæa, and the Reason why the Sy
Chapter XX.--Events which took place in the Eastern Churches: Marathonius, Eleusius of Cyzicus, and Macedonius expel those who maintain the Term |Consubstantial.| Concerning the Churches of the Novatians; how one Church was Transported; the Novatians ente
Chapter XXI.--Proceedings of Macedonius in Mantinium. His Removal from his See when he attempted to remove the Coffin of Constantine the Great. Julian was pronounced Cæsar.
Chapter XXII.--Council of Seleucia.
Chapter XXIII.--Acacius and Aëtius; and how the Deputies of the Two Councils of Ariminum and of Seleucia were led by the Emperor to accept the Same Doctrines.
Chapter XXIV.--Formulary of the Council of Ariminum approved by the Acacians. List of the Deposed Chief-Priests, and the Causes of their Condemnation.
Chapter XXV.--Causes of the Deposition of Cyril, Bishop of Jerusalem. Mutual Dissensions among the Bishops. Melitius is ordained by the Arians, and supplants Eustathius in the Bishopric of Sebaste.
Chapter XXVI.--Death of Macedonius, Bishop of Constantinople. What Eudoxius said in his Teaching. Eudoxius and Acacius strenuously sought the Abolition of the Formularies of Faith set forth at Nicæa and at Ariminum; Troubles which thence arose in th
Chapter XXVII.--Macedonius, after his Rejection from his See, blasphemes against the Holy Spirit; Propagation of his Heresy through the Instrumentality of Marathonius and Others.
Chapter XXVIII.--The Arians, under the Impression that the divine Meletius upheld their Sentiments, translate him from Sebaste to Antioch. On his Bold Confession of the Orthodox Doctrines, they were confounded, and after they had deposed him they placed E
Chapter XXIX.--The Partisans of Acacius again do not remain Quiet, but strive to abolish the Term |Consubstantial,| and to confirm the Heresy of Arius.
Chapter XXX.--George, Bishop of Antioch, and the Chief-Priests of Jerusalem. Three Chief-Priests successively succeed Cyril; Restoration of Cyril to the See of Jerusalem.
Chapter I.--Apostasy of Julian, the Traitor. Death of the Emperor
Chapter II.--The Life, Education, and Training of Julian, and his Accession to the Empire.
Chapter III.--Julian, on his Settlement in the Empire, began quietly to stir up Opposition to Christianity, and to introduce Paganism artfully.
Chapter IV.--Julian inflicted Evils upon the Inhabitants of Cæsarea. Bold Fidelity of Maris, Bishop of Chalcedon.
Chapter V.--Julian restores Liberty to the Christians, in order to execute Further Troubles in the Church. The Evil Treatment of Christians he devised.
Chapter VI.--Athanasius, after having been Seven Years concealed in the House of a Wise and Beautiful Virgin, reappears at that time in Public, and enters the Church of Alexandria.
Chapter VII.--Violent Death and Triumph of George, Bishop of Alexandria. The Result of Certain Occurrences in the Temple of Mithra. Letter of Julian on this Aggravated Circumstance.
Chapter VIII.--Concerning Theodore, the Keeper of the Sacred Vessels of Antioch. How Julian, the Uncle of the Traitor, on Account of these Vessels, falls a Prey to Worms.
Chapter IX.--Martyrdom of the Saints Eusebius, Nestabus, and Zeno in the City of Gaza.
Chapter X.--Concerning St. Hilarion and the Virgins in Heliopolis who were destroyed by Swine. Strange Martyrdom of Mark, Bishop of Arethusa.
Chapter XI.--Concerning Macedonius, Theodulus, Gratian, Busiris, Basil, and Eupsychius, who suffered Martyrdom in those Times.
Chapter XII.--Concerning Lucifer and Eusebius, Bishops of the West. Eusebius with Athanasius the Great and Other Bishops collect a Council at Alexandria, and confirm the Nicene Faith by defining the Consubstantiality of the Spirit with the Father and the
Chapter XIII.--Concerning Paulinus and Meletius, Chief-Priests of Antioch; how Eusebius and Lucifer antagonized One Another; Eusebius and Hilarius defend the Nicene Faith.
Chapter XIV.--The Partisans of Macedonius disputed with the Arians concerning Acacius.
Chapter XV.--Athanasius is again Banished; concerning Eleusius, Bishop of Cyzicus, and Titus, Bishop of Bostra; Mention of the Ancestors of the Author.
Chapter XVI.--Efforts of Julian to establish Paganism and to abolish our Usages. The Epistle which he sent to the Pagan High-Priests.
Chapter XVII.--In Order that he might not be thought Tyrannical, Julian proceeds artfully against the Christians. Abolition of the Sign of the Cross. He makes the Soldiery sacrifice, although they were Unwilling.
Chapter XVIII.--He prohibited the Christians from the Markets and from the Judicial Seats and from Sharing in Greek Education. Resistance of Basil the Great, Gregory the Theologian, and Apolinarius to this Decree. They rapidly translate the Scripture into
Chapter XIX.--Work written by Julian entitled |Aversion to Beards.| Daphne in Antioch, a Full Description of it. Translation of the Remains of Babylas, the Holy Martyr.
Chapter XX.--In Consequence of the Translation, Many of the Christians are Ill-Treated. Theodore the Confessor. Temple of Apollo at Daphne destroyed by Fire falling from Heaven.
Chapter XXI.-- Of the Statue of Christ in Paneas which Julian overthrew and made Valueless; he erected his own Statue; this was overthrown by a Thunder-Bolt and destroyed. Fountain of Emmaus in which Christ washed his Feet. Concerning the Tree Persis, whi
Chapter XXII.--From Aversion to the Christians, Julian granted Permission to the Jews to rebuild the Temple at Jerusalem; in every Endeavor to put their Hands to the Work, Fire sprang upward and killed Many. About the Sign of the Cross which appeared on t
Chapter I.--Expedition of Julian into Persia; he was worsted and broke
Chapter II.--He perished under Divine Wrath. Visions of the Emperor's Death seen by Various Individuals. Reply of the Carpenter's Son; Julian tossed his Blood aloft to Christ. Calamities which Julian entailed upon the Romans.
Chapter III.--The Reign of Jovian; he introduced Many Laws which he carried out in his Government.
Chapter IV.--Troubles again arise in the Churches; Synod of Antioch, in which the Nicene Faith is confirmed; the Points which this Important Synod wrote about to Jovian.
Chapter V.--Athanasius the Great is Very Highly Esteemed by the Emperor, and rules over the Churches of Egypt. Vision of Antony the Great.
Chapter VI.--Death of Jovian; The Life of Valentinian, and his Confidence in God; how he was advanced to the Throne and selected his Brother Valens to reign with him; the Differences of Both.
Chapter VII.--Troubles again arise in the Churches, and the Synod of Lampsacus is held. The Arians who supported Eudoxius prevail and eject the Orthodox from the Churches. Among the Ejected is Meletius of Antioch.
Chapter VIII.--Revolt and Extraordinary Death of Procopius. Eleusius, Bishop of Cyzicus, and Eunomius, the Heretic. Eunomius succeeds Eleusius.
Chapter IX.--Sufferings of those who maintained the Nicene Faith. Agelius, the Ruler of the Novatians.
Chapter X.--Concerning Valentinian the Younger and Gratian. Persecution under Valens. The Homoousians, being oppressed by the Arians and Macedonians, send an Embassy to Rome.
Chapter XI.--The Confession of Eustathius, Silvanus, and Theophilus, the Deputies of the Macedonians, to Liberius, Bishop of Rome.
Chapter XII.--Councils of Sicily and of Tyana. The Synod which was expected to be held in Cilicia is dissolved by Valens. The Persecution at that Time. Athanasius the Great flees again, and is in Concealment; by the Letter of Valens he reappears, and gove
Chapter XIII.--Demophilus, an Arian, became Bishop of Constantinople after Eudoxius. The Pious elect Evagrius. Account of the Persecution which ensued.
Chapter XIV.--Account of the Eighty Pious Delegates in Nicomedia, whom Valens burned with the Vessel in Mid-Sea.
Chapter XV.--Disputes between Eusebius, Bishop of Cæsarea, and Basil the Great. Hence the Arians took courage and came to Cæsarea, and were repulsed.
Chapter XVI.--Basil becomes Bishop of Cæsarea after Eusebius; his Boldness towards the Emperor and the Prefect.
Chapter XVII.--Friendship of Basil and of Gregory, the Theologian; being Peers in Wisdom, they defend the Nicene Doctrines.
Chapter XVIII.--The Persecution which occurred at Antioch, on the Orontes. The Place of Prayer in Edessa, called after the Apostle Thomas; the Assembly there, and Confession of the Inhabitants of Edessa.
Chapter XIX.--Death of the Great Athanasius; the Elevation of Lucius, who was Arian-Minded, to the See; the Numerous Calamities he brought upon the Churches in Egypt; Peter, who served after Athanasius, passed over to Rome.
Chapter XX.--Persecution of the Egyptian Monks, and of the Disciples of St. Antony. They were enclosed in a Certain Island on Account of their Orthodoxy; the Miracles which they Wrought.
Chapter XXI.--List of the Places in which the Nicene Doctrines were Represented; Faith manifested by the Scythians; Vetranio, the Leader of this Race.
Chapter XXII.--At that Time, the Doctrine of the Holy Ghost was agitated, and it was decided that he is to be considered Consubstantial with the Father and the Son.
Chapter XXIII.--Death of Liberius, Bishop of Rome. He is succeeded by Damasus and Syricius. Orthodox Doctrines prevail Everywhere throughout the West, except at Milan, where Auxentius is the High-Priest. Synod held at Rome, by which Auxentius is deposed;
Chapter XXIV.--Concerning St. Ambrose and his Elevation to the High Priesthood; how he persuaded the People to practice Piety. The Novatians of Phrygia and the Passover.
Chapter XXV.--Concerning Apolinarius: Father and Son of that Name. Vitalianus, the Presbyter. On being dislodged from One Kind of Heresy, they incline to Others.
Chapter XXVI.--Eunomius and his Teacher Aëtius, their Affairs and Doctrines. They were the first who broached One Immersion for the Baptism.
Chapter XXVII.--Account Given, by Gregory the Theologian, of Apolinarius and Eunomius, in a Letter to Nectarius. Their Heresy was distinguished by the Philosophy of the Monks who were then Living, for the Heresy of these two held Nearly the Entire East.
Chapter XXVIII.--Of the Holy Men who flourished at this Period in Egypt. John, or Amon, Benus, Theonas, Copres, Helles, Elias, Apelles, Isidore, Serapion, Dioscorus, and Eulogius.
Chapter XXIX.--Concerning the Monks of Thebaïs: Apollos, Dorotheus; concerning Piammon, John, Mark, Macarius, Apollodorus, Moses, Paul, who was in Ferma, Pacho, Stephen, and Pior.
Chapter XXX.--Monks of Scetis: Origen, Didymus, Cronion, Orsisius, Putubatus, Arsion, Serapion, Ammon, Eusebius, and Dioscorus, the Brethren who are called Long, and Evagrius the Philosopher.
Chapter XXXI.--Concerning the Monks of Nitria, and the Monasteries called Cells; about the One in Rhinocorura; about Melas, Dionysius, and Solon.
Chapter XXXII.--Monks of Palestine: Hesycas, Epiphanius, who was afterwards in Cyprus, Ammonius, and Silvanus.
Chapter XXXIII.--Monks of Syria and Persia: Battheus, Eusebius, Barges, Halas, Abbo, Lazarus, Abdaleus, Zeno, Heliodorus, Eusebius of Carræ, Protogenes, and Aones.
Chapter XXXIV.--Monks of Edessa: Julianus, Ephraim Syrus, Barus, and Eulogius; Further, the Monks of Coele-Syria: Valentinus, Theodore, Merosas, Bassus, Bassonius; and the Holy Men of Galatia and Cappadocia, and Elsewhere; why those Saints until recently
Chapter XXXV.--The Wooden Tripod and the Succession of the Emperor, through a Knowledge of its Letters. Destruction of the Philosophers; Astronomy.
Chapter XXXVI.--Expedition against the Sarmatians; Death of Valentinian in Rome; Valentinian the Younger proclaimed; Persecution of the Priests; Oration of the Philosopher Themistius, on account of which Valens was disposed to treat those who differed fro
Chapter XXXVII.--Concerning the Barbarians beyond the Danube, who were driven out by the Huns, and advanced to the Romans, and their Conversion to Christianity; Ulphilas and Athanarichus; Occurrences between them; whence the Goths received Arianism.
Chapter XXXVIII.--Concerning Mania, the Phylarch of the Saracens. When the Treaty with the Romans was dissolved, Moses, their Bishop, who had been ordained by the Christians, renewed it. Narrative concerning the Ishmaelites and the Saracens, and their Goo
Chapter XXXIX.--Peter, having returned from Rome, regains the Churches of Egypt, after Lucius had given way; Expedition of Valens into the West against the Scythians.
Chapter XL.--Saint Isaac, the Monk, predicts the Death of Valens. Valens in his Flight enters a Chaff-House, is consumed, and so yields up his Life.
Chapter I.--When the Romans are pressed by the Barbarians, Mavia sends
Chapter II.--Gratian elects Theodosius of Spain to reign with him, Arianism prevails throughout the Eastern Churches except that of Jerusalem. Council of Antioch. The Settlement of the Presidency of the Churches.
Chapter III.--Concerning St. Meletius and Paulinus, Bishop of Antioch. Their Oath respecting the Episcopal See.
Chapter IV.--Reign of Theodosius the Great; he was initiated into Divine Baptism by Ascholius, Bishop of Thessalonica. The Letters he addressed to those who did not hold the Definition of the Council of Nice.
Chapter V.--Gregory, the Theologian, receives from Theodosius the Government of the Churches. Expulsion of Demophilus, and of all who deny that the Son is |Consubstantial| with the Father.
Chapter VI.--Concerning the Arians; and Further, the Success of Eunomius. Boldness of St. Amphilochius toward the Emperor.
Chapter VII.--Concerning the Second Holy General Council, and the Place and Cause of its Convention. Abdication of Gregory the Theologian.
Chapter VIII.--Election of Nectarius to the See of Constantinople; his Birthplace and Education.
Chapter IX.--Decrees of the Second General Council. Maximus, the Cynical Philosopher.
Chapter X.--Concerning Martyrius of Cilicia. Translation of the Remains of St. Paul the Confessor, and of Meletius, Bishop of Antioch.
Chapter XI.--Ordination of Flavian as Bishop of Antioch, and Subsequent Occurrences on Account of the Oath.
Chapter XII.--Project of Theodosius to unify all the Heresies. The Propositions made by Agelius and Sisinius, the Novatians. At another Synod, the Emperor received those only who represent Consubstantiality; those who held a different View he ejected from
Chapter XIII.--Maximus the Tyrant. Concerning the Occurrences between the Empress Justina and St. Ambrose. The Emperor Gratian was killed by Guile. Valentinian and his Mother fled to Theodosius in Thessalonica.
Chapter XIV.--Birth of Honorius. Theodosius leaves Arcadius at Constantinople, and proceeds to Italy. Succession of the Novatian and other Patriarchs. Audacity of the Arians. Theodosius, after destroying the Tyrant, celebrates a Magnificent Triumph in Rom
Chapter XV.--Flavian and Evagrius, Bishops of Antioch. The Events at Alexandria upon the Destruction of the Temple of Dionysus. The Serapeum and the other Idolatrous Temples which were destroyed.
Chapter XVI.--In What Manner, and from What Cause, the Functions of the Presbyter, Appointed to Preside over the Imposition of Penance, were abolished. Dissertation on the Mode of Imposing Penance.
Chapter XVII.--Banishment of Eunomius by Theodosius the Great. Theophronius, his Successor; of Eutychus, and of Dorotheus, and their Heresies; of those called Psathyrians; Division of the Arians into Different Parties; those in Constantinople were more Li
Chapter XVIII.--Another Heresy, that of the Sabbatians, is originated by the Novatians. Their Synod in Sangarus. Account in Greater Detail of the Easter Festival.
Chapter XIX.--A List Worthy of Study, Given by the Historian, of Customs among Different Nations and Churches.
Chapter XX.--Extension of our Doctrines, and Complete Demolition of Idolatrous Temples. Inundation of the Nile.
Chapter XXI.--Discovery of the Honored Head of the Forerunner of our Lord, and the Events about it.
Chapter XXII.--Death of Valentinian the Younger, Emperor in Rome, through Strangling. The Tyrant Eugenius. Prophecy of John, the Monk of Thebaïs.
Chapter XXIII.--Exaction of Tribute in Antioch, and Demolition of the Statues of the Emperor. Embassy headed by Flavian the Chief Priest.
Chapter XXIV.--Victory of Theodosius the Emperor over Eugenius.
Chapter XXV.--Intrepid Bearing of St. Ambrose in the Presence of the Emperor Theodosius. Massacre at Thessalonica. Narrative of the other Righteous Deeds of this Saint.
Chapter XXVI.--St. Donatus, Bishop of Euroea, and Theotimus, High-Priest of Scythia.
Chapter XXVII.--St. Epiphanius, Bishop of Cyprus, and a Particular Account of his Acts.
Chapter XXVIII.--Acacius, Bishop of Beroea, Zeno, and Ajax, Men Distinguished and Renowned for Virtue.
Chapter XXIX.--Discovery of the Remains of the Prophets Habakkuk and Micah. Death of the Emperor Theodosius the Great.
Chapter I.--Successors of Theodosius the Great. Rufinus, the Prætorian
Chapter II.--Education, Training, Conduct, and Wisdom of the Great John Chrysostom; his Promotion to the See; Theophilus, Bishop of Alexandria, becomes his Confirmed Opponent.
Chapter III.--Rapid Promotion of John to the Bishopric, and more Vehement Grappling with its Affairs. He re-establishes Discipline in the Churches everywhere. By sending an Embassy to Rome, he abolished the Hostility to Flavian.
Chapter IV.--Enterprise of Gaïnas, the Gothic Barbarian. Evils which he perpetrated.
Chapter V.--John swayed the People by his Teachings. Concerning the Woman, a Follower of Macedonius, on account of whom the Bread was turned into a Stone.
Chapter VI.--Proceedings of John in Asia and Phrygia. Heraclides, Bishop of Ephesus, and Gerontius, Bishop of Nicomedia.
Chapter VII.--Concerning Eutropius, Chief of the Eunuchs, and the Law enacted by him. On being turned from the Church, he was put to Death. Murmurs against John.
Chapter VIII.--Antiphonal Hymns against the Arians introduced by John. The Interests of the Orthodox are much augmented by the Teachings of John, while the Wealthy are More and More Enraged.
Chapter IX.--Serapion, the Archdeacon, and St. Olympias. Some of the Celebrated Men insolently bear down upon John, traducing him as Impracticable and Passionate.
Chapter X.--Severian, Bishop of Gabales, and Antiochus, Bishop of Ptolemaïs. Dispute between Serapion and Severian. Reconciliation between them effected by the Empress.
Chapter XI.--Question agitated in Egypt, as to whether God has a Corporeal Form. Theophilus, Bishop of Alexandria, and the Books of Origen.
Chapter XII.--About the Four Brothers, called |The Long,| who were Ascetics, and of whom Theophilus was an Enemy; about Isidore and the Events which came about through these Four.
Chapter XIII.--These Four repair to John on account of his Interest; for this Reason, Theophilus was enraged, and prepares himself to fight against John.
Chapter XIV.--Perversity of Theophilus. St. Epiphanius: his Residence at Constantinople and Preparation to excite the People against John.
Chapter XV.--The Son of the Empress and St. Epiphanius. Conference between the |Long Brothers| and Epiphanius, and his Re-Embarkation for Cyprus. Epiphanius and John.
Chapter XVI.--The Dispute between the Empress and John. Arrival of Theophilus from Egypt. Cyrinus, Bishop of Chalcedon.
Chapter XVII.--Council held by Theophilus and the Accusers of John in Rufinianæ. John is summoned to attend, and not being present, was deposed by Them.
Chapter XVIII.--Sedition of the People against Theophilus; and they traduced their Rulers. John was recalled, and again came to the See.
Chapter XIX.--Obstinancy of Theophilus. Enmity between the Egyptians and the Citizens of Constantinople. Flight of Theophilus. Nilammon the Ascetic. The Synod concerning John.
Chapter XX.--The Statue of the Empress; what happened there; the Teaching of John; Convocation of another Synod against John; his Deposition.
Chapter XXI.--Calamities suffered by the People after the Expulsion of John. The Plots against him of Assassination.
Chapter XXII.--Unlawful Expulsion of John from his Bishopric. The Trouble which followed. Conflagration of the Church by Fire from Heaven. Exile of John to Cucusus.
Chapter XXIII.--Arsacius elected to succeed John. The Evils wrought against the Followers of John. St. Nicarete.
Chapter XXIV.--Eutropius the Reader, and the Blessed Olympian, and the Presbyter Tigrius, are persecuted on account of their Attachment to John. The Patriarchs.
Chapter XXV.--Since these Ills existed in the Church, Secular Affairs also fell into Disorder. The Affairs of Stilicho, the General of Honorius.
Chapter XXVI.--Two Epistles from Innocent, the Pope of Rome, of which one was addressed to John Chrysostom, and the other to the Clergy of Constantinople concerning John.
Chapter XXVII.--The Terrible Events which resulted from the Treatment of John. Death of the Empress Eudoxia. Death of Arsacius. And further concerning Atticus, the Patriarch, his Birthplace, and Character.
Chapter XXVIII.--Effort of Innocent, Bishop of Rome, to recall John through a Council. Concerning those who were sent by him to make Trial of the Matter. The Death of John Chrysostom.
Chapter I.--Death of Arcadius, and Government of Theodosius the
Chapter II.--Discovery of the Relics of Forty Holy Martyrs.
Chapter III.--The Virtues of Pulcheria; Her Sisters.
Chapter IV.--Truce with Persia. Honorius and Stilicho. Transactions in Rome and Dalmatia.
Chapter V.--The Different Nations took up Arms against the Romans, of whom some were, through the Providence of God defeated, and others brought to Terms of Amity.
Chapter VI.--Alaric the Goth. He assaulted Rome, and straitened it by War.
Chapter VII.--Innocent the Bishop of the Presbytery of Rome. He sent an Embassy to Alaric. Jovius, Prefect of Italy. Embassy dispatched to the Emperor. Events concerning Alaric.
Chapter VIII.--Rebellion of Attalus and his General Heraclean; and how he eventually craved Forgiveness at the Feet of Honorius.
Chapter IX.--The Disturbance which the Greeks and Christians had about Attalus. The Courageous Saros; Alaric, by a Stratagem, obtains Possession of Rome, and protected the Sacred Asylum of the Apostle Peter.
Chapter X.--A Roman Lady who manifested a Deed of Modesty.
Chapter XI.--The Tyrants who in the West at that Time rebelled against Honorius. They are wholly destroyed on account of the Emperor's Love of God.
Chapter XII.--Theodosiolus and Lagodius. The Races of the Vandals and Suevi. Death of Alaric. Flight of the Tyrants Constantine and Constans.
Chapter XIII.--Concerning Gerontius, Maximus, and the Troops of Honorius. Capture of Gerontius and his Wife; their Death.
Chapter XIV.--Constantine. The Army of Honorius and Edovicus his General. Defeat of Edovicus by Ulphilas, the General of Constantine. Death of Edovicus.
Chapter XV.--Constantine throws aside the Emblems of Imperial Power, and is ordained as Presbyter; his Subsequent Death. Death of the other Tyrants who had conspired against Honorius.
Chapter XVI.--Honorius the Ruler, a Lover of God. Death of Honorius. His Successors, Valentinian, and Honoria his Daughter; the Peace which was then Worldwide.
Chapter XVII.--Discovery of the Relics of Zechariah the Prophet, and of Stephen the Proto-Martyr.
GENERAL INDEX TO SOCRATES' ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY.
GENERAL INDEX TO SOZOMEN'S ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY.
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