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Introduction
On the first day of the second month of the second year after Israel came out of Egypt, God commands Moses to number all the males of the people from twenty years and upward, who were effective men and able to go to war, Numbers 1:13. A chief of each tribe is associated with Moses and Aaron in this business, Numbers 1:4; the names of whom are given, Numbers 1:516. Moses assembles the people, who declare their pedigrees according to their families, Numbers 1:1719. The descendants of Reuben are numbered, and amount to 46,500, Numbers 1:20, Numbers 1:21. Those of Simeon, 59,300, Numbers 1:22, Numbers 1:23. Those of Gad, 45,650, Numbers 1:24, Numbers 1:25. Those of Judah, 74,600, Numbers 1:26, Numbers 1:27. Those of Issachar, 54,400, Numbers 1:28, Numbers 1:29. Those of Zebulun, 57,400, Numbers 1:30, Numbers 1:31. Those of Ephraim, 40,500, Numbers 1:32, Numbers 1:33. Those of Manasseh, 32,200, Numbers 1:34, Numbers 1:35. Those of Benjamin, 35,400, Numbers 1:36, Numbers 1:37. Those of Dan, 62,700, Numbers 1:38, Numbers 1:39. Those of Asher, 41,500, Numbers 1:40, Numbers 1:41. Those of Naphtali, 53,400, Numbers 1:42, Numbers 1:43. The amount of all the effective men in Israel, from twenty years old and upward, was 603,550, Numbers 1:4446. The Levites are not numbered with the tribes, because they were dedicated to the service of God. Their particular work is specified, Numbers 1:4754.
Verse 1
The Lord spake unto Moses  on the first day of the second month  As the tabernacle was erected upon the first day of the first month, in the second year after their coming out of Egypt, Exodus 40:17; and this muster of the people was made on the first day of the second month, in the same year; it is evident that the transactions related in the preceding book must all have taken place in the space of one month, and during the time the Israelites were encamped at Mount Sinai, before they had begun their Journey to the promised land.
Verse 2
Take ye the sum, etc.  God, having established the commonwealth of Israel by just and equitable laws, ordained every thing relative to the due performance of his own worship, erected his tabernacle, which was his throne, and the place of his residence among the people, and consecrated his priests who were to minister before him; he now orders his subjects to be mustered,
1.That they might see he had not forgotten his promise to Abraham, but was multiplying his posterity.
2.That they might observe due order in their march toward the promised land.
3.That the tribes and families might be properly distinguished; that all litigations concerning property, inheritance, etc., might, in all future times, be prevented.
4.That the promise concerning the Messiah might be known to have its due accomplishment, when in the fullness of time God should send him from the seed of Abraham through the house of David. And,
5.That they might know their strength for war; for although they should ever consider God as their protector and defense, yet it was necessary that they should be assured of their own fitness, naturally speaking, to cope with any ordinary enemy, or to surmount any common difficulties.
Verse 3
From twenty years old and upward  In this census no women were reckoned, nor children, nor strangers, nor the Levites, nor old men, which, collectively, must have formed an immense multitude; the Levites alone amounted to 22,300. Trueborn Israelites only are reckoned; such as were able to carry arms, and were expert for war.
Verse 14
Eliasaph, the son of Deuel  This person is called Reuel, Numbers 2:14. As the ד (daleth) is very like the ר (resh), it was easy to mistake the one for the other. The Septuagint and the Syriac have Reuel in this chapter; and in Numbers 2:14, the Vulgate, the Samaritan, and the Arabic have Deuel instead of Reuel, with which reading a vast number of MSS. concur; and this reading is supported by Numbers 10:20; we may safely conclude therefore that דעואל (Deuel), not רעואל (Reuel), was the original reading. See Kennicott. An ancient Jewish rabbin pretends to solve every difficulty by saying that “Eliasaph was a proselyte; that before he embraced the true faith he was called the son of Reuel, but that after his conversion he was called the son of Deuel.” As Reuel may be translated the breach of God, and Deuel the knowledge of God, I suppose the rabbin grounded his supposition on the different meanings of the two words.
Verse 16
These were the renowned  Literally, the called, of the congregation  those who were summoned by name to attend. The order of the tribes In the above enumeration may be viewed thus: 
Sons of Leah
1.Reuben
2.Simeon
3.Judah
4.Issachar
5.Zebulun
Sons of Rachel
6.Ephraim
7.Manasseh
8.Benjamin
1st son of Bilhah, Rachel‘s maid
9.Dan
2d son of Zilpah, Leah‘s maid
10.Asher
1st son of Zilpah.
11.Gad
2d son of Bilhah.
12.Naphtali
Verse 25
Forty and five thousand six hundred and fifty  Mr. Ainsworth has remarked that Gad, the handmaid‘s son, is the only one of all the tribes whose number ends with fifty, all the others are by thousands, and end with hundreds; which shows God‘s admirable providence and blessing in multiplying them so, that no odd or broken number was among all the tribes. But see on Numbers 1:46 (note).
Verse 33
The tribe of Ephraim  forty thousand and five hundred  Ephraim, as he was blessed beyond his eldest brother Manasseh, Genesis 48:20, so here he is increased by thousands more than Manasseh, and more than the whole tribe of Benjamin, and his blessing continued above his brother, Deuteronomy 33:17. And thus the prophecy, Genesis 48:19, was fulfilled: His younger brother (Ephraim) shall be greater than he, (Manasseh). No word of God can possibly fall to the ground: he alone sees the end from the beginning; his infinite wisdom embraces all occurrences, and it is his province alone to determine what is right, and to predict what himself has purposed to accomplish.
sa40
Verse 46
All they that were numbered were six hundred thousand and three thousand and five hundred and fifty  What an astonishing increase from seventy souls that went down into Egypt, Genesis 46:27, about 215 years before, where latterly they had endured the greatest hardships! But God‘s promise cannot fail (Genesis 16:5); and who can resist his will, and bring to naught his counsel? That a comparative view may be easily taken of the state of the tribes, I shall produce them here from the first census mentioned in the first chapter of this book, in their decreasing proportion, beginning with the greatest and proceeding to the least; and in the second census, mentioned Numbers 26, where the increase of some and the decrease of others may be seen in one point of view. It may be just remarked, that except in the case of Gad in this chapter, and Reuben in Numbers 26, all the numbers are what may be called whole or round numbers, beginning with thousands, and ending with hundreds, Gad and Reuben alone ending with tens; but the Scripture generally uses round numbers, units and fractions being almost constantly disregarded.
d 1st Census  Ch. 12d Census  Ch. 26
d
d 1. Judah 74,60076,500
d
d 2. Dan 62,70064,400
d
d 3. Simeon 59,30022,200
d
d 4. Zebulun 57,40060,500
d
d 5. Issachar 54,40064,300
d
d 6. Naphtali 53,40045,400
d
d 7. Reuben 46,50043,730
d
d 8. Gad 45,65040,500
d
d 9. Asher 41,50053,400
d
d 10. Ephraim 40,50032,500
d
d 11. Benjamin 35,40045,600
d
d 12. Manasseh 32,20052,700
d
d Total 603,550Total 601,730
d
d
Thus we find Judah, the most populous tribe, and Manasseh the least so; the difference between them being so great as 42,400, for which no very satisfactory reason can be assigned. In the second census, mentioned Numbers 26:34, Judah still has the preeminency; and Simeon, the third in number before, is become the least. Now we see also that the little tribe of Manasseh occupies the seventh place for number. Seven of the tribes had an increase; five a decrease. Manasseh had an increase of 20,500; Judah, 1,900; Issachar, 9,900; Zebulun, 3,100; Benjamin, 10,200; Dan, 1,700; Asher, 11,900. On the contrary there was a decrease in Reuben of 2,770; in Simeon, 37,100; Gad, 5,150; Ephraim, 8,000; Naphtali, 8,000. Decrease in the whole, 61,020 effective men. See on Numbers 26 (note); but balanced with the increase, the decrease was upon the whole 1,820. On the subject of these enumerations, and the manner in which this vast multitude sprang in about four generations from seventyfive persons, Scheuchzer has some valuable calculations, though liable to some objections, which I shall take the liberty to insert, as they tend to throw considerable light upon the subject. “We find in the writings of Moses three enumerations of the Jewish people, that follow each other pretty closely:  The first, which was made at their departure from Egypt, Exodus 12:37, amounted to 600,000 One year after, to 603,550 On entering the land of Canaan, to 601,730 If we add to the number 603,550 that of the Levites given us in Numbers 3:39, and which amounted to 22,000  We shall have for the sum total  625,550 “We find the same number, on adding that of each tribe given us in detail, which is the best proof of the exactness of the calculation. “I think I shall afford the reader some degree of pleasure by presenting him, in this place, the number of each tribe separately, beginning at their earliest ancestors. We shall see, by this means, how faithfully God fulfilled the promise he had made to Abraham, as well as the great utility of the mathematics for the right understanding of the Holy Scriptures. I shall begin with a Genealogical Table of that family which God so wonderfully blessed; and to it I shall afterward add each separate tribe, following the calculation of Reyher, (Math. Mos., p. 222). And we shall see that the fourth generation, taken with the third, produces the very number mentioned in the text
d Children of Jacob
d
d by Leah  Genesis 46:15.
d
d ReubenSimeonLeviJudahIssacharZebulunDinah
d
d HanochJemuel
d Gershon
 Libni
 Shimei
7,500  Numbers 3:22
d ShelahTolaSered
d
d PhalluJamin
d Kohath
 Amram
 Izehar
 Hebron
 Uzziel
8,600  Numbers 3:26
d PharezPhuvahElon
d
d HezronOhad
d Merari
 Mahli
 Mushi
6,200  Numbers 3:34
d ZerahJobJahleel
d
d CarmiJachinHazronShimron
d
d ZoharHamul
d
d Shaul
d
d
d
d 46,500
Numbers 1:21 59,300
Numbers 1:23 22,300
Numbers 3:22, Numbers 3:26, Numbers 3:34 74,600
Numbers 1:27 54,400
Numbers 1:29 57,400
Numbers 1:31
d
d by Zilpah  Genesis 46:18
d
d GadAsher
d
d ZiphionJimnah
d
d HaggaiIshuah
d
d ShuniIsui
d
d EzbonBeriah
 Heber
 Malchial
d
d Eri
d
d Arodi
d
d Areli
d
d 45,650
Numbers 1:25 41,500
Numbers 1:41
d
d by Rachel  Genesis 46:22
d
d Joseph
d Benjamin
d
d Manasseh
32,200Belah
d
d Ephraim
40,500Becher
d
d Ashbel
d
d Gerah
d
d Naaman
d
d Ehi
d
d Rosh
d
d Muppim
d
d Huppim
d
d Ard
d
d 72,70035,400
Numbers 1:37
d
d by Bilhah  Genesis 46:25
d
d DanNaphtali
d
d HushimJahzeel
d
d Guni
d
d Jezer
d
d Shillem
d
d 62,700
Numbers 1:39 53,400
Numbers 1:43
d
d
1. Reuben  46,500
“Let us now descend to the particular enumeration of each tribe. Reuben had four sons: now if we suppose that one of these four sons had seven, and that each of the other three had eight, we shall find the number 31 for the first Egyptian generation. If we afterward suppose that each of these 31 sons had five sons, the second generation will amount to 155, which, multiplied by 15, will produce 2,325 for the third generation; and these, multiplied by 19, will make 44,175 for the fourth; so that the third, together with the fourth, will make 46,500. We shall have the same product if the given sum, 46,500, be divided by the most probable number of children, for example, by the number 19; we shall then have 2,447 for the third generation; which sum being deducted from the sum total, there will remain 44,053 for the fourth generation, which is exactly the number that is produced in multiplying 2,440 of the third generation by 18, and the other 7 by 19. If we wish to make the same calculation with respect to the preceding generations, i. e., divide them by the most probable number of children, we shall have the following sums: 
d Sons of Reuben
d
d I. Generation
d 31
d
d II. Generation
d 215
d
d III. Generation
d 2,583
d
d IV. Generation
d 43,917
d
d Amount of generations
III and IV.
d
46,500
d
d
2. Simeon  59,300
“Simeon had six sons. Let us suppose that each of the three first had six children, and each of the three others seven, we shall have thirtynine for the first generation. If we multiply 31 of this number by 9, and 8 by 10, we shall have for the second generation 359; of which number, if we multiply 355 by 11, and 4 by 12, the third generation will give us 3,953. Let us then multiply 3,948 of these by 14, and 5 of them by 15, and we shall have for the fourth 55,347. The third and fourth, added together, will make 59,300.
3. Levi  22,300
“Gershon, Levi‘s eldest son, had two children: let us give to one of these 16 children, and to the other 17, and we shall have 33 for the second generation; 28 of which, multiplied by 15, and 5 by 16, will produce 500 for the third. Multiply each by 14, and these will produce 7,000; and the third and fourth together, 7,500. “Kohath, Levi‘s second son, had four sons, which form the first line. Give to one of them 10 sons, and 11 to each of the other three, for the second generation there will be 43. Multiply them by 10, there will be 430 for the third; these, multiplied by 19 for the fourth, will produce the number of 8,170. The third and fourth added together make 8,600. “Merari, the third son of Levi, had two sons. Give 10 children to each of them, there will then be 20 for the second generation. Now if we say that 10 of these 20 had each 15 sons, and each of the others 16, we shall have 310, which, multiplied by 19, will give us 5,890 for the fourth; and the two last together, 6,200. This may be seen by the following example: 
d GenerationsGershonitesKohathitesMerarites
d
d I
d 242
d
d II
d 334320
d
d III
d 500430310
d
d IV
d 7,0008,1705,890
d
d Amount of generations
III and IV
d
7,500
8,600
6,200
d
d Total number of Levites  22,300.
d
d
4. Judah  74,600
“The sons of Judah were Shelah, Pharez, and Zerah. His grandsons by Pharez were Hezron and Hamul. Hezron had two sons. Suppose each of them had six children, which will make 12 for the first generation; to eight of whom allow eight children, and nine to each of the others, and there will be 100 for the second generation. To 92 of these then give 18 children, and 19 to the eight others; this will produce for the third generation 1,808. If we then suppose that 1,800 of these had each 18 children, and that each of the other eight had 19, the fourth generation will be 32,552, which, added to the product of the third, will make the descendants of Hezron amount to 34,360. “Hamul had two sons, who, multiplied by 10, produce the number of 20 for the second generation: these, multiplied by 20, will make 400 for the third, and these again by 25 will produce 10,000 for the fourth. And thus the two last generations will amount together to the number of 10,400.
“If we allow five sons to Shelah, and six to Zerah, we shall have 11 for the first generation. To three of whom allow 10 children and 11 to the other eight, this will give us 118 for the second. To 113 of these give 14, and 15 to the other five, and 1,657 will be produced for the third. Give 17 to 1,643, and 18 to the 14 remaining, and for the fourth there will be 28,183. The third and fourth added together will produce the number of 29,840. “According to this calculation, all these generations will amount to the following numbers: 
d Hezronites
d 34,360
d
d Hamulites.
d 10,400
d
d Shelanites and Zarhites
d 29,840
d
d Total
d 74,600
d
d 5. Issachar  54,400
“Issachar had five sons. Suppose that three of them had each five children, and the other two, six, we shall have 27 for the first generation. If we then imagine that of these 19 had each nine sons, and each of the other eight 10, the second generation will be 251. Now 241 of these, multiplied by 12, will produce 2,892, and the 10 others, multiplied by 13, will make 130; consequently the third generation will amount to 3,022. If 3,018 of these had each 17 sons, and each of the other four had 18, the fourth generation will be 51,378; the third and fourth generations, then, will produce a number of 54,400.
6. Zebulun  57,400
“Zebulun had three sons. If we suppose that two of them had in all fourteen children, and the third, six, here will be 20 for the first generation. The second will produce 143, on multiplying 17 by 7, and 3 by 8. If we multiply 135 by 16, and 8 by 17, the third will amount to 2,296. By multiplying the third by 24, the fourth will give us 55,104. The two last will produce, together, 57,400.
7. Gad  45,650
“Gad had seven sons.
d Generations of Gad
d
d I. Generation
d multiply 3 by 9, and 4 by 10=
d 67
d
d II. Generation
d multiply 61 by 7, and 6 by 8=
d 475
d
d III. Generation
d multiply 471 by 8, and 4 by 9=
d 3,804
d
d IV. Generation
d multiply 3,802 by 11, and 2 by 12=
d 41,846
d
d Amount of generations III and IV
d =
d 45,650
d
d 7. Asher  41,500
“The sons of Asher, Jimnah, Ishua, and Isui, multiplied by 8, produce for the
d I. Generation
d
d =24
d
d II. Generation
d multiply 24 by 8
d =192
d
d III. Generation
d multiply 182 by 11, and 10 by 12
d =2,122
d
d IV. Generation
d multiply 2,118 by 12, and 4 by 13
d =25,468
d
d Amount of generations III and IV
d =27,590
d
d
“Heber and Malchiel were sons of Beriah. Now these two sons multiplied by 5, give us for
d I. Generation
d =
d 10
d
d II. Generationmultiply 10 by 11
d =
d 110
d
d III. Generationmultiply by 9
d =
d 990
d
d IV. Generationmultiply by 12
d =
d 11,880
d
d Amount of generations III and IV=12,870
d
d
“Another son of Beriah had in the
d I. Generation=
d 1
d
d II. Generationmultiply by 8=
d 8
d
d III. Generationmultiply by 10=
d 80
d
d IV. Generationmultiply by 12=
d 960
d
d Amount of generations III and IV
d =
d 1,040
d
d
All these generations added together amount to 41,500
9. Joseph
Manasseh  32,200
d I. Generation=
d 10
d
d II. Generationmultiply 6 by 13, and 4 by 14=
d 134
d
d III. Generationmultiply 132 by 12, and 2 by 13=
d 1,610
d
d IV. Generationmultiply by 19=
d 30,590
d
d Amount of generations III and IV
d =
d 32,200
d
d
Ephraim  40,500
d I. Generation=
d 16
d
d II. Generationmultiply by 10=
d 160
d
d III. Generationmultiply 152 by 12, and 8 by 13=
d 1,928
d
d IV. Generationmultiply 1916 by 20, and 12 by 21=
d 38,572
d
d Amount of generations III and IV
d =
d 32,200
d
d
10. Benjamin  35,400
“He had 10 sons; two of whom, multiplied by 9, and the other 8 by 10, will give for the
d I. Generation
d =
d 98
d
d II. Generation
d multiply 95 by 9, and 3 by 10=
d 885
d
d III. Generation
d multiply by 5=
d 4,425
d
d IV. Generation
d multiply by 7=
d 30,975
d
d Amount of generations III and IV
d =
d 35,400
d
d
11. Dan  62,700
d I. Generation
d =
d 11
d
d II. Generation
d multiply by 12=
d 132
d
d III. Generation
d multiply by 19=
d 2508
d
d IV. Generation
d multiply by 24=
d 60,192
d
d Amount of generations III and IV
d =
d 62,700
d
d
12. Naphtali  53,400
“He had 4 sons, the half of whom, multiplied by 7, and the other half by 6, give us for the
d I. Generation
d =
d 26
d
d II. Generation
d multiply 16 by 11, and 10 by 12=
d 296
d
d III. Generation
d multiply 288 by 12, and 8 by 13=
d 3,560
d
d IV. Generation
d multiply by 14=
d 49,840
d
d Amount of generations III and IV
d =
d 53,400
d
d
Total Number of All the Tribes
d I. Reuben46,500
d
d II. Simeon59,300
d
d III. Levi22,300
d
d IV. Judah74,600
d
d V. Issachar54,400
d
d VI. Zebulun57,400
d
d VII. Gad45,650
d
d VIII. Asher41,500
d
d IX. Manasseh32,200
d
d Ephraim40,500
d
d X. Benjamin35,400
d
d XI. Dan62,700
d
d XII. Naphtali53,400
d
d Total625,850
d
d
“And indeed, without counting the Levites, the number of the Israelites (Numbers 1:46) amounts to 603,550 The Levites (Numbers 3:39) amount to 22,300. The whole number together, as above 625,850” In the above calculations, Scheuchzer and Reyher take for granted,
1.That from the going down to Egypt to the exodus there were four generations.
2.That the first two generations had died in Egypt.
3.That the promise of God in multiplying them as the stars of heaven, had taken place particularly in the two last generations.
4.That these two last generations alone form the aggregate sums given in the sacred text.
5.That their method of accounting for this aggregate through the four generations, is not only perfectly natural and mathematical, but strictly accordant with the promises made by God to them, as the sum of each tribe sufficiently proves.
6.That the whole account shows the truth of the Divine promise, the great accuracy of the Jewish lawgiver, and a proof of the inspiration of the sacred writings.
But even to these calculations and deductions there may be objections, e. g. “Scheuchzer gives to 2,508 families of Dan, 24 male children, each above the age of 20: we may fairly allow an equal number of females, and add 5 more under 20, as in the note under “ Exodus 12:37, and we have 53 children on the average through all the families of a tribe; whilst to 4,425 families of Benjamin are allotted 7 males aged 20, and adding 7 females at 5 children, we have 19 children in each family; a tolerable number; but apparently more reasonable than the other.”  Anon.


